1945–46 FA Cup

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
1945–46 FA Cup
Country England
Champions Derby County
Runners-up Charlton Athletic

The 1945–46 FA Cup was the 65th season of the world's oldest football cup competition, the Football Association Challenge Cup, generally known as the FA Cup, and the first to be held after the Second World War. Derby County were the winners, beating Charlton Athletic 4–1 after extra time in the final at Wembley, London. The tournament witnessed a disaster in the sixth round when, during the second leg of the Bolton–Stoke City tie, 33 people were crushed to death in the Burnden Park disaster.[1]

For the only time in the history of the competition, all matches from the First Round Proper up to and including the Sixth Round Proper were played over two legs, the first leg being played at the stadium of the team named first on the date specified for each round, which was always a Saturday. In the first and second rounds proper, the second leg was played on the following Saturday; from the third round onwards, it was played during the week following the first leg. If aggregate scores were level after 90 minutes of the second leg had been played, a replay would take place at a neutral venue. These changes were made in order to give clubs additional revenue, as the Football League would not resume normal play until the autumn of 1946.

Calendar[edit]

Round Date
Extra Preliminary Round Saturday 1 September 1945
Preliminary Round Saturday 8 September 1945
First Round Qualifying Saturday 22 September 1945
Second Round Qualifying Saturday 6 October 1945
Third Round Qualifying Saturday 20 October 1945
Fourth Round Qualifying Saturday 3 November 1945
First Round Proper Saturday 17 November 1945
Saturday 24 November 1945
Second Round Proper Saturday 8 December 1945
Saturday 15 December 1945
Third Round Proper Saturday 5 January 1946
w/c Monday 7 January 1946
Fourth Round Proper Saturday 26 January 1946
w/c Monday 28 January 1946
Fifth Round Proper Saturday 9 February 1946
w/c Monday 11 February 1946
Sixth Round Proper Saturday 2 March 1946
w/c Monday 4 March 1946
Semi-Finals Saturday 23 March 1946
Final Saturday 27 April 1946
w/c = week commencing

Results[edit]

First Round Proper[edit]

For the qualifying rounds, see 1945–46 FA Cup Qualifying Rounds.

At this stage 43 Third Division North and Third Division South clubs joined the 25 non-league clubs who came through the qualifying rounds.

The first leg matches were played on Saturday, 17 November 1945 and the second legs on the following Saturday, 24 November 1945. No replays were necessary.

Tie no Team drawn first Score Team drawn second Attendance Notes
1 Darlington 2–0 Stockton
Stockton 1–4 Darlington
Darlington 6–1 Stockton
2 Barnet 2–6 Queens Park Rangers
Queens Park Rangers 2–1 Barnet
Barnet 3–8 Queens Park Rangers
3 Barrow 1–0 Netherfield
Netherfield 2–2 Barrow
Barrow 3–2 Netherfield
4 Bath City 3–2 Cheltenham Town
Cheltenham Town 0–2 Bath City
Bath City 5–2 Cheltenham Town
5 Sutton United 1–4 Walthamstow Avenue
Walthamstow Avenue 7–2 Sutton United
Sutton United 3–11 Walthamstow Avenue
6 Watford 1–1 Southend United
Southend United 0–3 Watford
Watford 4–1 Southend United
7 Marine 4–0 Stalybridge Celtic
Stalybridge Celtic 3–3 Marine
Marine 7–3 Stalybridge Celtic
8 Reading 3–0 Aldershot
Aldershot 7–3 Reading
Reading 6–7 Aldershot
9 Wisbech Town 0–3 Ipswich Town 4,356
Ipswich Town 5–0 Wisbech Town 9,598
Wisbech Town 0–8 Ipswich Town
10 Notts County 2–2 Bradford City
Bradford City 1–2 Notts County
Notts County 4–3 Bradford City
11 Crewe Alexandra 4–2 Wrexham
Wrexham 3–0 Crewe Alexandra
Crewe Alexandra 4–5 Wrexham
12 Swindon Town 1–0 Bristol Rovers
Bristol Rovers 4–1 Swindon Town
Swindon Town 2–4 Bristol Rovers
13 Shrewsbury Town 5–0 Walsall
Walsall 4–1 Shrewsbury Town
Shrewsbury Town 6–4 Walsall
14 Doncaster Rovers 0–1 Rotherham United
Rotherham United 2–1 Doncaster Rovers
Doncaster Rovers 1–3 Rotherham United
15 Stockport County 1–2 Rochdale
Rochdale 1–1 Stockport County
Stockport County 2–3 Rochdale
16 Chorley 2–1 Accrington Stanley
Accrington Stanley 2–0 Chorley
Chorley 2–3 Accrington Stanley
17 Trowbridge Town 1–3 Exeter City
Exeter City 7–2 Trowbridge Town
Trowbridge Town 3–10 Exeter City
18 Northampton Town 5–1 Chelmsford City
Chelmsford City 0–5 Northampton Town
Northampton Town 10–1 Chelmsford City
19 Bromley 6–1 Slough United
Slough United 1–0 Bromley
Bromley 6–2 Slough United
20 South Liverpool 1–1 Tranmere Rovers
Tranmere Rovers 6–1 South Liverpool
South Liverpool 2–7 Tranmere Rovers
21 Brighton & Hove Albion 3–1 Romford
Romford 1–1 Brighton & Hove Albion
Brighton & Hove Albion 4–2 Romford
22 Carlisle United 5–1 North Shields
North Shields 2–3 Carlisle United
Carlisle United 8–3 North Shields
23 Mansfield Town 3–0 Gainsborough Trinity
Gainsborough Trinity 4–2 Mansfield Town
Mansfield Town 5–4 Gainsborough Trinity
24 Willington 0–5 Bishop Auckland
Bishop Auckland 0–2 Willington
Willington 2–5 Bishop Auckland
25 Port Vale 4–0 Wellington Town
Gainsborough Trinity 0–2 Wellington Town
Port Vale 6–0 Wellington Town
26 Halifax Town 1–0 York City
York City 4–2 Halifax Town
Halifax Town 3–4 York City
27 Southport 1–2 Oldham Athletic
Oldham Athletic 3–1 Southport
Southport 2–5 Oldham Athletic
28 Yeovil Town 2–2 Bristol City
Bristol City 3–0 Yeovil Town
Yeovil Town 2–5 Bristol City
29 Torquay United 0–1 Newport County 4,000
Newport County 1–1 Torquay United 7,178
Torquay United 1–2 Newport County
30 Lovells Athletic 4–1 Bournemouth & Boscombe Athletic
Bournemouth & Boscombe Athletic 3–2 Lovells Athletic
Lovells Athletic 6–4 Bournemouth & Boscombe Athletic
31 Yorkshire Amateur 1–0 Lincoln City
Lincoln City 5–1 Yorkshire Amateur
Yorkshire Amateur 2–5 Lincoln City
32 Kettering Town 1–5 Grantham
Grantham 2–2 Kettering Town
Kettering Town 3–7 Grantham
33 Gateshead 6–2 Hartlepools United
Hartlepools United 1–2 Gateshead
Gateshead 8–3 Hartlepools United
34 Leyton Orient 2–1 Newport (IoW)
Newport (IoW) 2–0 Leyton Orient
Leyton Orient 2–3 Newport (IoW)

Second Round Proper[edit]

The first leg matches were played on Saturday, 8 December 1945 and the second legs on the following Saturday, 15 December 1945. No replays were necessary.

Tie no Home team Score Away team Attendance Notes
1 Barrow 4–2 Carlisle United
Carlisle United 3–4 Barrow
Barrow 8–5 Carlisle United
2 Bristol City 4–2 Bristol Rovers
Bristol Rovers 0–2 Bristol City
Bristol City 6–2 Bristol Rovers
3 Grantham 1–2 Mansfield Town
Mansfield Town 2–1 Grantham
Grantham 2–4 Mansfield Town
4 Shrewsbury Town 0–1 Wrexham
Wrexham 1–1 Shrewsbury Town
Shrewsbury Town 1–2 Wrexham
5 Bishop Auckland 1–2 York City
York City 3–0 Bishop Auckland
Bishop Auckland 1–5 York City
6 Tranmere Rovers 3–1 Rochdale
Rochdale 3–0 Tranmere Rovers
Tranmere Rovers 3–4 Rochdale
7 Queens Park Rangers 4–0 Ipswich Town
Ipswich Town 0–2 Queens Park Rangers 10,571
Queens Park Rangers 6–0 Ipswich Town
8 Northampton Town 3–1 Notts County
Notts County 3–2 Northampton Town
Northampton Town 2–3 Notts County
9 Bromley 1–3 Watford
Watford 1–1 Bromley
Bromley 2–4 Watford
10 Oldham Athletic 2–1 Accrington Stanley
Accrington Stanley 3–1 Oldham Athletic
Oldham Athletic 3–4 Accrington Stanley
11 Port Vale 3–1 Marine
Marine 1–1 Port Vale
Port Vale 4–2 Marine
12 Newport County 5–1 Exeter City 5,606
Exeter City 1–3 Newport County 9,000
Newport County 8–2 Exeter City
13 Lovells Athletic 2–1 Bath City
Bath City 2–5 Lovells Athletic
Lovells Athletic 7–3 Bath City
14 Walthamstow Avenue 1–1 Brighton & Hove Albion
Brighton & Hove Albion 4–2 Walthamstow Avenue
Walthamstow Avenue 3–5 Brighton & Hove Albion
15 Rotherham United 2–1 Lincoln City
Lincoln City 1–1 Rotherham United
Rotherham United 3–2 Lincoln City
16 Aldershot 7–0 Newport (IoW)
Newport (IoW) 0–5 Aldershot
Aldershot 12–0 Newport (IoW)
17 Gateshead 1–2 Darlington
Darlington 2–4 Gateshead
Gateshead 5–4 Darlington

Third Round Proper[edit]

At this stage the remaining First and Second Division clubs entered the competition.

The first leg matches were played on Saturday, 5 January 1946 and the second legs in the following week commencing Monday, 7 January 1946. Two replays were necessary, both of which were played on Wednesday, 16 January 1946.

Tie no Home team Score Away team Date Attendance Notes
1 Chester 0–2 Liverpool 5 January 1946
Liverpool 2–1 Chester 9 January 1946
Chester 1–4 Liverpool
2 Chesterfield 1–1 York City 5 January 1946
York City 3–2 Chesterfield 9 January 1946
Chesterfield 3–4 York City
3 Bristol City 5–1 Swansea Town 5 January 1946
Swansea Town 2–2 Bristol City 10 January 1946
Bristol City 7–3 Swansea Town
4 Bury 3–3 Rochdale 5 January 1946
Rochdale 2–4 Bury 8 January 1946
Bury 7–5 Rochdale
5 Preston North End 2–1 Everton 5 January 1946
Everton 2–2 Preston North End 9 January 1946
Preston North End 4–3 Everton
6 Southampton 4–3 Newport County 5 January 1946 22,000
Newport County 1–2 Southampton 9 January 1946 8,509
Southampton 6–4 Newport County
7 Nottingham Forest 1–1 Watford 5 January 1946
Watford 1–1 Nottingham Forest 9 January 1946
Nottingham Forest 2–2 Watford
Replay Nottingham Forest 0–1 Watford 16 January 1946 [2]
8 Bolton Wanderers 1–0 Blackburn Rovers 5 January 1946
Blackburn Rovers 1–3 Bolton Wanderers 9 January 1946
Bolton Wanderers 4–1 Blackburn Rovers
9 Grimsby Town 1–3 Sunderland 5 January 1946
Sunderland 2–1 Grimsby Town 9 January 1946
Grimsby Town 2–5 Sunderland
10 Luton Town 0–6 Derby County 5 January 1946 16,792 [3]
Derby County 3–0 Luton Town 9 January 1946 [4]
Luton Town 0–9 Derby County
11 Wrexham 1–4 Blackpool 5 January 1946
Blackpool 4–1 Wrexham 9 January 1946
Wrexham 2–8 Blackpool
12 Newcastle United 4–2 Barnsley 5 January 1946
Barnsley 3–0 Newcastle United 9 January 1946
Newcastle United 4–5 Barnsley
13 Tottenham Hotspur 2–2 Brentford 5 January 1946
Brentford 2–0 Tottenham Hotspur 10 January 1946
Tottenham Hotspur 2–4 Brentford
14 Manchester City 6–2 Barrow 5 January 1946
Barrow 2–2 Manchester City 10 January 1946
Manchester City 8–4 Barrow
15 Queens Park Rangers 0–0 Crystal Palace 5 January 1946
Crystal Palace 0–0 Queens Park Rangers 9 January 1946
Queens Park Rangers 0–0 Crystal Palace
Replay Queens Park Rangers 1–0 Crystal Palace 16 January 1946 [5]
16 Accrington Stanley 2–2 Manchester United 5 January 1946
Manchester United 5–1 Accrington Stanley 9 January 1946
Accrington Stanley 3–7 Manchester United
17 Northampton Town 2–2 Millwall 5 January 1946
Millwall 3–0 Northampton Town 7 January 1946
Northampton Town 2–5 Millwall
18 Coventry City 2–1 Aston Villa 5 January 1946
Aston Villa 2–0 Coventry City 8 January 1946
Coventry City 2–3 Aston Villa
19 West Ham United 6–0 Arsenal 5 January 1946
Arsenal 1–0 West Ham United 9 January 1946
West Ham United 6–1 Arsenal
20 Norwich City 1–2 Brighton & Hove Albion 5 January 1946
Brighton & Hove Albion 4–1 Norwich City 9 January 1946
Norwich City 2–6 Brighton & Hove Albion
21 Chelsea 1–1 Leicester City 5 January 1946
Leicester City 0–2 Chelsea 10 January 1946
Chelsea 3–1 Leicester City
22 Bradford Park Avenue 2–1 Port Vale 5 January 1946
Port Vale 1–1 Bradford Park Avenue 7 January 1946
Bradford Park Avenue 3–2 Port Vale
23 Huddersfield Town 1–1 Sheffield United 5 January 1946
Sheffield United 2–0 Huddersfield Town 7 January 1946
Huddersfield Town 1–3 Sheffield United
24 Mansfield Town 0–0 Sheffield Wednesday 5 January 1946
Sheffield Wednesday 5–0 Mansfield Town 10 January 1946
Mansfield Town 0–5 Sheffield Wednesday
25 Cardiff City 1–1 West Bromwich Albion 5 January 1946
West Bromwich Albion 4–0 Cardiff City 9 January 1946
Cardiff City 1–5 West Bromwich Albion
26 Charlton Athletic 3–1 Fulham 5 January 1946
Fulham 2–1 Charlton Athletic 7 January 1946
Charlton Athletic 4–3 Fulham
27 Leeds United 4–4 Middlesbrough 5 January 1946
Middlesbrough 7–2 Leeds United 9 January 1946
Leeds United 6–11 Middlesbrough
28 Lovells Athletic 2–4 Wolverhampton Wanderers 5 January 1946
Wolverhampton Wanderers 8–1 Lovells Athletic 9 January 1946
Lovells Athletic 3–12 Wolverhampton Wanderers
29 Stoke City 3–1 Burnley 5 January 1946
Burnley 2–1 Stoke City 7 January 1946
Stoke City 4–3 Burnley
30 Rotherham United 2–2 Gateshead 5 January 1946
Gateshead 0–2 Rotherham United 9 January 1946
Rotherham United 4–2 Gateshead
31 Aldershot 2–0 Plymouth Argyle 5 January 1946
Plymouth Argyle 0–1 Aldershot 9 January 1946
Aldershot 3–0 Plymouth Argyle
32 Birmingham City 1–0 Portsmouth 5 January 1946
Portsmouth 0–0 Birmingham City 9 January 1946
Birmingham City 1–0 Portsmouth

Fourth Round Proper[edit]

The first leg matches were played on Saturday, 26 January 1946 and the second legs in the following week commencing Monday, 28 January 1946. One replay was necessary, which was played on 4 February 1946.

Tie no Home team Score Away team Date Attendance Notes
1 Blackpool 3–2 Middlesbrough 26 January 1946
Middlesbrough 3–2 Blackpool 30 January 1946
Blackpool 5–5 Middlesbrough
Replay Blackpool 0–1 Middlesbrough 4 February 1946 [6]
2 Bristol City 2–1 Brentford 26 January 1946
Brentford 5–0 Bristol City 31 January 1946
Bristol City 2–6 Brentford
3 Southampton 0–1 Queens Park Rangers 26 January 1946
Queens Park Rangers 4–3 Southampton 30 January 1946
Southampton 4–5 Queens Park Rangers
4 Sheffield Wednesday 5–1 York City 26 January 1946
York City 1–6 Sheffield Wednesday 30 January 1946
Sheffield Wednesday 11–2 York City
5 Bolton Wanderers 5–0 Liverpool 26 January 1946
Liverpool 2–0 Bolton Wanderers 30 January 1946
Bolton Wanderers 5–2 Liverpool
6 Sunderland 3–1 Bury 26 January 1946
Bury 5–4 Sunderland 29 January 1946
Sunderland 7–6 Bury
7 Derby County 1–0 West Bromwich Albion 26 January 1946 31,795 [7]
West Bromwich Albion 1–3 Derby County 30 January 1946 37,734 [8]
Derby County 4–1 West Bromwich Albion
8 Barnsley 3–0 Rotherham United 26 January 1946
Rotherham United 2–1 Barnsley 31 January 1946
Barnsley 4–2 Rotherham United
9 Brighton & Hove Albion 3–0 Aldershot 26 January 1946
Aldershot 1–4 Brighton & Hove Albion 30 January 1946
Brighton & Hove Albion 7–1 Aldershot
10 Manchester United 1–0 Preston North End 26 January 1946
Preston North End 3–1 Manchester United 30 January 1946
Manchester United 2–3 Preston North End
11 Millwall 2–4 Aston Villa 26 January 1946
Aston Villa 9–1 Millwall 28 January 1946
Millwall 3–13 Aston Villa
12 Chelsea 2–0 West Ham United 26 January 1946
West Ham United 1–0 Chelsea 30 January 1946
Chelsea 2–1 West Ham United
13 Bradford Park Avenue 1–3 Manchester City 26 January 1946
Manchester City 2–8 Bradford Park Avenue 30 January 1946
Bradford Park Avenue 9–5 Manchester City
14 Charlton Athletic 5–2 Wolverhampton Wanderers 26 January 1946
Wolverhampton Wanderers 1–1 Charlton Athletic 30 January 1946
Charlton Athletic 6–3 Wolverhampton Wanderers
15 Stoke City 2–0 Sheffield United 26 January 1946
Sheffield United 3–2 Stoke City 28 January 1946
Stoke City 4–3 Sheffield United
16 Birmingham City 5–0 Watford 26 January 1946
Watford 1–1 Birmingham City 30 January 1946
Birmingham City 6–1 Watford

Fifth Round Proper[edit]

The first leg matches were played on Saturday, 9 February 1946 and the second legs in the following week commencing Monday, 11 February 1946.

Tie no Home team Score Away team Date Attendance Notes
1 Preston North End 1–1 Charlton Athletic 9 February 1946
Charlton Athletic 6–0 Preston North End 14 February 1946
Preston North End 1–6 Charlton Athletic
2 Bolton Wanderers 1–0 Middlesbrough 9 February 1946
Middlesbrough 1–1 Bolton Wanderers 13 February 1946
Bolton Wanderers 2–1 Middlesbrough
3 Sunderland 1–0 Birmingham City 9 February 1946
Birmingham City 3–1 Sunderland 13 February 1946
Sunderland 2–3 Birmingham City
4 Queens Park Rangers 1–3 Brentford 9 February 1946
Brentford 0–0 Queens Park Rangers 14 February 1946
Queens Park Rangers 1–3 Brentford
5 Barnsley 0–1 Bradford Park Avenue 9 February 1946
Bradford Park Avenue 1–1 Barnsley 13 February 1946
Barnsley 1–2 Bradford Park Avenue
6 Brighton & Hove Albion 1–4 Derby County 9 February 1946 22,000 [9]
Derby County 6–0 Brighton & Hove Albion 14 February 1946 32,000 [10]
Brighton & Hove Albion 1–10 Derby County
7 Chelsea 0–1 Aston Villa 9 February 1946
Aston Villa 1–0 Chelsea 12 February 1946
Chelsea 0–2 Aston Villa
8 Stoke City 2–0 Sheffield Wednesday 9 February 1946
Sheffield Wednesday 0–0 Stoke City 11 February 1946
Stoke City 2–0 Sheffield Wednesday

Sixth Round Proper[edit]

2 March 1946
Aston Villa 3 – 4 Derby County
Edwards Goal 6'
Iverson Goal 28'
Broome Goal 66'
[11] Doherty Goal 23' Goal 85'
Carter Goal 62'
Crooks Goal 88'
Villa Park, Birmingham
Attendance: 76,500
Referee: W. E. Ross-Gower (London)
6 March 1946
Derby County 1 – 1 Aston Villa
Broome Goal [12] Carter Goal
Baseball Ground, Derby
Attendance: 32,000
Referee: W. E. Ross-Gower (London)
Derby County win 5 – 4 on aggregate.

2 March 1946
Bradford Park Avenue 2 – 2 Birmingham City
Dougall Goal
Jones Goal
Park Avenue, Bradford
Attendance: 19,732
Birmingham City win 8 – 2 on aggregate.

2 March 1946
Charlton Athletic 6 – 3 Brentford
The Valley, London
6 March 1946
Brentford 1 – 3 Charlton Athletic
Griffin Park, London
Charlton Athletic win 9 – 4 on aggregate.

Bolton Wanderers win 2 – 0 on aggregate.

Semi-Finals[edit]

23 March 1946
Derby County 1 – 1 Birmingham City
Carter Goal 4' [13] Mulraney Goal 59'
Hillsborough, Sheffield
Attendance: 65,013
Referee: W. H. E. Evans (Liverpool)
23 March 1946
Charlton Athletic 2 – 0 Bolton Wanderers
Duffy Goal 36'Goal 51'

Replay[edit]

27 March 1946
Birmingham City 0 – 4 Derby County
Doherty Goal 96' Goal
Stamps Goal Goal
Maine Road, Manchester
Attendance: 80,407

Final[edit]

Main article: 1946 FA Cup Final

The final took place on Saturday, 27 April 1946 at Wembley and ended in a 4–1 win for Derby County after extra time. Charlton Athletic's Bert Turner opened the scoring with an own goal in the 85th minute, which he equalised a minute later to force extra time. A goal from Peter Doherty and two from Jack Stamps completed Derby's victory.

27 April 1946
15:00 BST
Derby County 4 – 1 (aet) Charlton Athletic
B. Turner Goal 85' (og)
Doherty Goal 92'
Stamps Goal 97' Goal 106'
[14] B. TurnerGoal 86'
Wembley, London
Attendance: 98,000
Referee: Eddie Smith
Derby County
Charlton Athletic

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ David Kynaston (2008). Austerity Britain 1945–51. Bloomsbury. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-7475-9923-4. 
  2. ^ Match played at White Hart Lane, London.
  3. ^ "Luton 0 - 6 Derby County (Sat 05 Jan 1946)". therams.co.uk. Derby Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  4. ^ "Derby County 3 - 0 Luton (Wed 09 Jan 1946)". therams.co.uk. Derby Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  5. ^ Match played at Craven Cottage, London.
  6. ^ Match played at Elland Road, Leeds.
  7. ^ "Derby County 1 - 0 West Brom (Sat 26 Jan 1946)". therams.co.uk. Derby Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  8. ^ "West Brom 1 - 3 Derby County (Wed 30 Jan 1946)". therams.co.uk. Derby Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  9. ^ "Brighton 1 - 4 Derby County (Sat 09 Feb 1946)". therams.co.uk. Derby Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  10. ^ "Derby County 6 - 0 Brighton (Wed 13 Feb 1946)". therams.co.uk. Derby Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  11. ^ "Aston Villa 3 - 4 Derby County (Sat 02 Mar 1946)". therams.co.uk. Derby Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  12. ^ "Derby County 1 - 1 Aston Villa (Sat 09 Mar 1946)". therams.co.uk. Derby Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  13. ^ "Derby County 1 - 1 Birmingham (Sat 23 Mar 1946)". therams.co.uk. Derby Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  14. ^ "Derby County 4 - 1 Charlton (Sat 27 Apr 1946)". therams.co.uk. Derby Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 

External links[edit]