1953 in science

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The year 1953 involved numerous significant events in science and technology, including the first description of the DNA double helix, the discovery of neutrinos, and the release of the first polio vaccine.

Biology[edit]

25 April 1953: the DNA double helix is first formally described.

Chemistry[edit]

Computer sciences[edit]

Earth sciences[edit]

Medicine and human sciences[edit]

Paleontology[edit]

Physics[edit]

Technology[edit]

Events[edit]

  • January 14 – "Doctors' plot": The state newspaper Pravda publishes an article alleging that many of the most prestigious physicians in the Soviet Union, mostly Jews, are part of a major plot to poison the country's senior political and military leaders.
  • February 16 – The Pakistan Academy of Sciences is established.
  • October 9 – As part of an extended series of publications on science, Pope Pius XII publishes "The Technician", which instructs scientists to restrict themselves to the study of physical matter and do nothing to undermine the idea of a non-material soul or a Superior Being. "The Technician" is delivered as a papal address on October 9.
  • Rudolf Carnap publishes an article called "Testability and Meaning" in Readings in the Philosophy of Science, which moves away from the philosophical position of logical positivism with respect to science (particularly the heavily mathematical sciences, such as physics). Carnap instead emphasizes the idea that progress in science depends on the gradual accumulation of many small results that support human understanding of the world, a view more in line with Ludwig Wittgenstein's later philosophy and the biological sciences.

Prizes[edit]

Nobel Prize[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Watson, J. D.; Crick, F. H. C. (1953). "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid". Nature 171 (4356): 737–738. Bibcode:1953Natur.171..737W. doi:10.1038/171737a0. PMID 13054692. Retrieved March 1, 2011. 
  2. ^ "Scientists describe 'secret of life'". On This Day. BBC. April 25, 1953. Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved January 10, 2008. 
  3. ^ Wilkins, M. H. F.; Stokes, A. R.; Wilson, H. R. (1953). "Molecular Structure of Deoxypentose Nucleic Acids". Nature 171 (4356): 738–740. Bibcode:1953Natur.171..738W. doi:10.1038/171738a0. PMID 13054693. Retrieved March 1, 2011. 
  4. ^ Franklin, Rosalind E.; Gosling, R. G. (1953). "Molecular Configuration in Sodium Thymonucleate". Nature 171 (4356): 740–741. Bibcode:1953Natur.171..740F. doi:10.1038/171740a0. PMID 13054694. Retrieved March 1, 2011. 
  5. ^ Miller, Stanley L. (1953). "A Production of Amino Acids Under Possible Primitive Earth Conditions". Science 117 (3046): 528–9. Bibcode:1953Sci...117..528M. doi:10.1126/science.117.3046.528. JSTOR 1680569. PMID 13056598. 
  6. ^ Pariser R.; Parr R. G. (1953). Journal of Chemical Physics 21 (5): 767. Bibcode:1953JChPh..21..767P. doi:10.1063/1.1699030. 
  7. ^ Pople, J. A. (1953). Transactions of the Faraday Society 49: 1375. doi:10.1039/tf9534901375. 
  8. ^ Turing, Alan M. (1953). "Some calculations of the Riemann zeta-function". Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society 3: 99–117. doi:10.1112/plms/s3-3.1.99. 
  9. ^ Ewing, Maurice; Heezen, Bruce C.; Ericson, D. B.; Northrop, John; Dorman, James (July 1953). "Exploration of the Northwest Atlantic Mid-ocean Canyon". Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 64 (7): 865–868. Bibcode:1953GSAB...64..865E. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1953)64[865:EOTNAM]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0016-7606. Retrieved 2011-03-01. 
  10. ^ Cohn, Lawrence H. (May 2003). "Fifty years of open-heart surgery". Circulation 107 (17): 2168–70. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000071746.50876.E2. PMID 12732590. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  11. ^ Aserinsky, Eugene; Kleitman, Nathaniel (1953). "Regularly Occurring Periods of Eye Motility, and Concomitant Phenomena, During Sleep". Science 118 (3062): 273–274. Bibcode:1953Sci...118..273A. doi:10.1126/science.118.3062.273. JSTOR 1680525. PMID 13089671. 
  12. ^ Healy, D. (2001). "The Antidepressant Drama". In Weissman, M.M. The treatment of depression: bridging the 21st century. American Psychiatric Pub. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0-88048-397-1. Retrieved May 28, 2009. 
  13. ^ Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-929040-6.
  14. ^ Weiner, J. S.; Oakley, K. P.; Le Gros Clark, W. E.. "The Solution of the Piltdown Problem". Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geological Series 2 (3). 
  15. ^ "End as a Man". Time. 30 November 1953. Archived from the original on October 30, 2010. Retrieved November 11, 2010. 
  16. ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0. 
  17. ^ Reines, F.; Cowan, C. L., jr (November 1953). "Detection of the Free Neutrino". Physical Review 92 (3): 830–831. Bibcode:1953PhRv...92..830R. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.92.830. 
  18. ^ "Professor Maria Petrou". The Daily Telegraph. November 11, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2012.