United Kingdom general election, 1945

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United Kingdom general election, 1945
United Kingdom
1935 ←
members
5 July 1945 → 1950
members

All 640 seats in the House of Commons
321 seats needed for a majority
Turnout 72.8%
  First party Second party Third party
  Attlee BW cropped.jpg Churchill portrait NYP 45063.jpg The Air Ministry, 1939-1945. CH10270.jpg
Leader Clement Attlee Winston Churchill Archibald Sinclair
Party Labour Conservative Liberal
Leader since 25 October 1935 9 October 1940 26 November 1935
Leader's seat Limehouse Woodford Caithness and Sutherland (defeated)
Last election 154 seats, 38.0% 386 seats, 47.8% 21 seats, 6.7%
Seats won 393 197 12
Seat change Increase 239 Decrease 190 Decrease 9
Popular vote 11,967,746 8,716,211 2,177,938
Percentage 47.7% 36.2% 9.0%
Swing Increase 11.7% Decrease 11.6% Increase 2.3%

PM before election

Winston Churchill
Conservative

Subsequent PM

Clement Attlee
Labour

1931 election MPs
1935 election MPs
1945 election MPs
1950 election MPs
1951 election MPs

The United Kingdom general election of 1945 was a general election held on 5 July 1945, with polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks.[1] The results were counted and declared on 26 July, owing in part to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas. The result was an unexpected landslide victory for Clement Attlee's Labour Party, over Winston Churchill's Conservatives, giving Labour its first majority government, and a mandate to implement its postwar reforms.

Background[edit]

Held less than two months after VE Day, it was the first general election since 1935, as general elections had been suspended during the Second World War.

Results[edit]

It resulted in the election defeat of the government led by Winston Churchill and the landslide victory of the Labour Party led by Clement Attlee, who won a majority of 145 seats.

The result of the election came as a major shock to the Conservatives,[2] given the heroic status of Winston Churchill, but reflected the voters' belief that the Labour Party were better able to rebuild the country following the war than the Conservatives.[3] Churchill and the Conservatives are also generally considered to have run a poor campaign in comparison to Labour; Churchill's statement that Attlee's programme would require "some form of a Gestapo" to implement is considered to have been particularly poorly judged.[4] Equally, though voters respected and liked Churchill's wartime record, they were more distrustful of the Conservative Party's domestic and foreign policy record in the late 1930s. Labour had also been given, during the war, the opportunity to display to the electorate their domestic competence in government under men such as Attlee, Herbert Morrison and Ernest Bevin at the Ministry of Labour.

The Labour Party ran on promises to create full employment, a tax-funded universal National Health Service, the embracing of Keynesian economic policies and a cradle-to-grave welfare state, with the campaign message 'Let us face the future.'

This was the first election in which Labour gained a majority of seats, and also the first time it won a plurality of votes. The election was a disaster for the Liberal Party, as it lost all its urban seats. Baines says the defeat marked its transition from being a party of government to a party of the political fringe.[5]

Result: detail[edit]

393 197 12 11 27
Labour Conservative Lib LN O
UK general election 1945
Candidates Votes
Party Standing Elected Gained Unseated Net  % of total  % No. Net %
  Labour 603 393 242 3 + 239 61.4 47.7 11,967,746 +11.7
  Conservative 559 197 14 204 - 190 30.8 36.2 8,716,211 -11.6
  Liberal 306 12 5 14 - 9 1.9 9.0 2,177,938 +2.3
  Liberal National 49 11 0 22 - 22 1.2 2.9 686,652 -0.8
  Independent 38 8 6 0 + 6 0.6 133,191
  National 10 2 2 1 + 1 0.5 130,513
  Common Wealth 23 1 1 0 + 1 0.5 110,634
  Communist 21 2 1 0 + 1 0.4 97,945
  Nationalist 3 2 0 0 0 0.4 92,819
  National Independent 13 2 1 1 0 0.3 65,171
  Independent Labour 7 2 2 0 0 0.3 63,135
  Independent Conservative 6 2 2 0 + 2 0.2 57,823
  Ind. Labour Party 5 3 0 1 - 1 0.2 46,769
  Independent Progressive 7 1 1 0 + 1 0.1 35,072
  Independent Liberal 3 2 2 0 + 2 0.1 30,450
  SNP 8 0 0 0 0 0.1 26,707
  Plaid Cymru 7 0 0 0 0 0.0 16,017
  Commonwealth Labour 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 14,096
  Independent Nationalist 4 0 0 0 0 0.0 5,430
  Liverpool Protestant 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 2,601
  Christian Pacifist 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 2,381
  Democratic 5 0 0 0 0 0.0 1,809
  Agriculturist 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 1,068
  Socialist (GB) 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 472
  United Socialist 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 300

Total votes cast: 24,073,025. Turnout 72.8%.[6] All parties shown. Conservative total includes Ulster Unionists. The 8 seats won by National Labour in 1935 were not defended.

Votes summary[edit]

Popular vote
Labour
  
47.7%
Conservative
  
36.2%
Liberal
  
9%
Liberal National
  
2.9%
Others
  
4.2%

Seats summary[edit]

Parliamentary seats
Labour
  
61.4%
Conservative
  
30.8%
Liberal
  
1.9%
Liberal National
  
1.2%
Others
  
4.7%

MPs who lost their seats[edit]

Party Name Constituency Office held whilst in power Year elected Defeated by Party
Conservative Party Major
Henry Adam Procter
Accrington 1931 Captain
Walter Scott-Elliot
Labour Party
Henry Longhurst Acton 1943 Joseph Sparks Labour Party
Sir Jonah Walker-Smith Barrow and Furness 1931 Walter Monslow Labour Party
Sir Richard Wells, 1st Baronet Bedford 1922 Thomas Skeffington-Lodge Labour Party
John McEwen Berwick and Haddington 1931 John Robertson Labour Party
Sir Oliver Simmonds Birmingham Duddeston 1931 Edith Wills Labour Party
Major
Basil Arthur John Peto
Birmingham King's Norton 1941 Raymond Blackburn Labour Party
The Right Honourable
Geoffrey Lloyd
Birmingham Ladywood Minister for Information 1931 Victor Yates Labour Party
The Right Honourable
Leo Amery
Birmingham Sparkbrook Secretary of State for India and Burma 1911 Percy Shurmer Labour Party
Walter Higgs Birmingham West 1937 Charles Simmons Labour Party
Sir Edward William Salt Birmingham Yardley 1931 Wesley Perrins Labour Party
Major
Sir Cyril Entwistle
Bolton 1931 John Lewis Labour Party
Eric Errington Bootle 1935 John Kinley Labour Party
Violet Bathurst, Lady Apsley Bristol Central 1943 Stan Awbery Labour Party
The Hon. Lionel Berry Buckingham 1943 Aidan Crawley Labour Party
Nigel Colman Brixton 1927 Lieutenant Colonel
Marcus Lipton
Labour Party
Colonel
The Hon. John Gretton
Burton 1943 Arthur William Lyne Labour Party
Colonel
Albert Braithwaite
Buckrose 1926 George Wadsworth Liberal Party
The Hon. Oscar Guest Cambridge 1934 Tudor Watkins Labour Party
Richard Tufnell Camberwell North West (contested Breconshire and Radnorshire) 1935 Arthur Symonds Labour Party
The Right Honourable
Sir Percy James Grigg
Cardiff East Secretary of State for War 1942 Hilary Marquand Labour Party
Arthur Evans Cardiff South 1931 James Callaghan Labour Party
Major-General
Sir Edward Spears
Carlisle 1931 Edgar Grierson Labour Party
Captain
Leonard Plugge
Chatham 1935 Arthur Bottomley Labour Party
Lieutenant Commander
Robert Tatton Bower
Cleveland 1931 George Willey Labour Party
Oswald Lewis Colchester 1929 George Delacourt-Smith Labour Party
The Right Honourable
Sir Donald Somervell
Crewe Home Secretary 1931 Scholefield Allen QC Labour Party
Herbert Williams Croydon South 1932 Lieutenant Colonel
David Rees-Williams
Labour Party
Charles Peat Darlington Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Pensions 1931 David Hardman Labour Party
Paul Emrys-Evans South Derbyshire Under-Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs 1931 Arthur Champion Labour Party
Bracewell Smith Dulwich 1932 Major
Wilfrid Vernon
Labour Party
The Right Honourable
Florence Horsbrugh
Dundee Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Health 1931 Thomas Fotheringham-Cook Labour Party
Lieutenant Colonel
Sir John Mayhew
East Ham North 1931 Percy Daines Labour Party
Robert Cary Eccles Lord of the Treasury 1935 William Proctor Labour Party
Frank Watt Edinburgh Central 1941 Andrew Gilzean Labour Party
Alexander Erskine-Hill Edinburgh North 1935 George Willis Labour Party
Thomas Levy Elland 1931 Frederick Arthur Cobb Labour Party
Bartle Brennen Bull Enfield 1935 Enfield Davies Labour Party
Roy Wise Smethwick (contested Epping) 1931 Leah Manning Labour Party
Edward Cobb Preston (contested Eton and Slough) 1931 Benn Levy Labour Party
The Hon. William Astor Fulham East 1931 Captain
Michael Stewart
Labour Party
Walter Elliot Glasgow Kelvingrove 1924 John Lloyd-Williams Labour Party
Leslie Boyce Gloucester 1929 Moss Turner-Samuels Labour Party
Sir Irving Albery Gravesend 1924 Garry Allighan Labour Party
Sir Walter Womersley, 1st Baronet Great Grimsby Minister of Pensions 1924 The Honourable
Kenneth Younger
Labour Party
Sir Austin Hudson, 1st Baronet Hackney North Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Fuel, Light and Power 1924 Henry Edwin Goodrich Labour Party
Gilbert Gledhill Halifax 1931 Dryden Brook Labour Party
Ronald Tree Harborough 1933 Humphrey Attewell Labour Party
Colonel
Thomas George Greenwell
The Hartlepools 1943 David Thomas Jones Labour Party
James Wootton-Davies Heywood and Radcliffe 1940 John Edmondson Whittaker Labour Party
The Honourable
Seymour Berry
Hitchin 1941 Philip Asterley Jones Labour Party
Liberal Party Sir William Beveridge Berwick-upon-Tweed 1944 Robert Thorp Conservative Party
The Right Honourable
Sir Percy Harris, 1st Baronet
Bethnal Green South West Liberal Chief Whip 1922 Percy Holman Labour Party
The Right Honourable
Sir Archibald Sinclair, 4th Baronet
Caithness and Sutherland Leader of the Liberal Party & Secretary of State for Air 1922 Eric Gandar Dower Conservative Party
The Right Honourable
Henry Graham White
Birkenhead East 1929 Frank Soskice Labour Party
Seaborne Davies Caernarfon 1945 Lieutenant Colonel
David Price-White
Conservative Party
Lieutenant Colonel
Goronwy Owen
Caernarvonshire 1923 Goronwy Roberts Labour Party
Dingle Foot Dundee Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Economic Warfare 1931 Squadron Leader
John Strachey
Labour Party
Thomas Magnay Gateshead 1931 Konni Zilliacus Labour Party
Independent Labour Andrew MacLaren Burslem 1935 Albert Edward Davies Labour Party
Scottish National Party Robert McIntyre Motherwell 1945 Alexander Anderson Labour Party
National Liberal Party Percy Jewson Great Yarmouth 1941 Ernest Kinghorn Labour Party
Labour Party Moelwyn Hughes Carmarthen 1941 Rhys Hopkin Morris Liberal Party
John Eric Loverseed Eddisbury 1943 Sir John Barlow, 2nd Baronet Conservative Party

Reasons for Labour victory[edit]

With World War II coming to an end in Europe, the Labour Party decided to pull out of the wartime national government, precipitating an election which took place in July 1945. King George VI dissolved Parliament, which had been sitting for ten years without an election. What followed was perhaps one of the greatest swings of public confidence of the 20th century. In May 1945, the month in which the war in Europe was ended, Churchill's approval ratings stood at 83%, although the Labour Party held an 18% lead as of February 1945.[7] Labour won overwhelming support while 'Churchill... was both surprised and stunned' by the crushing defeat suffered by the Conservatives.

The greatest factor in Labour's dramatic win appeared to be the policy of social reform. In one opinion poll, 41% of respondents considered housing to be the most important issue that faced the country, 15% stated the Labour policy of full employment, 7% mentioned social security, 6% nationalisation and just 5% international security, which was emphasised by the Conservatives. The Beveridge Report, published in 1942, proposed the creation of a Welfare State. It called for a dramatic turn in British social policy, with provision for nationalised health care, expanded state-funded education, national insurance and a new housing policy. The report was extremely popular, and copies of its findings were widely purchased, turning it into a best-seller. The Labour Party adopted the report eagerly.[2] The Conservatives accepted many of the principles of the report (Churchill did not regard the reforms as socialist), but claimed that they could not be afforded.[8] Labour offered a new comprehensive welfare policy, reflecting a consensus that social changes were needed.[3] The Conservatives were not willing to make the same concessions that Labour proposed, and hence appeared out of step with public opinion.

As Churchill's personal popularity remained high, Conservatives were confident of victory and based much of their election campaign on this, rather than proposing new programmes. However, people distinguished between Churchill and his party—a contrast which Labour repeatedly emphasised throughout the campaign. Voters also harboured doubts over Churchill's ability to lead the country on the domestic front,.[3]

In addition to the poor Conservative election strategy, Churchill went so far as to accuse Attlee of seeking to behave as a dictator, in spite of Attlee's service in Churchill's war cabinet. In the most famous incident of the campaign, Churchill's first election broadcast on 4 June backfired dramatically and memorably. Denouncing his former coalition partners, he declared that Labour "would have to fall back on some form of a Gestapo" to impose socialism on Britain. Attlee responded the next night by ironically thanking the prime minister for demonstrating to people the difference between Churchill the great wartime leader and Churchill the peacetime politician, and argued the case for public control of industry.

Another blow to the Conservative campaign was the memory of the 1930s policy of appeasement, which had been conducted by Churchill's Conservative predecessors, Neville Chamberlain and Stanley Baldwin, and was at this stage widely discredited for allowing Adolf Hitler's Germany to become too strong.[3] The inter-war period had been dominated by Conservatives. Excepting two brief minority Labour governments in 1924 and 1929–1931, the Conservatives had been in power for its entirety. As a result, the Conservatives were generally blamed for the era's mistakes, not merely for appeasement but for the inflation and unemployment of the Great Depression.[3] Many voters felt that while the war of 1914-1918 had been won, the peace that followed had been lost. Labour played to the concept of "winning the peace" that would follow the second war.

Possibly for this reason, there was especially strong support for Labour in the armed services, who feared the unemployment and homelessness to which the soldiers of the First World War had returned. It has been claimed that the pro-Labour bias of teachers in the armed services was a contributing factor, but this argument has generally not carried much weight, and the failure of the Conservative governments of the 1920s to deliver a "land fit for heroes" was likely more important.[3] The role of propaganda films produced during the war, which were shown to both military and civilian audiences, is also seen as a contributory factor due to their general optimism about the future, which meshed with the Labour Party's campaigning in 1945 better than with that of the Conservatives.[9] Writer and soldier Anthony Burgess remarked that Churchill - who often wore a colonel's uniform at this time - himself was not nearly as popular with soldiers at the front as with officers and civilians: he noted that Churchill often smoked cigars in front of soldiers who hadn't had a decent cigarette in days.[10]

The differing strategies of the two parties during wartime also gave Labour an advantage. Labour continued to attack pre-war Conservative governments for their inactivity in tackling Hitler, reviving the economy, and re-arming Britain,[11] while Churchill was less interested in furthering his party, much to the chagrin of many of its members and MPs.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "General Election (Polling Date): 31 May 1945: House of Commons debates". They Work For You. 
  2. ^ a b "1945: Churchill loses general election". BBC. 1945-07-26. Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Lynch 2008, p. 4
  4. ^ Marr, A (2008). A History of Modern Britain. Pan Macmillan Ltd. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-0-330-43983-1. 
  5. ^ Baines (1995)
  6. ^ http://www.ukpolitical.info/Turnout45.htm
  7. ^ a b Dr Paul Addison (2005-04-29). "Why Churchill Lost in 1945". BBC. Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  8. ^ Lynch 2008, p. 10
  9. ^ 1945 General Election. Sean Spurr. HistoryEmpire.com. Accessed 4 April 2012.
  10. ^ Burgess, Anthony (1987). Little Wilson and Big God. Heinemann. p. 305. ISBN 1446452557. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  11. ^ Lynch 2008, pp. 1–4

Bibliography[edit]

  • Addison, Paul. The road to 1945: British politics and the Second World War (London: Cape, 1975)
  • Baines, Malcolm. "The liberal party and 1945 general election." Contemporary Record (1995) 9#1 pp : 48-61.
  • Brooke, Stephen. Labour's war: the Labour party during the Second World War (Oxford University Press, 1992)
  • Burgess, Simon. "1945 Observed - A History of the Histories," Contemporary Record (1991) 5#1 pp 155–170; historiography
  • F. W. S. Craig, British Electoral Facts: 1832-1987
  • Fielding, Steven. "What did 'the people' want?: the meaning of the 1945 general election." Historical Journal (1992) 35#3 pp: 623-639. in JSTOR
  • Fry, Geoffrey K. "A Reconsideration of the British General Election of 1935 and the Electoral Revolution of 1945," History (1991) 76#246 pp 43–55.
  • Gilbert, Bentley B. "Third Parties and Voters' Decisions: The Liberals and the General Election of 1945." Journal of British Studies (1972) 11#2 pp: 131-141.
  • Kandiah, Michael David. "The conservative party and the 1945 general election." (1995): 22-47.
  • Lynch, Michael (2008). "1. The Labour Party in Power 1945-51". Britain 1945-2007. Access to History. Hodder Headline. ISBN 0-340-96595-9. .
  • McCallum, R.B. and Alison Readman. The British general election of 1945 (1947) the standard scholarly study
  • McCulloch, Gary. "Labour, the Left, and the British General Election of 1945." Journal of British Studies (1985) 24#4 pp: 465-489.
  • Nicholas, H. (1951). The British general election of 1950. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-77865-0. 
  • Pelling, Henry. "The 1945 general election reconsidered." Historical Journal (1980) 23#2 pp: 399-414. in JSTOR
  • Toye, Richard. "Winston Churchill's "Crazy Broadcast": Party, Nation, and the 1945 Gestapo Speech," Journal of British Studies (2010) 49#3 pp. 655–680 in JSTOR; online

External links[edit]

Manifestos[edit]

External links[edit]