The 1954-55 French Rugby Union Championship of first division was contested by 48 clubs divided into six pools of eight. The five better of each pool and the two better sixths (for a sum of 32 clubs) were qualified to play a "single match play-off" tournament.
Previously the FFR created three divisions: Nationale (or first division), Fédérale (second division) and Excellence (third division).
The Championship of first division was won by the Perpignan that defeated Lourdes in the final. It was the sixth won by Perpignan.