1952 Tour de France
|Route of the 1952 Tour de France
Followed clockwise, starting in Brest and finishing in Paris
|Dates||25 June–19 July 1952|
|Distance||4,807 km (2,987 mi)|
|Winning time||151h 57' 20" (31.739 km/h or 19.722 mph)|
|Winner||Fausto Coppi (Italy)||(Italy)|
|Second||Stan Ockers (Belgium)||(Belgium)|
|Third||Bernardo Ruiz (Spain)||(Spain)|
|Mountains||Fausto Coppi (Italy)||(Italy)|
The 1952 Tour de France was the 39th Tour de France, taking place June 25 to July 19, 1952. It was composed of 23 stages over 4807 km, ridden at an average speed of 31.739 km/h. Newly introduced were the arrivals on mountain peaks.
The race was won by Italian Fausto Coppi. Coppi dominated the race, winning five stages and the mountains classification, and was a member of the winning Italian team. His dominance was so large that the Tour organisation had to double the prize money for second place to make the race interesting. At the end, Coppi had a margin of almost half an hour over the second-ranked cyclist, such a margin has never been achieved again.
Changes from the 1951 Tour de France
The 1952 Tour de France saw the introduction of the combativity award, a daily award for the most combative rider of the stage. The winner of that award received 100,000 French Francs. (The supercombativity award, the award for the most combative rider of the entire Tour de France, would first be given in 1953.)
The team classification had been awarded and calculated since 1930, but in 1952 the daily team classification was also calculated: for each stage, the best team (calculated as the team of which the best three cyclists had the lowest accumulated team in that stage) received a prize.
Another innovation was the stage arrivals on mountain peaks. This happened three times in 1952, on stages 10, 11 and 21.
As was the custom since the 1930 Tour de France, the 1952 Tour de France was contested by national and regional teams. The three major cycling countries in 1952, Italy, Belgium and France, each sent a team of 12 cyclists. Other countries sent teams of 8 cyclists: Switzerland, Luxembourg (together with Australia), Netherlands and Spain. The French regional cyclists were divided into four teams of 12 cyclists: Paris, North East–Center, South East and West–South West. The last team of eight cyclists was made up out of cyclists from the French North African colonies. In the end, Luxembourg only sent 6 cyclists, so altogether this made 122 cyclists.
There were 57 French (of which 6 Algerian), 13 Italian, 12 Belgian, 8 Dutch, 8 Spanish, 8 Swiss, 5 Luxembourgian and 1 Australian cyclist.
On the last press conference before the race, Jacques Goddet did a poll amongst journalists, to see who they considered the main favourite. Coppi received 29 votes in that poll, followed by Géminiani and Bartali, both 26 votes.
In the fourth stage, Jean Robic, the winner of the 1947 Tour de France was in a group with his team mate Raphaël Géminiani, and Robic let Géminiani do all the work. After the stage, Robic told reporters that he had been smart, because he had saved energy and was in a better position to win the Tour. Géminiani then became angry and held Robic's head in a hotel room sink. It was the last year that Robic rode on the national team. At that moment, Nello Lauredi was the leader in the race.
In the sixth stage, Fiorenzo Magni escaped, and became the leader of the general classification by twelve seconds. In the 1950 Tour de France, Magni had already become the leader, but left the race without riding in the yellow jersey. In the time trial in stage seven, won by Fausto Coppi, Magni lost his lead, and Lauredi became leader again.
The first high mountains appeared in stage eight. Magni and Lauredi stayed together, but because Magni took a twenty-second bonification for finishing second, they swapped positions again, and Magni became leader again.
In the ninth stage, a group of eight cyclists got away, including Coppi's team mate Andrea Carrea. At the end of the stage, the group had a margin of more than nine minutes. Carrea went to the hotel after the finish, but was picked up by the police. Carrea asked what he had done wrong, but he was told that he was the new leader of the race, and had to go to the ceremony to receive the yellow jersey. Carrea apologized to his team leader Coppi, in fear that his team leader would be angry because a helper occupied the highest rank, but Coppi was not angry.
In the tenth stage, Robic attacked, and only Coppi was able to follow him. Later, Robic had a flat tire. Because his team director was far away, he lost several minutes, and lost so much time that he dropped from second place to fifth place. Coppi rode away and won the stage, taking over the lead in the general classification from his team mate. The top three riders were all Italian at that moment.
After the rest day, the eleventh stage was again a mountain stage. The cyclists from the French national team, especially Géminiani, attacked on the Galibier, but Coppi counterattacked and escaped easily. At the end of the stage, Coppi won by a large margin. His lead in the general classification was now almost 20 minutes.
The margin was so large that Coppi didn't need to attack in the twelfth stage. When Coppi had a flat tire, his team mate Gino Bartali gave him his own wheel, which was a sign that the rivalry between the two cyclists was over. Even though Coppi rode conservatively in the that stage, the cyclist directly behind him in the general classification, Alex Close, lost another four minutes, and Coppi was now 24 minutes ahead.
The Tour organisation feared that the race would become dull, now that Coppi's lead was so large. Therefore, they doubled the prize money for second and third place, hoping to keep the other cyclists aggressive.
In the sixteenth stage, the riders were apparently not motivated by the double prize money, as they were slow that day. The organisation then responded by canceling the prize money; there was still a rule from before 1947, that said that stage winners had to go at least 30 km/h to win prize money. The winner, André Rosseel, had only reached 29 km/h.
In the seventeenth stage, Géminiani, who was already in fourteenth place, 52 minutes behind in the general classification, escaped. Coppi did not chase him, and allowed Géminiani to win the stage. In the eighteenth stage, Coppi reached the top of the mountains first, but took it easy on the descent, and allowed other cyclists to get back to him. He still won the sprint at the end of the stage.
Coppi also won the last mountain stage, stage 21, and increased his lead to more than 31 minutes. In the time trial on the next day, Coppi apparently took it easy. Previously he was an expert in such time trials, but on that day he allowed other cyclists to win back some time, and finished on the fourteenth place.
The final stage was from Vichy, the capital of Vichy France in the Second World War, to Paris. Vichy had never before been visited, and the distance Vichy–France was significantly longer than the other stages. A newspaper described it as linking the two cities together. The stop in Vichy was successful, with a new record of 150.000 live spectators.
|1||25 June||Brest – Rennes||Plain stage||246 km (153 mi)||Rik Van Steenbergen (BEL)|
|2||26 June||Rennes – Le Mans||Plain stage||181 km (112 mi)||André Rosseel (BEL)|
|3||27 June||Le Mans – Rouen||Plain stage||189 km (117 mi)||Nello Lauredi (FRA)|
|4||28 June||Rouen – Roubaix||Plain stage||232 km (144 mi)||Pierre Molinéris (FRA)|
|5||29 June||Roubaix – Namur||Plain stage||197 km (122 mi)||Jean Diederich (LUX)|
|6||30 June||Namur – Metz||Plain stage||228 km (142 mi)||Fiorenzo Magni (ITA)|
|7||1 July||Metz – Nancy||Individual time trial||60 km (37 mi)||Fausto Coppi (ITA)|
|8||2 July||Nancy – Mulhouse||Stage with mountain(s)||252 km (157 mi)||Raphaël Géminiani (FRA)|
|9||3 July||Mulhouse – Lausanne||Stage with mountain(s)||238 km (148 mi)||Walter Diggelmann (SUI)|
|10||4 July||Lausanne – L'Alpe d'Huez||Stage with mountain(s)||266 km (165 mi)||Fausto Coppi (ITA)|
|11||6 July||Le Bourg d'Oisans – Sestrières||Stage with mountain(s)||182 km (113 mi)||Fausto Coppi (ITA)|
|12||7 July||Sestrières – Monaco||Stage with mountain(s)||251 km (156 mi)||Jan Nolten (NED)|
|13||8 July||Monaco – Aix-en-Provence||Plain stage||214 km (133 mi)||Raoul Rémy (FRA)|
|14||9 July||Aix-en-Provence – Avignon||Stage with mountain(s)||178 km (111 mi)||Jean Robic (FRA)|
|15||10 July||Avignon – Perpignan||Plain stage||275 km (171 mi)||Georges Decaux (FRA)|
|16||11 July||Perpignan – Toulouse||Plain stage||200 km (124 mi)||André Rosseel (BEL)|
|17||13 July||Toulouse – Bagnères-de-Bigorre||Stage with mountain(s)||204 km (127 mi)||Raphaël Géminiani (FRA)|
|18||14 July||Bagnères-de-Bigorre – Pau||Stage with mountain(s)||149 km (93 mi)||Fausto Coppi (ITA)|
|19||15 July||Pau – Bordeaux||Plain stage||195 km (121 mi)||Hans Dekkers (NED)|
|20||16 July||Bordeaux – Limoges||Plain stage||228 km (142 mi)||Jacques Vivier (FRA)|
|21||17 July||Limoges – Puy de Dôme||Stage with mountain(s)||245 km (152 mi)||Fausto Coppi (ITA)|
|22||18 July||Clermont-Ferrand – Vichy||Individual time trial||63 km (39 mi)||Fiorenzo Magni (ITA)|
|23||19 July||Vichy – Paris||Plain stage||354 km (220 mi)||Antonin Rolland (FRA)|
||Mountains classification||Team classification|
|1||Rik Van Steenbergen (BEL)||no award||Belgium|
|3||Nello Lauredi (FRA)||France|
|6||Fiorenzo Magni (ITA)|
|7||Nello Lauredi (FRA)|
|8||Fiorenzo Magni (ITA)||Raphaël Géminiani (FRA)|
|9||Andrea Carrea (ITA)|
|10||Fausto Coppi (ITA)||Antonio Gelabert (ESP)|
|11||Fausto Coppi (ITA)|
|Final||Fausto Coppi (ITA)||Fausto Coppi (ITA)||Italy|
The time that each cyclist required to finish each stage was recorded, and these times were added together for the general classification. If a cyclist had received a time bonus, it was subtracted from this total; all time penalties were added to this total. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey. Of the 123 cyclists that started the 1951 Tour de France, 66 finished the race.
|1||Fausto Coppi (ITA)||Italy||151h 57' 20"|
|2||Stan Ockers (BEL)||Belgium||+28' 17"|
|3||Bernardo Ruiz (ESP)||Spain||+34' 38"|
|4||Gino Bartali (ITA)||Italy||+35' 25"|
|5||Jean Robic (FRA)||France||+35' 36"|
|6||Fiorenzo Magni (ITA)||Italy||+38' 25"|
|7||Alex Close (BEL)||Belgium||+38' 32"|
|8||Jean Dotto (FRA)||France||+48' 01"|
|9||Andrea Carrea (ITA)||Italy||+50' 20"|
|10||Antonio Gelabert (ESP)||Spain||+58' 16"|
|Final general classification (11–66)|
|11||Raphaël Géminiani (FRA)||France||+1h 02' 47"|
|12||Gottfried Weilenmann, Jr. (SUI)||Switzerland||+1h 04' 19"|
|13||Aloïs De Hertog (BEL)||Belgium||+1h 07' 15"|
|14||Edward Van Ende (BEL)||Belgium||+1h 17' 37"|
|15||Jan Nolten (NED)||Netherlands||+1h 30' 34"|
|16||Jean Goldschmit (LUX)||Luxembourg||+1h 49' 47"|
|17||Wim van Est (NED)||Netherlands||+1h 50' 54"|
|18||Marcel Zélasco (FRA)||North Africa||+1h 51' 02"|
|19||Nello Lauredi (FRA)||France||+1h 59' 43"|
|20||Vincent Vitetta (FRA)||South East||+2h 01' 17"|
|21||Antonin Rolland (FRA)||France||+2h 02' 38"|
|22||Gerrit Voorting (NED)||Netherlands||+2h 07' 22"|
|23||José Serra (ESP)||Spain||+2h 08' 32"|
|24||Adolphe Deledda (FRA)||North East–Center||+2h 09' 44"|
|25||Wout Wagtmans (NED)||Netherlands||+2h 09' 45"|
|26||Jean Le Guilly (FRA)||West–South West||+2h 20' 09"|
|27||Franco Franchi (ITA)||Italy||+2h 24' 16"|
|28||André Rosseel (BEL)||Belgium||+2h 29' 59"|
|29||Maurice Neyt (BEL)||Belgium||+2h 34' 31"|
|30||Francisco Masip (ESP)||Spain||+2h 41' 18"|
|31||Jacques Marinelli (FRA)||Paris||+2h 44' 42"|
|32||Gilbert Bauvin (FRA)||North East–Center||+2h 47' 21"|
|33||Jean Malléjac (FRA)||West–South West||+2h 48' 03"|
|34||Maurice Quentin (FRA)||France||+2h 49' 26"|
|35||Luciano Pezzi (ITA)||Italy||+2h 49' 57"|
|36||Georges Decaux (FRA)||Paris||+2h 50' 35"|
|37||Raoul Rémy (FRA)||France||+2h 51' 56"|
|38||Roger Decock (BEL)||Belgium||+2h 52' 16"|
|39||Ahmed Kebaili (FRA)||North Africa||+2h 52' 48"|
|40||Jacques Renaud (FRA)||Paris||+2h 53' 01"|
|41||Mario Baroni (ITA)||Italy||+2h 53' 09"|
|42||Andrés Trobat (ESP)||Spain||+2h 53' 48"|
|43||Lucien Lazaridès (FRA)||France||+2h 54' 24"|
|44||Siro Bianchi (FRA)||South East||+2h 59' 06"|
|45||Jean de Gribaldy (FRA)||North East–Center||+3h 02' 26"|
|46||Giovanni Corrieri (ITA)||Italy||+3h 03' 05"|
|47||José Gil (ESP)||Spain||+3h 06' 01"|
|48||Eugène Telotte (FRA)||Paris||+3h 14' 39"|
|49||Jacques Vivier (FRA)||West–South West||+3h 15' 21"|
|50||Walter Diggelmann (SUI)||Switzerland||+3h 21' 34"|
|51||Ettore Milano (ITA)||Italy||+3h 28' 04"|
|52||Carlo Lafranchi (SUI)||Switzerland||+3h 28' 42"|
|53||Thijs Roks (NED)||Netherlands||+3h 29' 05"|
|54||Marcel Fernandez (FRA)||North Africa||+3h 30' 54"|
|55||Pierre Pardoen (FRA)||North East–Center||+3h 34' 31"|
|56||Alfredo Martini (ITA)||Italy||+3h 37' 32"|
|57||Johny Goedert (LUX)||Luxembourg||+3h 38' 19"|
|58||Fiorenzo Crippa (ITA)||Italy||+3h 40' 46"|
|59||Lucien Teisseire (FRA)||France||+3h 40' 56"|
|60||Hans Dekkers (NED)||Netherlands||+3h 41' 55"|
|61||Roger Rossinelli (FRA)||North East–Center||+3h 42' 46"|
|62||Giulio Bresci (ITA)||Italy||+3h 50' 34"|
|63||Bernard Gauthier (FRA)||France||+3h 57' 16"|
|64||Robert Bonnaventure (FRA)||France||+4h 02' 18"|
|65||Joseph Mirando (ITA)||South East||+4h 06' 33"|
|66||Paul Giguet (FRA)||South East||+4h 08' 35"|
|67||René Rotta (FRA)||South East||+4h 08' 58"|
|68||Jean Bertaina (FRA)||South East||+4h 09' 30"|
|69||Hein van Breenen (NED)||Netherlands||+4h 18' 54"|
|70||Tino Sabbadini (FRA)||West–South West||+4h 34' 34"|
|71||Adolphe Pezzuli (FRA)||South East||+4h 41' 59"|
|72||Heinrich Spuhler (SUI)||Switzerland||+4h 45' 51"|
|73||Jean Delahaye (FRA)||West–South West||+4h 58' 32"|
|74||Raymond Scardin (FRA)||West–South West||+4h 59' 48"|
|75||André Bernard (FRA)||West–South West||+5h 19' 19"|
|76||Henk Faanhof (NED)||Netherlands||+5h 21' 13"|
|77||Vincent Soler (FRA)||North Africa||+7h 11' 36"|
|78||Henri Paret (FRA)||North Africa||+7h 15' 09"|
Points for the mountains classification were earned by reaching the mountain tops first. The system was the same as in 1951: there were two types of mountain tops: the hardest ones, in category 1, gave 10 points to the winner, the easier ones in category 2 gave 6 points to the winner. Fausto Coppi won this classification.
|1||Fausto Coppi (ITA)||Italy||92|
|2||Antonio Gelabert (ESP)||Spain||69|
|3||Jean Robic (FRA)||France||60|
|4||Stan Ockers (BEL)||Belgium||53|
|5||Raphaël Géminiani (FRA)||France||51|
|6||Gino Bartali (ITA)||Italy||42|
|7||Jean Dotto (FRA)||France||35|
|8||Bernardo Ruiz (ESP)||Spain||28|
|9||Andrea Carrea (ITA)||Italy||23|
|10||Jan Nolten (NED)||Netherlands||22|
The team classification was calculated by adding the times in the general classification of the best three cyclists per team. It was won by the Italian team.
|1||Italy||455h 56' 40"|
|4||Spain||+2h 53' 44"|
|5||Netherlands||+2h 59' 52"|
|6||North East–Center||+4h 26' 06"|
|7||East–South East||+4h 46' 06"|
|8||West–South West||+5h 58' 00"|
|9||Paris||+6h 27' 14"|
|10||Switzerland||+7h 00' 41"|
|11||North Africa||+7h 56' 49"|
The Luxembourgian team finished with only two cyclists, and therefore were not eligible for the team classification.
The daily combativity award was a success, and has been awarded ever since. The mountain finishes also were spectacular enough to have been included in every Tour de France since.
Fausto Coppi would never start the Tour de France again.
The team selecters for the French national team felt that Raphaël Géminiani had held back when chasing Fausto Coppi, because they rode for the same sponsor. For that reason, Géminiani was left out the national team for the 1952 UCI World Championships. To avoid these problems in the future, Géminiani switched teams at the end of the season.
- Thompson, Christopher S. (2006). The Tour de France: a cultural history. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24760-4.
- Augendre, Jacques (2009). "Guide Historique" (PDF) (in French). Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 2009-10-03. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- James, Tom (14 August 2003). "1952: "The lamb transformed into a lion"". Veloarchive. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- Augendre, Jacques (2009). "Guide Historique" (PDF) (in French). Amaury Sport Organisation. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- "38ème Tour de France 1952" (in French). Memoire du cyclisme. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- "Tour-Giro-Vuelta". www.tour-giro-vuelta.net. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- "Wagtmans bij favorieten". Dagblad voor Amersfoort (in Dutch) (Archief Eemland). 23 June 1952. p. 4. Retrieved 13 September 2010.
- McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol (2006). The Story of the Tour De France. Dog ear publishing. pp. 183–188. ISBN 978-1-59858-180-5.
- Amaury Sport Organisation. "The Tour - Year 1952". letour.fr. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- Thompson, p.217
- Thompson, pp. 85–94
- Zwegers, Arian. "Tour de France GC Top Ten". CVCC. Archived from the original on 2009-06-10. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- "1952: 39e editie" (in Dutch). Tourdefrance.nl. 30 December 2003. Retrieved 4 December 2009.