1954 FIFA World Cup

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1954 FIFA World Cup
FIFA Fussball-Weltmeisterschaft 1954 Schweiz
Championnat du Monde de Football 1954
Campionato mondiale di calcio 1954
1954 FIFA World Cup official logo
Tournament details
Host country Switzerland
Dates 16 June – 4 July (19 days)
Teams 16 (from 4 confederations)
Venue(s) (in 6 host cities)
Final positions
Champions  West Germany (1st title)
Runners-up  Hungary
Third place  Austria
Fourth place  Uruguay
Tournament statistics
Matches played 26
Goals scored 140 (5.38 per match)
Attendance 768,607 (29,562 per match)
Top scorer(s) Hungary Sándor Kocsis (11 goals)
1950
1958

The 1954 FIFA World Cup, the fifth staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in Switzerland from 16 June to 4 July. Switzerland was chosen as hosts in July 1946.[1] The tournament set a number of all-time records for goal-scoring, including the highest average goals scored per game. The tournament was won by West Germany, who defeated Hungary 3–2 in the final, giving them their first title.

Host selection[edit]

Main article: FIFA World Cup hosts

Switzerland was awarded the tournament unopposed on 22 July 1946, the same day that Brazil was selected for the 1950 World Cup, in Luxembourg City.[1]

Qualification[edit]

The hosts (Switzerland) and the defending champions (Uruguay) qualified automatically. Of the remaining 14 places, 11 were allocated to Europe (including Egypt, Turkey and Israel), two to the Americas, and one to Asia.

Scotland, Turkey and South Korea made their World Cup debuts at this tournament (Turkey and Scotland had qualified for the 1950 competition but both withdrew). Austria appeared for the first time since 1934. Turkey would not participate at a finals again until the 2002 competition, while South Korea's next appearance would be in 1986.

The third and fourth place teams from 1950, Sweden and Spain, both failed to qualify. In a shock result, Spain was eliminated by Turkey: after the two countries had tied a three-game series, Turkey progressed by drawing of lots.[2]

German teams were allowed to qualify again, after having been banned from the 1950 FIFA World Cup. West Germany qualified against fellow Germans from the Saarland (which then was a French protectorate), while East Germany had not entered, cancelling international football games after the East German uprising of 1953.

Argentina failed to participate for the third World Cup in a row.

Summary[edit]

Format[edit]

The 1954 tournament used a unique format. The sixteen qualifying teams were divided into four groups of four teams each. Each group contained two seeded teams and two unseeded teams. Only four matches were scheduled for each group, each pitting a seeded team against an unseeded team (this contrasts with a conventional round-robin in which every team plays every other team, which would have resulted in six matches in each group). In a further oddity, extra time, not generally employed during group play, was played if the teams were level after 90 minutes in the group games, with the result being a draw if the scores were still level after 120 minutes.

Two points were awarded for a win and one for a draw. The two teams with the most points from each group progressed to the knockout stage. If the first and second placed teams were level on points, lots were drawn to decide which team would top the group. However, if the second and third placed teams were level on points, they participated in a playoff to decide which team would progress to the next stage.[3]

Qualifying countries

It turned out that two of the four groups required playoffs, and the other two required drawing of lots between the two top teams. The playoffs were between Switzerland and Italy, and Turkey and West Germany: in both matches the unseeded teams (Switzerland and West Germany) repeated earlier victories against the seeds (Italy and Turkey) to progress. In the two groups that did not require playoffs, there was drawing of lots to determine the first-place teams: resulting in Uruguay and Brazil finishing above Austria and Yugoslavia, respectively.

A further unusual feature of the format was that the four group-winning teams were drawn against each other in the knockout stages to provide one finalist, and the four second-placed teams played against each other to provide the second finalist. In subsequent tournaments it has become customary to draw group winners against non-group-winners in the initial knockout stage.

In any knockout game tied after 90 minutes, 30 minutes of extra time were played. If the score had been still tied after extra time, in any knockout game other than the final, lots would have been drawn to decide which team progressed. However, if the final had been tied after extra time, it would have been replayed, with lots deciding the winner only if the replay was also tied after extra time.[4] In the event, all knockout games were decided in either normal time or extra time, with no replays or drawing of lots being required.

Seeding[edit]

The official 1954 FIFA World Cup poster.

The eight seeded teams were based on world rankings (Austria, Brazil, England, France, Hungary, Italy, Turkey and Uruguay), plus two unseeded teams. With seeding determined before the teams had even qualified for the final tournament, the organizers had to replace Spain with Turkey, the team that unexpectedly knocked the Spaniards out.[5]

Results[edit]

The Germans, who had been reinstated as full FIFA members only in 1950 and were unseeded, won the first of two encounters with the seeded Turkish convincingly in Bern at Wankdorf stadium. The Koreans, as the other unseeded team, lost 0–7 and 0–9, with Germany being denied the chance to play such an easy opponent. Sepp Herberger the German coach gambled against the seeded team of Hungary by sending in a reserve side to take an expected 3–8 loss, with the only consequence being the additional playoff game against Turkey that was won with ease. Hungary's team captain Ferenc Puskás, considered by many as the best player in the world in that time, was injured by German defender Werner Liebrich, and had to miss the next two matches of his team, only to show up in the final again, still being in a questionable condition.[6]

The quarter-finals saw the favourites Hungary beat Brazil 4–2 in one of the most violent matches in football history, which became infamous as the Battle of Berne. Meanwhile, the World Cup holders Uruguay sent England out of the tournament, also by 4–2. Germany dispatched Yugoslavia 2–0, and Austria beat the host nation Switzerland in the game that saw the most goals in any World Cup match, 7–5.

In the first semi-final, West Germany beat Austria 6–1.

The other semi-final, one of the most exciting games of the tournament, saw Hungary go into the second half leading Uruguay 1–0, only for the game to be taken to extra time with a score after 90 minutes of 2–2. The deadlock was broken by Sándor Kocsis with two late goals to take Hungary through to the final, with Uruguay finally losing its unbeaten record in World Cup Final matches. Uruguay then went on to be beaten for a second time as Austria secured third place.

Final: "The Miracle of Bern"[edit]

The Wankdorf Stadion in Bern saw 60,000 people cram inside to watch the final between West Germany and Hungary, a rematch of a first round game, which Hungary had won 8–3 against the reserves of the German team. The Golden Team of the Hungarians were favourites, as they were unbeaten for a record of 32 consecutive matches but they had two tough play-off matches. It had started raining on game day – in Germany this was dubbed "Fritz-Walter-Wetter" (Fritz Walter's weather) because the German team captain Fritz Walter was said to play his best in rainy weather. Adi Dassler had provided shoes with exchangeable studs.

Card autographed by coach Sepp Herberger and the 11 German players that appeared in the final

The final saw Hungary's Ferenc Puskás playing again even though he was not fully fit. Despite this he put his team ahead after only six minutes and with Zoltán Czibor adding another two minutes later it seemed that the pre-tournament favourites would take the title. However, with a quick goal from Max Morlock in the 10th and the equalizer of Helmut Rahn in the 19th, the tide began to turn.

The second half saw telling misses from the Hungarian team. Barely six minutes before the end of the match, the popular German radio reporter Herbert Zimmermann gave the most famous German piece of commentary, recommending Rahn should kick from the backfield, which he did. The second goal from Rahn gave Germany a 3–2 lead while the Hungarian reporter György Szepesi burst into tears. Later, Zimmermann called Puskás offside before he kicked the ball into Toni Turek's net with 2 minutes left. While referee Ling pointed to the centre spot, linesman Griffiths signalled offside. After a one-minute consultation, referee Ling disallowed the claimed equalizer.

The Germans were handed the Jules Rimet Trophy and the title of World Cup winners while the crowd sang along to the tune of the national anthem of Germany. In Germany the success is known as "The Miracle of Bern", upon which a 2003 film of the same name was based. For the Hungarians, the defeat was a disaster, and remains controversial due to purported referee errors and claims of doping.

One controversy concerns the 2–2 equaliser. Hungarian goalie Gyula Grosics jumped to catch Fritz Walter's corner shot, but in plain sight of the camera, Hans Schäfer obstructed him, thus the ball could reach Rahn unhindered. The second controversy concerns allegations of doping to explain the better condition of the German team in the second half. Though teammates steadfastly denied this rumour, German historian Guido Knopp claimed in a 2004 documentary for German public channel ZDF[7] that the players were injected with shots of vitamin C at half-time, using a needle earlier taken from a Soviet sports doctor, which would also explain the wave of jaundice among team members following the tournament. A Leipzig University study in 2010 posited that the Germany players had been injected with the banned substance methamphetamine.[8]

Most controversial was the offside ruling for Puskás's intended 87th minute equalizer. The camera filming the official footage was in a bad position to judge the situation but eyewitnesses claimed that the referee was wrong, including German substitute player Alfred Pfaff.[9] However, since then, unofficial footage evidencing no offside surfaced (shown on North German regional public channel NDR in 2004[10]).

Records[edit]

The following all-time records were set or equalled at this tournament, and have not subsequently been surpassed:

All matches in one tournament

  • highest average goals per game (5.38)

Team records for one tournament

  • most goals scored (Hungary, 27)
  • highest average goals scored per game (Hungary, 5.4)
  • highest aggregate goal difference (Hungary, +17)
  • highest average goal difference per game (Hungary, +3.4)
  • most goals scored, champions (West Germany, 25)
  • most goals scored per game, champions (West Germany, 4.25)
  • most goals conceded, champions (West Germany, 14)
  • most goals conceded per game, champions (West Germany, 2.33)
  • most goals conceded (South Korea, 16)
  • lowest aggregate goal difference (South Korea, −16)
  • most goals conceded per game (South Korea, 8, tied with Bolivia 1950)
  • lowest average goal difference per game (South Korea, −8.0, tied with Bolivia 1950).

Records for a single game

  • most goals in a single game (both teams) (Austria 7 Switzerland 5)
  • greatest margin of victory in a single game (Hungary 9 South Korea 0) (subsequently equalled by Yugoslavia winning 9–0 against Zaire in 1974 and again Hungary winning 10–1 against El Salvador in 1982).

Other landmarks[edit]

For the first time there was television coverage, and special coins were issued to mark the event.

The 11 goals scored by Kocsis of Hungary not only led the World Cup but bettered the previous record (set by Brazilian Ademir in the previous tournament) by two goals. Kocsis' mark was then broken by Just Fontaine's 13 goals in 1958. Despite not winning the 1954 tournament, the fourth place finish and their two previous World Cup titles made Uruguay the most successful World Cup nation for eight years, until Brazil won their second title in 1962. Hungary's 9–0 result against Korea during the group stages remains to this day the biggest margin of victory in FIFA World Cup history, later equalled by Yugoslavia over Zaire (9–0) in 1974 and Hungary over El Salvador (10–1) in 1982.

West Germany also became the first team to win the World Cup after having lost a match at the finals (losing 8–3 to Hungary in the group stage). This feat was subsequently repeated by West Germany in 1974, Argentina in 1978 and Spain in 2010, who all lost group matches 1–0. Coincidentally, all three teams won against Netherlands sides in the final.

West Germany's 1954 victory remains the only time that a team has won the World Cup without playing any team from outside its own continent (Turkey is geographically partly in Asia, but qualified from Europe and has always been affiliated with UEFA).

Germany's victory in the match is considered one of the greatest upsets of all time and one of the finest achievements in German sporting history. The German team was made up of amateur players as Germany did not have a professional league at this time, while the Hungarians were de jure amateurs, like in any communist country that time, and playing football as professionals, mainly for Budapesti Honvéd FC and later for major clubs like Real Madrid and Barcelona in Spain, and were ranked best in the world. This is the only time a team has won the World Cup with amateur footballers.

Venues[edit]

SpielorteSoccerWM1954.png

Six cities hosted the tournament:

Basel Bern Geneva
St. Jakob Stadium Wankdorf Stadium
(upgraded)
Charmilles Stadium
Capacity: 51,500 Capacity: 64,000 Capacity: 9,250
Wankdorf demolition 1.jpg Ouches oct 2008 (21).jpg
Lausanne Lugano Zürich
Stade Olympique de la Pontaise
(upgraded)
Cornaredo Stadium Hardturm Stadium
Capacity: 54,000 Capacity: 15,000 Capacity: 27,500
Stade Olympique.jpg Hardturm retouched.jpg

Squads[edit]

For a list of all squads that appeared in the final tournament, see 1954 FIFA World Cup squads.

Match officials[edit]

Seeding[edit]

Pot 1 Pot 2 Pot 3 Pot 4

Results[edit]

First round[edit]

Group 1[edit]

Team Pld W D L GF GA Pts
 Brazil 2 1 1 0 6 1 3
 Yugoslavia 2 1 1 0 2 1 3
 France 2 1 0 1 3 3 2
 Mexico 2 0 0 2 2 8 0
  • Brazil finished ahead of Yugoslavia on drawing of lots
16 June 1954
18:00 (CET)
Brazil  5–0  Mexico
Baltazar Goal 23'
Didi Goal 30'
Pinga Goal 34'43'
Julinho Goal 69'
Report
Charmilles Stadium, Geneva
Attendance: 13,470
Referee: Raymon Wyssling (Switzerland)

16 June 1954
18:00 (CET)
Yugoslavia  1–0  France
Milutinović Goal 15' Report
Stade Olympique de la Pontaise, Lausanne
Attendance: 16,000
Referee: Benjamin Griffiths (Wales)

19 June 1954
17:00 (CET)
Brazil  1–1 (a.e.t.)  Yugoslavia
Didi Goal 69' Report Zebec Goal 48'
Stade Olympique de la Pontaise, Lausanne
Attendance: 24,637
Referee: Charlie Faultless (Scotland)

19 June 1954
17:10 (CET)
France  3–2  Mexico
Jean Vincent Goal 19'
Cárdenas Goal 49' (o.g.)
Kopa Goal 88' (pen.)
Report Lamadrid Goal 54'
Balcázar Goal 85'
Charmilles Stadium, Geneva
Attendance: 19,000
Referee: Manuel Asensi (Spain)

Group 2[edit]

Team Pld W D L GF GA Pts
 Hungary 2 2 0 0 17 3 4
 West Germany 2 1 0 1 7 9 2
 Turkey 2 1 0 1 8 4 2
 South Korea 2 0 0 2 0 16 0
  • West Germany finished ahead of Turkey by winning a play-off
17 June 1954
18:00 (CET)
West Germany  4–1  Turkey
Schäfer Goal 14'
Klodt Goal 52'
O. Walter Goal 60'
Morlock Goal 84'
Report Suat Goal 2'
Wankdorf Stadium, Bern
Attendance: 28,000
Referee: Jose da Costa Vieira (Portugal)

17 June 1954
18:00 (CET)
Hungary  9–0  South Korea
Puskás Goal 12'89'
Lantos Goal 18'
Kocsis Goal 24'36'50'
Czibor Goal 59'
Palotás Goal 75'83'
Report
Hardturm Stadium, Zürich
Attendance: 13,000
Referee: Raymond Vincenti (France)

20 June 1954
16:50 (CET)
Hungary  8–3  West Germany
Kocsis Goal 3'21'69'78'
Puskás Goal 17'
Hidegkuti Goal 52'54'
J. Tóth Goal 75'
Report Pfaff Goal 25'
Rahn Goal 77'
Herrmann Goal 84'
St. Jakob Stadium, Basel
Attendance: 56,000
Referee: William Ling (England)

20 June 1954
17:00 (CET)
Turkey  7–0  South Korea
Suat Goal 10'30'
Lefter Goal 24'
Burhan Goal 37'64'70'
Erol Goal 76'
Report
Charmilles Stadium, Geneva
Attendance: 4,000
Referee: Esteban Marino (Uruguay)
Play-off[edit]
23 June 1954
18:00 (CET)
West Germany  7–2  Turkey
O. Walter Goal 7'
Schäfer Goal 12'79'
Morlock Goal 30'60'77'
F. Walter Goal 62'
Report Mustafa Goal 21'
Lefter Goal 82'
Hardturm Stadium, Zürich
Attendance: 17,000
Referee: Raymond Vincenti (France)

Group 3[edit]

Team Pld W D L GF GA Pts
 Uruguay 2 2 0 0 9 0 4
 Austria 2 2 0 0 6 0 4
 Czechoslovakia 2 0 0 2 0 7 0
 Scotland 2 0 0 2 0 8 0
  • Uruguay finished ahead of Austria on drawing of lots
16 June 1954
18:00 (CET)
Uruguay  2–0  Czechoslovakia
Míguez Goal 72'
Schiaffino Goal 81'
Report
Wankdorf Stadium, Bern
Attendance: 20,500
Referee: Arthur Ellis (England)

16 June 1954
18:00 (CET)
Austria  1–0  Scotland
Probst Goal 33' Report
Hardturm Stadium, Zürich
Attendance: 25,000
Referee: Laurent Franken (Belgium)

19 June 1954
16:50 (CET)
Uruguay  7–0  Scotland
Borges Goal 17'47'57'
Míguez Goal 30'83'
Abbadie Goal 54'85'
Report
St. Jakob Stadium, Basel
Attendance: 34,000
Referee: Vincenzo Orlandini (Italy)

19 June 1954
17:00 (CET)
Austria  5–0  Czechoslovakia
Stojaspal Goal 3'70'
Probst Goal 4'21'24'
Report
Hardturm Stadium, Zürich
Attendance: 26,000
Referee: Vasa Stefanovic (Yugoslavia)

Group 4[edit]

Team Pld W D L GF GA Pts
 England 2 1 1 0 6 4 3
  Switzerland 2 1 0 1 2 3 2
 Italy 2 1 0 1 5 3 2
 Belgium 2 0 1 1 5 8 1
  • Switzerland finished ahead of Italy by winning a play-off
17 June 1954
17:50 (CET)
Switzerland   2–1  Italy
Ballaman Goal 18'
Hügi Goal 78'
Report Boniperti Goal 44'
Stade Olympique de la Pontaise, Lausanne
Attendance: 43,000
Referee: Mario Vianna (Brazil)

17 June 1954
18:10 (CET)
England  4–4 (a.e.t.)  Belgium
Broadis Goal 26'63'
Lofthouse Goal 36'91'
Report Anoul Goal 5'71'
Coppens Goal 67'
Dickinson Goal 94' (o.g.)
St. Jakob Stadium, Basel
Attendance: 14,000
Referee: Emil Schmetzer (West Germany)

20 June 1954
17:00 (CET)
Italy  4–1  Belgium
Pandolfini Goal 41' (pen.)
Galli Goal 48'
Frignani Goal 58'
Lorenzi Goal 78'
Report Anoul Goal 81'
Cornaredo Stadium, Lugano
Attendance: 24,000
Referee: Carl Erich Steiner (Austria)

20 June 1954
17:10 (CET)
England  2–0   Switzerland
Mullen Goal 43'
Wilshaw Goal 69'
Report
Wankdorf Stadium, Bern
Attendance: 43,500
Referee: Istvan Zsolt (Hungary)
Play-off[edit]
23 June 1954
18:00 (CET)
Switzerland   4–1  Italy
Hügi Goal 14'85'
Ballaman Goal 48'
Fatton Goal 90'
Report Nesti Goal 67'
St. Jakob Stadium, Basel
Attendance: 30,000
Referee: Benjamin Griffiths (Wales)

Knockout stage[edit]

Quarter-finals Semi-finals Final
                   
27 June – Bern        
  Brazil  2
30 June – Lausanne
  Hungary  4  
  Hungary (a.e.t.)  4
26 June – Basel
      Uruguay  2  
  Uruguay  4
4 July – Bern
  England  2  
  Hungary  2
27 June – Geneva    
    West Germany  3
  Yugoslavia  0
30 June – Basel
  West Germany  2  
  West Germany  6 Third place
26 June – Lausanne
      Austria  1   3 July – Zürich
  Austria  7
  Uruguay  1
   Switzerland  5  
  Austria  3
 

Quarter-finals[edit]

26 June 1954
17:00 (CET)
Austria  7–5   Switzerland
Wagner Goal 25'27'53'
R. Körner Goal 26'34'
Ocwirk Goal 32'
Probst Goal 76'
Report Ballaman Goal 16'39'
Hügi Goal 17'19'58'
Stade Olympique de la Pontaise, Lausanne
Attendance: 35,000
Referee: Charlie Faultless (Scotland)

26 June 1954
17:00 (CET)
Uruguay  4–2  England
Borges Goal 5'
Varela Goal 39'
Schiaffino Goal 46'
Ambrois Goal 78'
Report Lofthouse Goal 16'
Finney Goal 67'
St. Jakob Stadium, Basel
Attendance: 28,000
Referee: Carl Erich Steiner (Austria)

27 June 1954
17:00 (CET)
Brazil  2–4  Hungary
Djalma Santos Goal 18' (pen.)
Julinho Goal 65'
Report Hidegkuti Goal 4'
Kocsis Goal 7'88'
Lantos Goal 60' (pen.)
Wankdorf Stadium, Bern
Attendance: 40,000
Referee: Arthur Ellis (England)

27 June 1954
17:00 (CET)
Yugoslavia  0–2  West Germany
Report Horvat Goal 9' (o.g.)
Rahn Goal 85'
Charmilles Stadium, Geneva
Attendance: 17,000
Referee: Istvan Zsolt (Hungary)

Semi-finals[edit]

30 June 1954
18:00 (CET)
Hungary  4–2 (a.e.t.)  Uruguay
Czibor Goal 13'
Hidegkuti Goal 46'
Kocsis Goal 111'116'
Report Hohberg Goal 75'86'
Stade Olympique de la Pontaise, Lausanne
Attendance: 45,000
Referee: Benjamin Griffiths (Wales)

30 June 1954
18:00 (CET)
West Germany  6–1  Austria
Schäfer Goal 31'
Morlock Goal 47'
F. Walter Goal 54' (pen.)64' (pen.)
O. Walter Goal 61'89'
Report Probst Goal 51'
St. Jakob Stadium, Basel
Attendance: 58,000
Referee: Vincenzo Orlandini (Italy)

Third-place match[edit]

3 July 1954
17:00 (CET)
Uruguay  1–3  Austria
Hohberg Goal 22' Report Stojaspal Goal 16' (pen.)
Cruz Goal 59' (o.g.)
Ocwirk Goal 89'
Hardturm Stadium, Zürich
Attendance: 32,000
Referee: Raymon Wyssling (Switzerland)

Final[edit]

4 July 1954
17:00 (CET)
Hungary  2–3  West Germany
Puskás Goal 6'
Czibor Goal 8'
Report Morlock Goal 10'
Rahn Goal 18'84'
Wankdorf Stadium, Bern
Attendance: 62,500
Referee: William Ling (England)

Goalscorers[edit]

With 11 goals, Sándor Kocsis is the top scorer in the tournament. In total, 140 goals were scored by 63 different players, with four of them credited as own goals.

11 goals
6 goals
4 goals
3 goals
2 goals
1 goal
Own goals

FIFA retrospective ranking[edit]

In 1986, FIFA published a report that ranked all teams in each World Cup up to and including 1986, based on progress in the competition, overall results and quality of the opposition.[11][12] The rankings for the 1954 tournament were as follows:

R Team G P W D L GF GA GD Pts.
1  West Germany 2 6 5 0 1 25 14 +11 10
2  Hungary 2 5 4 0 1 27 10 +17 8
3  Austria 3 5 4 0 1 17 12 +5 8
4  Uruguay 3 5 3 0 2 16 9 +7 6
Eliminated in the quarter-finals
5   Switzerland 4 4 2 0 2 11 11 0 4
6  Brazil 1 3 1 1 1 8 5 +3 3
7  England 4 3 1 1 1 8 8 0 3
8  Yugoslavia 1 3 1 1 1 2 3 −1 3
Eliminated in the group stage
9  France 1 2 1 0 1 3 3 0 2
10  Turkey 2 3 1 0 2 10 11 −1 2
11  Italy 4 3 1 0 2 6 7 −1 2
12  Belgium 4 2 0 1 1 5 8 −3 1
13  Mexico 1 2 0 0 2 2 8 −6 0
14  Czechoslovakia 3 2 0 0 2 0 7 −7 0
15  Scotland 3 2 0 0 2 0 8 −8 0
16  South Korea 2 2 0 0 2 0 16 −16 0

In film[edit]

The final scene of Rainer Werner Fassbinder's film The Marriage of Maria Braun takes place during the finals of the 1954 World Cup; in the scene's background, the sports announcer is celebrating West Germany's victory and shouting "Deutschland ist wieder was!" (Germany is something again); the film uses this as the symbol of Germany's recovery from the ravages of the Second World War.

Sönke Wortmann's 2003 German box-office hit The Miracle of Bern (in German: Das Wunder von Bern) re-tells the story of the German team's route to victory through the eyes of a young boy who admires the key player of the final, Helmut Rahn.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Host announcement decision". FIFA. Retrieved 14 June 2014. 
  2. ^ Lisi, Clemente Angelo (2007). A history of the World Cup: 1930–2006. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. p. 61. ISBN 0-8108-5905-X. 
  3. ^ Risolo, Donn (2010). Soccer Stories: Anecdotes, Oddities, Lore, and Amazing Feats. University of Nebraska Press. p. 83. ISBN 0-8032-3014-1. 
  4. ^ Christian Jessen: Die Qualifikation aus Fußballweltmeisterschaft 1954, pp.27 ff.
  5. ^ "History of the World Cup Final Draw" (PDF). Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  6. ^ "FERENC PUSKAS – International Football Hall of Fame". Ifhof.com. 2 April 1927. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  7. ^ "Das Wunder von Bern – Die wahre Geschichte". broadview.tv (in German). Archived from the original on 2008-04-20. Retrieved 2012-03-15. 
  8. ^ "Germany's 1954 World Cup winners 'were doped'". google.com. AFP. 6 October 2010. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011. 
  9. ^ Ewiger Knaben Wunderhorn (DER SPIEGEL, 18/2004)
  10. ^ "Das Trauma von Bern: Die unbekannte Seite des legendären Endspiels". Webcitation.org. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  11. ^ "page 45" (PDF). Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  12. ^ "FIFA World Cup: Milestones, facts & figures. Statistical Kit 7". FIFA. 26 March 2013. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. 

External links[edit]