1960 New York mid-air collision
|Date||16 December 1960|
|Site||About a mile west of Miller Field
|Total fatalities||134 (including 6 on ground)|
N8099U, a United Airlines DC-8-11 similar to N8013U, but wearing the newer Stars and Bars Friend Ship livery.
|Name||Mainliner Will Rogers|
|Flight origin||Chicago-O'Hare International Airport, IL (ORD/KORD)|
|Destination||New York-Idlewild International Airport, NY (IDL/KIDL)|
|Survivors||0 (1 initially)|
N6937C, a TWA Constellation similar to N6907C, wearing TWA's livery at the time of the accident.
|Type||Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation|
|Name||Star of Sicily|
|Operator||Trans World Airlines|
|Flight origin||Dayton, Ohio|
|Stopover||Columbus-Port Columbus International Airport, OH (CMH/KCMH)|
|Destination||LaGuardia Airport, New York, (LGA/KLGA)|
The 1960 New York mid-air collision, also known as the Park Slope Plane Crash, was a mid-air collision between two airliners that occurred over New York City on Friday, 16 December 1960. The collision of United Airlines Flight 826 and Trans World Airlines Flight 266 caused Flight 266 to crash into Staten Island and Flight 826 to crash into Park Slope, Brooklyn, resulting in the deaths of all 128 people on board the two airliners and six people on the ground.
United Airlines Flight 826, Mainliner Will Rogers, registration N8013U, was a Douglas DC-8-11 carrying 84 people en route from O'Hare Airport in Chicago to New York International (Idlewild) Airport (now John F. Kennedy International) in Jamaica, Queens. The DC-8 itself had begun commercial service only fifteen months earlier, and United was one of its launch customers.
Trans World Airlines Flight 266, Star of Sicily, registration N6907C, was a Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation carrying 44 people en route from Dayton and Columbus, Ohio, to New York's LaGuardia Airport.
At 10:21 A.M. Eastern Time, United Airlines Flight 826 advised its company radio operator that one of its VOR receivers had stopped working (although they did not notify air traffic controllers of the problem), making it harder to navigate in instrument conditions. At 10:25 A.M. Eastern Time, air traffic control issued a revised clearance for the flight to shorten its course to the Preston holding point (near South Amboy, New Jersey) by 12 miles (19 km). Flight 826 was supposed to circle the holding point at an altitude of 5,000 feet (1,500 m) at no more than 240 mph (390 km/h), but overshot the point. United later said the Colts Neck VOR was unreliable (pilots testified on both sides of the issue). ("Preston" was the point where airway V123 (the 050-radial off the Robbinsville VOR) crossed the Solberg 120-degree radial and the Colts Neck 346-degree radial.)
Weather was light rain and fog (which had been preceded by snowfall). According to information from Flight 826's flight recorder (the first time a "black box" had been used to provide extensive details in a crash investigation), the plane was 12 miles (19 km) off course and for 81 seconds descended at 3,600 feet per minute (18 m/s) and slowed from more than 500 to 363 mph (805 to 584 km/h) when it collided with the right side of TWA Flight 266 at between 5,250 and 5,175 feet (1,600 and 1,577 m) in clouds about a mile west of Miller Field, a military airfield on Staten Island, at 10:33 am.
The TWA Constellation crashed onto the northwest corner of Miller Field, at 40°34'11.07"N 74° 6'11.62"W with some sections of the aircraft landing in New York Harbor on the Atlantic Ocean side. As it spiraled down, it disintegrated and dropped at least one passenger into a tree in nearby New Dorp.
Although witnesses speculated at the time that the crew of Flight 826 was attempting an emergency landing in Prospect Park, about 9 miles (14 km) away from the collision point, or at LaGuardia Airport, there is no evidence the pilots had control of the DC-8 at any time after the collision. The crash left the remains of the aircraft pointed southeast towards a large open field at Prospect Park, only blocks from the crash site. A Catholic high school teacher, from St. Augustine High School less than two blocks from the crash, testified at government hearings that he saw the faces of the pilots as the plane approached the school, and that the wing dipped to clear the school building just before the plane crashed. This teacher's testimony was featured in a front page article and photo in the now-defunct New York Herald Tribune newspaper at the time of the hearings. A student at the school, who lived in one of the destroyed apartment buildings on the block of the crash site, reported to classmates that his entire family was in the only room of their apartment not destroyed by the crash and they thus survived. The crash left a trench covering most of the length of the pavement on Sterling Place in the middle of the street. It shook the school so violently that occupants thought that a bomb had gone off or the building's boiler had exploded. There was no audible voice radio contact with traffic controllers from either plane after the collision, although LaGuardia had begun tracking an incoming fast moving unidentified plane from Preston toward the LaGuardia "Flatbush" outer marker.
Flight 826 crashed into the Park Slope section of Brooklyn at the intersection of Seventh Avenue and Sterling Place, scattering wreckage and setting fire to ten brownstone apartment buildings, the Pillar of Fire Church, the McCaddin Funeral Home, a Chinese laundry and a delicatessen. Six people on the ground were killed, including Wallace E. Lewis, the church's 90-year-old caretaker; Charles Cooper, a sanitation worker who was shoveling snow; Joseph Colacino and John Opperisano, who were selling Christmas trees on the sidewalk; Dr. Jacob L. Crooks, who was out walking his dog; and Albert Layer, the owner of the butcher shop located just off Seventh Avenue on Sterling Place.
The only initial survivor of the tragedy was 11-year-old Stephen Lambert Baltz (born January 9, 1949) of Wilmette, Illinois. He was traveling alone aboard Flight 826 to meet his mother and sister, who had flown to New York the day before, while his father was due to join the family on a later flight. The family was planning to spend Christmas in Yonkers with relatives.
Upon Flight 826's impact with the ground, Baltz was thrown from the plane into a snowbank, where local residents rolled him in the snow to extinguish his burning clothing. Though alive and conscious following the crash, he was badly burned and suffering from burning fuel aspiration.
Baltz was taken to New York Methodist Hospital, fifteen blocks from the crash site down Seventh Avenue. From his hospital bed, he told rescuers that moments before the collision, he had looked out the window at the snow falling on the city: "It looked like a picture out of a fairy book. It was a beautiful sight."
Pictures of Baltz appeared on many front pages around the world such as the Syracuse Post-Standard repeating a story from the Associated Press in which he expressed concern about his mother, who was waiting for him at the airport. He gave the only description of the crash: "I heard a big noise while we were flying. The last thing I remember was the plane falling."
An 8-by-14 inch commemorative plaque encrusted with four ten-cent coins and five five-cent coins on the rear wall of the hospital's Phillips Chapel memorializes Baltz and all "135 Victims of The Aircraft Disaster". The coins on the plaque are those found in the boy's pocket and placed in the chapel's donation box after his death by his father, an Admiral Corporation vice president.
With a death toll of 134, the accident was the deadliest U.S. commercial aviation disaster at the time, topping the 1956 Grand Canyon mid-air collision that killed 128. That collision also involved a TWA Super Constellation and a Douglas aircraft (a DC-7) operated by United. There were 128 people aboard the two planes in both collisions. The accident also surpassed the 1953 Tachikawa air disaster as the deadliest aviation disaster worldwide, and would remain so until 1969, when a Viasa DC-9 crashed after takeoff in Maracaibo, Venezuela, killing 155.
Filmmaker and critic Hollis Frampton was scheduled to be on the United flight, but decided to delay his return to New York for one day in order to see a retrospective of the work of Edward Weston in Minneapolis; he said of this decision that he was "never...able to decide whether Weston tried to kill me, or saved my life." Mountaineer Edmund Hillary was also scheduled on this flight but did not board the aircraft, having been late for the flight.
- "Park Slope Plane Crash". New York Times. December 16, 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2011.
- Sambriski, Barbara, (Associated Press) "1960 plane collision over NYC spurred improvements", Yahoo! News, December 15, 2010.
- "High Speed Laid to Jet in Crash. Inquiry Told Craft Overshot Circle Area at 500 M.P.H". New York Times. January 10, 1961. Retrieved March 12, 2011. "The jet airliner in the 16 December collision here was traveling more than 500 miles an hour when it swept past its assigned circling point, an official inquiry was told yesterday."
- Excerpts of Tape Conversations at Time of Air Crash — New York Times — December 22, 1960
- Google Maps location
- Disaster in Fog — New York Times — December 17, 1960
- Lone Survivor Worried About His Mother — Associated Press via Syracuse Post-Standard — December 17, 1960
- Perlmutter, Emanuel (December 18, 1960). "Boy Who Survived Crash Dies; 'Stevie Tried Hard,' Father Says". New York Times. p. 49.
- Dunlap, David W. "In Remembrance of Sorrow From Other Times," The New York Times, Friday, January 25, 2002.
- "1960 plane collision over NYC spurred improvements," The Associated Press, Wednesday, December 15, 2010.
- Frampton, Hollis. "Impromptus on Edward Weston: Everything in Its Place." October 5 (Summer 1978): 48–69.
- Barron, James, "Park Slope Plane Crash | A Collision in the Clouds", The New York Times City Room blog, 12 December 2010, 9 a.m. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- Pillar of Fire: Recalling the Day the Sky Fell, December 16, 1960 by Nathaniel Altman, from the Park Slope Reader
- Civil Aeronautics Board Aircraft Accident Report on the collision from the Department of Transport's Special Collections. URL access require a session that's created by clicking on "Historical Aircraft Accident Reports (1934-1965)" at Online Digital Special Collections
- TWA Super constellation
- United DC-8
- Death in the Air, Time, December 26, 1960.
- Newsreel film footage of crash
- New York Times article
- Park Slope Plane Crash, City Room (The New York Times local news blog), Sunday, December 12–Thursday, December 16, 2010 – A series of articles about the aviation disaster.
- CNN photo gallery of the crash
- Deadly Brooklyn Plane Crash, 1960 – slideshow by Life magazine
- Pillar of Fire – Interview with Dorothy M. Fletcher by Nathaniel Altman
- Fate or fluke? Air crash sole survivors by Barry Neild for CNN
- Wendell Jamieson (March 24, 2002). "The Day the Boy Fell From the Sky". The New York Times.
- "Park Slope Plane Crash". The New York Times. December 12–16, 2010. Retrieved December 17, 2010.