1958 in literature
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1955 1956 1957 -1958- 1959 1960 1961
... 1962 . 1963 . 1964 . 1965 . 1966 . 1967 . 1968 ...
In poetry: 1955 1956 1957 -1958- 1959 1960 1961
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The year 1958 in literature involved some significant events and new books.
- January 7 - Tennessee Williams' one-act plays Suddenly, Last Summer and Something Unspoken premiere off-Broadway.
- April 28 - Premiere of Harold Pinter's play The Birthday Party at the Cambridge Arts Theatre in England.
- May 19 - London début of Harold Pinter's play The Birthday Party at the Lyric Opera House (Hammersmith). It closes after a week but its reputation is saved by a review by Harold Hobson in The Sunday Times on May 25.
- May 27 - 19-year-old Shelagh Delaney's A Taste of Honey is staged by Joan Littlewood's Theatre Workshop at the Theatre Royal Stratford East in London.
- August 18 - Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel Lolita is published in the United States.
- October 14 - Brendan Behan's play The Hostage is first performed in an English version by Joan Littlewood's Theatre Workshop at the Theatre Royal Stratford East in London. Also this year, Behan's autobiographical Borstal Boy is published in London; on November 12 it is banned in Ireland by the Censorship of Publications Board.
- October 28 - Samuel Beckett's monologue Krapp's Last Tape is first performed by Patrick Magee at the Royal Court Theatre, London. Also this year, Beckett's novel The Unnamable is first published in English.
- First volume of The Civil War by Shelby Foote is published.
- Rumours of a library ban on Enid Blyton's books in New Zealand.
- Herbert Marcuse begins teaching at Brandeis University.
- Jack Kerouac writes and narrates the "beat" movie, Pull My Daisy (released 1959).
- Ken Kesey is awarded a Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship to enrol in the creative writing program at Stanford University.
- Mervyn Peake begins to develop Parkinson's Disease.
New books 
- Chinua Achebe - Things Fall Apart
- Kingsley Amis - I Like It Here
- Jorge Amado - Gabriela, Cravo e Canela (Gabriela, Clove and Cinnamon)
- Louis Aragon - La Semaine Sainte
- H. E. Bates - The Darling Buds of May
- Samuel Beckett - The Unnamable
- Thomas Berger - Crazy in Berlin
- James Blish - A Case of Conscience
- Joseph Payne Brennan - Nine Horrors and a Dream
- Algis Budrys
- Truman Capote - Breakfast at Tiffany's
- John Dickson Carr - The Dead Man's Knock
- Raymond Chandler - Playback
- Agatha Christie - Ordeal by Innocence
- Richard Condon - The Oldest Confession
- A. J. Cronin
- L. Sprague de Camp - An Elephant for Aristotle
- Patrick Dennis - Around the World with Auntie Mame
- August Derleth
- Lawrence Durrell
- Ian Fleming - Dr. No
- Peter George - Red Alert
- Graham Greene - Our Man in Havana
- Cyril Hare - He Should Have Died Hereafter
- Marlen Haushofer - We Murder Stella
- Georgette Heyer - Venetia
- Harold L. Humes - The Underground City
- Jack Kerouac - The Dharma Bums
- Frances Parkinson Keyes - Victorine
- Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa - The Leopard (published posthumously)
- Manuel Lopes - O Galo Que Cantou na Baía
- John D. MacDonald - The Executioners
- Ross Macdonald - The Doomsters
- Richard Matheson - A Stir of Echoes
- Alberto Moravia - La ciociara
- R. K. Narayan - The Guide
- Kenzaburō Ōe - Nip the Buds, Shoot the Kids
- Mary Renault - The King Must Die
- Anya Seton - The Winthrop Woman
- Dr. Seuss - Yertle the Turtle and Other Stories
- Alan Sillitoe - Saturday Night and Sunday Morning
- Terry Southern (as Maxwell Kenton) - Candy
- Rex Stout
- Yves Thériault - Agaguk
- Robert Traver - Anatomy of a Murder
- Jack Vance - The Languages of Pao
- Rex Warner - Young Caesar
- Jerome Weidman - The Enemy Camp
- Raymond Abrashkin & Jay Williams - Danny Dunn and the Homework Machine
- Enid Blyton - Five Get into a Fix
- Philippa Pearce - Tom's Midnight Garden
- Elizabeth George Speare - The Witch of Blackbird Pond
- Rosemary Sutcliff - Warrior Scarlet
New drama 
- Samuel Beckett - Krapp's Last Tape
- Brendan Behan - The Hostage
- Max Frisch - The Fire Raisers and Phiipp Hotz's Fury
- Jean Genet - The Blacks (first published)
- Elmer Rice - Cue for Passion
- Peter Shaffer - Five Finger Exercise
- N. F. Simpson - The Hole
- Arnold Wesker - Chicken Soup with Barley (first performed)
- Tennessee Williams - Suddenly, Last Summer
- Mohan Rakesh - Ashadh Ka Ek Din
- Brendan Behan - Borstal Boy
- Shelby Foote – The Civil War: A Narrative – Vol 1: Fort Sumter to Perryville
- John Kenneth Galbraith - The Affluent Society
- J. Edgar Hoover - Masters of Deceit
- Aldous Huxley - Brave New World Revisited
- Claude Lévi-Strauss – Structural Anthropology
- John Maynard Smith - The Theory of Evolution
- John Steinbeck – Once There Was A War
- Raymond Williams – Culture and Society 1780-1950
- April 15 - Benjamin Zephaniah, dub poet
- May 8 - Roddy Doyle, novelist
- May 22 - Wayne Johnston, novelist
- June 10 - James F. Conant, philosopher
- July 5 - Veronica Guerin, journalist (died 1996)
- October 30 - Flora Fraser, biographer
- date unknown
- February 4 - Henry Kuttner, science fiction author
- March 21 - Cyril M. Kornbluth, science fiction writer
- March 24 - Seamus O'Sullivan, poet
- April 7 - Elliot Paul, American writer
- May 5 - James Branch Cabell, fantasy fiction author
- June 28 - Alfred Noyes, poet
- September 11 - Robert W. Service, poet
- October 24 - George Edward Moore, philosopher
- October 30 - Rose Macaulay, novelist
- Carnegie Medal for children's literature: Philippa Pearce, Tom's Midnight Garden
- Hugo Award for Best Novel: Fritz Leiber, The Big Time
- James Tait Black Memorial Prize for fiction: Angus Wilson, The Middle Age of Mrs. Eliot
- James Tait Black Memorial Prize for biography: Joyce Hemlow, The History of Fanny Burney
- Miles Franklin Award: Randolph Stow, To the Islands
- Newbery Medal for children's literature: Harold Keith, Rifles for Watie
- Newdigate prize: Jon Stallworthy
- Nobel Prize for literature: Boris Leonidovich Pasternak
- Premio Nadal: J. Vidal Cadellans, No era de los nuestros
- Pulitzer Prize for Drama: Ketti Frings, Look Homeward, Angel
- Pulitzer Prize for Fiction: James Agee, A Death In The Family
- Pulitzer Prize for Poetry: Robert Penn Warren, Promises: Poems 1954-1956