Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Steven Spielberg|
|Produced by||Buzz Feitshans|
|Screenplay by||Robert Zemeckis
|Story by||Robert Zemeckis
|Music by||John Williams|
|Cinematography||William A. Fraker|
|Edited by||Michael Kahn|
|Distributed by||Universal Pictures (US)
Columbia Pictures (International)
1941 is a 1979 period comedy film directed by Steven Spielberg, written by Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale, and featuring an ensemble cast including Dan Aykroyd, Ned Beatty, John Belushi, John Candy, Christopher Lee, Toshiro Mifune, and Robert Stack. The story involves a panic in the Los Angeles area after the December 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor.
Although not as financially or critically successful as many of Spielberg's other films, it received belated popularity after an expanded version aired on ABC and its subsequent home video reissues, raising it to cult status.
Co-writer Gale stated the plot is loosely based on what has come to be known as the Great Los Angeles Air Raid of 1942 as well as the bombardment of the Ellwood oil refinery, near Santa Barbara, by a Japanese submarine. Many other events in the film were based on real incidents, including the Zoot Suit Riots and an incident in which the U.S. Army placed an anti-aircraft gun in a homeowner's yard on the Maine coast.
||This article's plot summary may be too long or excessively detailed. (May 2015)|
On Saturday, December 13, 1941 at 7:01 a.m., a woman goes swimming somewhere on the California coast, only to find a Japanese submarine surfacing beneath her. The submarine crew believes they have arrived in Hollywood, and the vessel submerges while the woman swims to safety.
Later that morning, a 10th Armored Division tank crew, consisting of Sergeant Frank Tree, Corporal Chuck Sitarski, and Privates Foley, Reese, and Henshaw, are at a restaurant where dishwasher Wally Stephens works. Wally is planning to enter a dance contest with Betty Douglas, against the wishes of Ward, her father. Sitarski takes an instant dislike to Wally, particularly his civilian attire, and trips him. A fight ensues, leading to Wally losing his job. Wally later takes his friend Dennis shopping for a zoot suit and steals one.
In Death Valley, cigar-chomping, unruly Army Air Corps Captain Wild Bill Kelso lands his Curtiss P-40 fighter near a grocery store and gas station; while refueling, Kelso accidentally blows up the station.
In Los Angeles, Major General Joseph W. Stilwell attempts to keep the public calm. At a press conference at Daugherty Field in Long Beach, Captain Loomis Birkhead is attracted to the General's secretary, Donna Stratten. He lures her into a bomber to seduce her, aware that Donna is sexually aroused by airplanes. When his attempts at seduction fail, she punches him and accidentally knocks him out; as he falls, he lands on a bomb release control, sending a bomb rolling towards the podium just as the General promises, "There will be no bombs dropped here." It explodes, though Stilwell escapes.
At the Douglas family home in Santa Monica, Wally is told by Betty and her friend Maxine, both USO hostesses, that he cannot enter the USO dance because he is not a serviceman. Wally is forced to hide when Ward shows up. Sgt. Tree and his tank crew arrive to deliver an anti-aircraft battery; Sitarski is attracted to Betty and about to ask her to the dance when Wally falls on him from a loft. Ward and Sitarski dump him in a garbage truck.
The Japanese sub becomes lost trying to find Los Angeles when the ship's compass is broken. A landing party looking for "Hollywood" instead captures Hollis "Holly" Wood, who reveals only his name, occupation, and social security number. They see he has a small Cracker Jack compass, but he swallows it. Hollis escapes, hoping to find the authorities.
That night, Stilwell goes to a showing of Dumbo. Birkhead and Donna are at the 501st Bomb Disbursement Unit in Barstow, where Colonel "Mad Man" Maddox shows them the unit's aircraft. Maddox, convinced the Japanese are sending paratroops into the hills near Pomona, lets Birkhead and Donna borrow a plane, assuming they are going on a reconnaissance flight. Donna, stimulated by the entire experience, eagerly ravishes Birkhead during the flight.
Outside the USO, Sitarski kicks aside Wally and drags Betty into the dance. Maxine tags along. Wally sneaks in by wearing a stolen Shore Patrol uniform, He steals away Betty and they win the dance contest whilst evading Sitarski, who is pursued by Maxine. As the contest ends, Sitarski finally punches Wally, setting off a brawl between soldiers and sailors.
Sgt. Tree arrives with his team, just as L.A. goes to Red Alert with an unknown aircraft in the air. At the Douglas' home, Ward spots the sub. Birkhead and Donna fly over L.A., causing anti-aircraft batteries to open fire. Kelso shoots down Birkhead's plane, which lands in the La Brea Tar Pits (the crash only momentarily interrupting his tryst with Donna). Kelso then sees the submarine, only to be shot down by two spotters (who were positioned on the Ferris wheel) who mistake his plane for a Japanese fighter.
Sitarski is about to make off with Betty when she is rescued by Wally, who knocks Sitarski cold. They find Kelso, who informs them about the sub. Wearing an army uniform, Wally commandeers Tree's tank and heads toward Pacific Ocean Amusement Park. Ward begins firing at the submarine, causing massive damage to his house in the process. The submarine returns fire, hitting the Ferris wheel, which rolls into the ocean. The tank sinks when the pier collapses. Kelso drives a motorbike into the ocean and swims to the submarine, where he is captured by the Japanese; undaunted, he declares, "Turn this tub around! You're takin' me to Tokyo!"
On Sunday morning, December 14, Stilwell arrives at the remains of the Douglas home, where most of the other protagonists have gathered. Ward delivers an inspirational speech to those present, vowing that Christmas will not be ruined; to punctuate his point, he nails a wreath to his front door, jarring the unstable house so that it collapses and slides into the ocean. Stilwell mutters, "It's gonna be a long war," and walks away as everyone begins arguing and fighting.
According to Steven Spielberg's appearance in the documentary Stanley Kubrick: A Life in Pictures, Kubrick suggested that 1941 should have been marketed as a drama rather than a comedy. The chaos of the events following Pearl Harbor attack in 1941 is summarized by Dan Aykroyd's character, Sgt. Tree, who states "he cannot stand Americans fighting Americans."
1941 is also notable as one of the few American films featuring Toshirō Mifune, a popular Japanese actor. It is also the only American film in which Mifune used his own voice in speaking Japanese and English. In his previous movies, Mifune's lines were dubbed by Paul Frees.
Both John Wayne and Charlton Heston were originally offered the role of Major General Stilwell with Wayne still considered for a cameo in the film. After reading the script, Wayne decided not to participate due to ill health, but also urged Spielberg to not pursue the project. Both Wayne and Heston felt the film was unpatriotic. Spielberg recalled, "[Wayne] was really curious and so I sent him the script. He called me the next day and said he felt it was a very un-American movie, and I shouldn't waste my time making it. He said, 'You know, that was an important war, and you're making fun of a war that cost thousands of lives at Pearl Harbor. Don't joke about World War II'."
Despite John Wayne's opposition to the film, the use of the Irish folk tune The Rakes of Mallow as background music during the initial riot scene was something of an homage to his film The Quiet Man, in which the same tune was used during the protracted fistfight between Wayne's character and Victor McLaglen's.
Susan Backlinie reprised her role as the first victim in Spielberg's Jaws by playing the young woman seen at the beginning of the film. The gas station that Wild Bill Kelso accidentally blows up early in the film is the same one seen in Spielberg's 1971 TV film, Duel, with Lucille Benson appearing as the proprietor in both films. Inadvertent comedic effects ensued when John Belushi in character as Captain Wild Bill Kelso slipped off the wing of his aircraft after being lifted by two soldiers. It was a real accident and Belushi had to be hospitalized, but the shot was left in the movie as it fit his eccentric character.
During the USO riot scene, when a military police officer is tossed into the window of a restaurant from the fire truck, John Belushi plays the patron eating spaghetti. He is in makeup to look like Marlon Brando in The Godfather, which he famously parodied on the sketch comedy TV series Saturday Night Live. Belushi told Spielberg he wanted to appear as a second character and the idea struck Spielberg as humorous. At the beginning of the USO riot, one of the "extras" dressed as sailors is actor James Caan. Making his first screen appearance is Mickey Rourke as Private First Class Reese of Sgt. Tree's tank group.
The M3 tank Lulu Belle (named after a race horse) and fashioned from a mocked-up tractor, paid homage to its forebear in Humphrey Bogart's 1943 movie Sahara where an authentic M3 named Lulubelle was prominently featured.
1941 is dedicated to the memory of Charlsie Bryant, a longtime script supervisor at Universal Studios. She had served in that capacity on both Jaws and Close Encounters, and would have reprised those duties with this film had she not unexpectedly died.
The Oscar-winning team of L. B. Abbott and A.D. Flowers were in charge of the special effects on 1941. Careful consideration for production values was indicated in "...there are no tell-tale lines around any element of the composite photography. This is blue-screen work at its best." 1941 is widely recognized for its Academy Award-nominated special-effects laden progressive action and camera sequences.[N 1]
There was a scene shot for the end of the film, in which Slim Pickens's Hollis Wood character caught Christopher Lee's Nazi officer. A still from this scene appeared in the September 1990 issue of Starlog magazine. Lee said: "At the end of 1941, I'm the first Nazi captured in the US by Slim Pickens."
The advance teaser trailer for 1941, directed by the film's executive producer/co-story writer John Milius, featured a voice-over by Aykroyd as Belushi lands his plane and gives the audience a pep-talk to join the armed forces, else they will find one morning that "the street signs will be written in Japanese!" In the trailer, Kelso's name is Wild Wayne Kelso.
Musical score and soundtrack
The musical score for 1941 was composed and conducted by John Williams. The titular march is used throughout the film and is perhaps the most memorable piece written for it. (Spielberg has said it is his favorite Williams march.) The score also includes swing composition titled "Swing, Swing, Swing" composed by John Williams. In addition, the score includes a sound-alike version of Glenn Miller's "In the Mood", the soundtrack uses two songs by The Andrews Sisters, "Daddy" and "Down by the Ohio", and the Irish song "The Rakes of Mallow" is used during the ballroom fight. The following tracks were released on the initial Arista Records LP (and later issued on CD by Varèse Sarabande Records)
- The March From 1941
- The Invasion
- The Sentries
- Riot At The U.S.O.
- To Hollywood And Glory
- Swing, Swing, Swing
- The Battle Of Hollywood
- The Ferris Wheel Sequence
- Finale of 1941
The LaserDisc and DVD versions of the film have isolated music channels with additional cues not heard on the first soundtrack album.
In 2011, La-La Land Records, in conjunction with Sony Music and NBCUniversal, issued an expanded 2-CD soundtrack of the complete John Williams score as recorded for the film, plus never-before-heard alternate cues, source music, and a remastered version of the original album. Disc One, containing the film score, presents the music as Williams originally conceived based on early cuts of the movie.
La-La Land 2-CD Album
|The Film Score|
|1.||"“1941” Main Title"||1:36|
|2.||"Chrissie Takes Another Swim**"||4:38|
|3.||"Sub Commander / Wild Bill Kelso**"||3:44|
|4.||"Donna’s Obsession /Birkhead’s Pitch**"||2:59|
|5.||"Poppa’s Got a Gun*"||1:13|
|6.||"You Have Been Chosen / You, You, You*"||2:11|
|7.||"Capture of Hollis /Kelso Lost*"||3:08|
|8.||"The Crackerjack Box*"||1:30|
|10.||"The Escape of Hollis*"||1:17|
|11.||"More About Donna*"||1:02|
|12.||"The Count Down / Swing, Swing, Swing**"||4:41|
|14.||"Here We Go"||4:22|
|15.||"Kelso in Barstow**"||3:42|
|18.||"Kelso’s Attack / Deep in the Heart of Texas**"||3:15|
|20.||"Defending the Homeland*"||1:46|
|21.||"Wally Saves Betty**"||2:00|
|22.||"Sound Off / Stolen Motorcycle*"||4:23|
|23.||"Ward's Big Gun*"||1:45|
|24.||"Going My Way Sister*"||2:08|
|27.||"The Ferris Wheel**"||3:08|
|28.||"The Tank Approaches /Finale*"||5:26|
|29.||"“1941” End Credits"||6:18|
|The 1979 Soundtrack Album|
|1.||"The March From "1941""||4:11|
|4.||"Riot at the U.S.O."||1:18|
|5.||"To Hollywood and Glory"||3:14|
|6.||"Swing, Swing, Swing"||4:06|
|7.||"The Battle of Hollywood"||5:39|
|8.||"The Ferris Wheel Sequence"||1:29|
|10.||"In the Mood H: Music by Joe Garland and Andy Razaf; Arranged by Glenn Miller; Shapiro Bernstein & Co. Inc."||3:43|
|11.||"Jingle Bells*: Music by James Lord Pierpont"||2:59|
|12.||"Down By the Ohio (Instrumental)*: Music by Abe Olman / Jack Yellen; Cromwell Music Inc / Jack Yellen Music"||3:57|
|14.||"Goodnight, Sweetheart*: Music by Ray Noble, Jimmy Campbell, Rudy Vallee, and Reg Connelly; EMI Robbins Catalog Inc"||1:42|
|16.||"Sub Commander / Wild Bill Kelso/Capture of Hollis (alternate)**"||4:23|
|17.||"The Escape of Hollis(alternate)*"||1:14|
|18.||"Kelso in Barstow (alternate)**"||3:43|
|19.||"Defending the Homeland(alternate)*"||1:06|
|20.||"Sound Off (alternate)*"||2:41|
|21.||"More Kelso (alternate)"||0:55|
|23.||""1941" End Credits(alternate)"||6:55|
Note: * Previously unreleased; ** Contains previously unreleased material; * Traditional, Based on "The Rakes Of Mallow," Arranged by John Williams; ** Including “By the Beautiful Sea” Words: Harold R.Atteridge, Music: Harry Carroll; Published by Shapiro, Bernstein & Col,Inc.; Track 16 co-written with A. H. Miles and D. Savino;Track 18, written by D. Swander and J. Hershey; and Track 22 written by W.L.Duckworth.
The film was previewed at approximately two and a half hours, but Columbia Pictures and Universal Studios, which both had a major financial investment, felt it was too long to be a blockbuster. The initial theatrical release was edited down to just under two hours, against Spielberg's wishes. After the success of his 1980 "Special Edition" of Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Spielberg was given permission to create his own "extended cut" of 1941 to represent his original director's cut. This was done for network television (it was only shown on ABC one time, but it was seen years later on The Disney Channel). A similar extended version (with additional footage and a few subtle changes) was released on LaserDisc, VHS, and later on DVD.
On October 14, 2014, Universal Pictures Home Entertainment released 1941 on Blu-ray as part of their Steven Spielberg's Director's Collection box set. The disc features the theatrical and extended versions of the film, a documentary of the making of the film, production photographs (carried over from the LaserDisc collector's edition), and theatrical trailers, although the isolated score that was included on the Laserdisc and DVD releases is not present on the Blu-ray. The standalone Blu-ray version was released on May 5, 2015.
Heavy Metal and Arrow Books produced a magazine sized comic tie in to the film, by Stephen R. Bissette & Rick Veitch, which rather than being a straight adaptation, varies wildly and humorously from the movie.
Although a box office success, it did not turn out to be the blockbuster the two studios were hoping for. Its grosses were considered disappointing in comparison to Spielberg's previous projects, Jaws and Close Encounters of the Third Kind. Writer Bob Gale defended it in a DVD documentary:
- It is down in the history books as a big flop, but it wasn't a flop. The movie didn't make the kind of money that Steven's other movies, Steven's most successful movies have made, obviously. But the movie was by no means a flop. And both Universal and Columbia have come out of it just fine.
Spielberg joked at one point that he considered converting 1941 into a musical halfway into production and mused that "in retrospect, that might have helped." In a 1990 interview with British film pundit Barry Norman, Spielberg admitted that the mixed reception to 1941 was one of the biggest lessons of his career citing personal arrogance that had got in the way after the runaway success of Jaws and Close Encounters of the Third Kind. He also regretted ceding control of 1941's action and miniature sequences (such as the Ferris wheel collapse in the film's finale) to second unit directors and model units, something which he would not do in his next film - Raiders of the Lost Ark.
Parodies of 1941 have cropped up in a number of unusual ways, including one by Spielberg himself. In an episode of Spielberg's Animaniacs, where Yakko, Wakko, and Dot inhabit a giant video store, a video copy of 1941 is used as a weapon, an exploding bomb.
1941 currently holds a 32% rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 22 reviews.
- William A. Fraker, A.D. Flowers and Gregory Jein for Best Effects Visual Effects (lost to Alien)
- William A. Fraker for Best Cinematography (lost to Apocalypse Now)
- Robert Knudson, Robert Glass, Don MacDougall and Gene S. Cantamessa for Best Sound (lost to Apocalypse Now)
- Quote: "The special effects are beautifully done."
- "1941, Box Office Information." The Numbers, September 27, 2012.
- "What is Cult Film?". for68.com Beijing ICP. January 13, 2006. Retrieved April 10, 2009.
- The Making of 1941, Universal home video DVD
- "John Wayne - John Wayne Urged Steven Spielberg Not To Make War Comedy." contactmusic.com. 2 December 2011. Retrieved: December 2, 2011.
- Erickson, Glenn. "1941 - A giant comedy, only with guns!" DVD Savant, 1999. Retrieved: December 16, 2012.
- Heard 2006, p. 22.
- Nelson, Erik. "The Perfect Double Bill:'The Hurt Locker' and Bogart’s 1943 'Sahara'." Salon, January 12, 2010.
- "First Person: Greg Jein." CBS Entertainment. Retrieved: October 19, 2011.
- "Review of 1941 (1979)." Time Out, New York.
- Culhane 1981, p. 127.
- Culhane 1981, pp. 126–129.
- "Trailer for 1941" on YouTube. Retrieved: October 10, 2012.
- "La-La Land Records, 1941." La-La Land Records, September 27, 2011. Retrieved: October 8, 2011.
- 1941: Complete Original Motion Picture Soundtrack, Liner notes by Mike Matessino, La-La Land Records/Sony Music/NBCUniversal, 2011.
- "JWFan Exclusive – Interview with Producer Mike Matessino about ’1941′." JWFan.com, September 26, 2011. Retrieved: October 8, 2011.
- McBride 2011, p. 298.
- Hunt, Bill. "1941 (Collector's Edition)" digitalbits.com, March 23, 1999. Retrieved: September 16, 2011.
- Bonham and Kay 1979
- Animaniacs: May 1996. "Animaniacs." Retrieved: February 10, 2007.
- Ciment et al. 2003, p. 297.
- "Awards listing." Internet Movie Database. Retrieved: September 16, 2011.
- "1941 Cast, Credit & Awards." The New York Times, 2011. Retrieved: September 16, 2011.
- Dolan 1985, pp. 98–99.
- Bonham, Joseph and Joe Kay, eds.Bombs Awaayyy!!! The Official 1941 Magazine. New York: Starlog Press, 1979.
- Bonham, Joseph and Joe Kay, eds. 1941: The Poster Book. New York: Starlog Press, 1979.
- Ciment, Michel, Gilbert Adair and Robert Bononno. "Interview: Jack Nicholson." Kubrick: The Definitive Edition. New York: Faber & Faber, Inc., 2003. ISBN 978-0-571-21108-1.
- Clarke, James. Steven Spielberg. London: Pocket Essentials, 2004. ISBN 1-904048-29-3.
- Culhane, John. Special Effects in the Movies: How They Do it. New York: Ballantine Books, 1981. ISBN 0-345-28606-5.
- Crawley, Tony. The Steven Spielberg Story. New York: William Morrow, 1983. ISBN 0-688-02510-2.
- Dolan, Edward F. Jr. Hollywood Goes to War. London: Bison Books, 1985. ISBN 0-86124-229-7.
- Erickson, Glenn and Mary Ellen Trainor. The Making of 1941. New York: Ballantine Books, 1980. ISBN 0-345-28924-2.
- Freer, Ian. The Complete Spielberg. New York: Virgin Books, 2001. ISBN 0-7535-0556-8.
- Heard, Christopher. Mickey Rourke: High and Low. Medford, New Jersey: Plexus Publishing, 2006. ISBN 978-0-85965-386-2.
- McBride, Joseph. Steven Spielberg: A Biography. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2011. ISBN 978-1-60473-836-0.
- 1941, the making of (DVD Commentary). 1999.
- Sinyard, Neil. The Films of Steven Spielberg. London: Bison Books, 1986. ISBN 0-86124-352-8.
- "Steven Spielberg: The Collectors Edition". Empire Magazine, 2004.
- "Review of 1941". Time Out, New York. 1979.
- 1941 at AllMovie
- 1941 at Box Office Mojo
- 1941 at the Internet Movie Database
- 1941 at Rotten Tomatoes