Counterculture of the 1960s

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The peace sign (or peace symbol), designed and first used in the UK during the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, later became synonymous with opposition to the Vietnam War.[1][2]

The counterculture (or counter-culture) of the 1960s refers to an anti-establishment cultural phenomenon that developed first in the United States and United Kingdom and spread throughout much of the Western world between the early 1960s and the early 1970s. The movement gained momentum as the African-American Civil Rights Movement continued to grow, and became revolutionary with the expansion of the US government's extensive military intervention in Vietnam.[3][4][5]

Several factors distinguished the counterculture of the 1960s from the anti-authoritarian movements of previous eras. The post-World War II "baby boom"[6][7] generated an unprecedented number of young and potentially disaffected young people as prospective participants in a rethinking of the direction of American and other democratic societies.[8] Post-war affluence allowed many of the counterculture generation to move beyond a focus on the provision of the material necessities of life that had preoccupied their Depression-era parents.[9] The dissidence of the era was also notable in that a significant portion of the array of behaviors and "causes" within the larger movement were quickly assimilated within mainstream society, particularly in the US.[10][11]

As the 1960s progressed, widespread social tensions developed that tended to flow along generational lines regarding the war in Vietnam, race relations, human sexuality, women's rights, traditional modes of authority, experimentation with psychoactive drugs, and differing interpretations of the American Dream.

New cultural forms emerged, including the music of the British band The Beatles, films by directors who were far less restricted by censorship, and the rise of hippie and other alternative lifestyles. As the era unfolded, a dynamic subculture celebrating creativity, experimentation and modern incarnations of bohemian lifestyles emerged. In addition to the trendsetting Beatles, many other creative artists, authors, and thinkers, within and across many disciplines, contributed to the counterculture movement.

In the broadest sense, 1960s counterculture grew from a confluence of people, events, issues, circumstances, and technological developments which served as intellectual and social catalysts for exceptionally rapid change during the era.

Background[edit]

Post-war geopolitics[edit]

Underwater atomic test "Baker", Bikini Atoll, Pacific Ocean, 1946.

The Cold War between communist states and capitalist states involved espionage and preparation for war between powerful nations,[12][13] along with political and military interference by powerful states in the internal affairs of less powerful nations. Poor outcomes from some of these activities set the stage for disillusionment with, and distrust of, post-war governments.[14] Examples included harsh Soviet Union responses to popular anti-communist uprisings, such as the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and Czechoslovakia's Prague Spring in 1968, and the botched US Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba in 1961. In the US, President Dwight D. Eisenhower's initial deception[15] over the nature of the 1960 U-2 incident resulted in the government being caught in a blatant lie at the highest levels, and contributed to a backdrop of growing distrust of authority among many who came of age during the period.[16][17][18] The Partial Test Ban Treaty divided the establishment within the US along political and military lines.[19][20][21] Internal political disagreements concerning treaty obligations in Southeast Asia (SEATO), especially in Vietnam, and debate as to how other communist insurgencies should be challenged, also created a rift of dissent within the establishment.[22][23][24] In the UK, the Profumo Affair also involved establishment leaders being caught in deception, leading to disillusionment and serving as a catalyst for liberal activism.[25] The Cuban Missile Crisis, which brought the world to the brink of nuclear war in October 1962, was largely fomented by duplicitous speech and actions on the part of the Soviet Union.[26][27] The assassination of US President John F. Kennedy in November 1963, and the attendant theories concerning the event, led to further diminished trust in government, including among younger people.[28][29][30]

Free Speech activist Mario Savio on the steps of Sproul Hall, University of California, Berkeley, 1966.

Sociological issues & calls to action[edit]

Many sociological issues fueled the growth of the larger counterculture movement. One was a nonviolent movement in the United States seeking to resolve constitutional civil rights illegalities, especially regarding general racial segregation, longstanding disfranchisement of blacks in the South by white-dominated state government, and ongoing racial discrimination in jobs, housing, and access to public places in both the North and the South.

External video
Mario Savio's "Bodies Upon The Gears" Speech (excerpt) on YouTube

On college and university campuses, student activists fought for the right to exercise their basic constitutional rights, especially freedom of speech and freedom of assembly.[31]

Many counterculture activists became aware of the plight of the poor, and community organizers fought for the funding of anti-poverty programs, particularly in the South and within inner city areas in the United States.[32][33]

Environmentalism grew from a greater understanding of the ongoing damage caused by industrialization, resultant pollution, and the misguided use of chemicals such as pesticides in well-meaning efforts to improve the quality of life for the rapidly growing population.[34] Authors such as Rachel Carson played key roles in developing a new awareness among the global population of the fragility of planet earth, despite resistance from elements of the establishment in many countries.[35]

The need to address minority rights of women, gays, the handicapped, and many other neglected constituencies within the larger population came to the forefront as an increasing number of primarily younger people broke free from the constraints of 1950s orthodoxy in a desire to create a more inclusive and tolerant social landscape.[36][37]

The availability of new and more effective forms of birth control was a key underpinning of the sexual revolution. The notion of "recreational sex" without the threat of unwanted pregnancy radically changed the social dynamic and permitted both women and men much greater freedom in the selection of sexual lifestyles outside the confines of traditional marriage.[38] With this change in attitude, by the 1990s the ratio of children born out of wedlock rose from 5% to 25% for Whites and from 25% to 66% for African-Americans.[39]

Dr. King's "I Have a Dream" speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington.

Emergent media[edit]

Television[edit]

For those born after World War II, the emergence of television as a source of entertainment and information - as well as the associated massive expansion of consumerism afforded by post-war affluence and encouraged by TV advertising - were key components in youthful disillusionment and the formulation of new social behaviours, even as ad agencies heavily courted the "hip" youth market.[40][41] In the US, nearly real-time TV news coverage of the civil rights era's Birmingham Campaign, the "Bloody Sunday" event of the Selma to Montgomery marches, and graphic news footage from Vietnam brought horrifying, moving images of the bloody reality of armed conflict into living rooms for the first time.

New cinema[edit]

The breakdown of enforcement of the US Hays Code[42] concerning censorship in motion picture production, the use of new forms of artistic expression in European and Asian cinema, and the advent of modern production values heralded a new era of art-house, pornographic, and mainstream film production, distribution, and exhibition. The end of censorship resulted in a complete reformation of the western film industry. With new-found artistic freedom, a generation of exceptionally talented New Wave film makers working across all genres brought realistic depictions of previously prohibited subject matter to neighborhood theater screens for the first time, even as Hollywood film studios were still considered a part of the establishment by some elements of the counterculture.

New radio[edit]

By the later 1960s, previously under-regarded FM radio replaced AM radio as the focal point for the ongoing explosion of rock and roll music, and became the nexus of youth-oriented news and advertising for the counterculture generation.[43][44]

A family watches television, c. 1958

Changing lifestyles[edit]

Communes, collectives, and intentional communities regained popularity during this era.[45] Early communities, such as the Hog Farm, Quarry Hill, and Drop City[46] in the US were established as straightforward agrarian attempts to return to the land and live free of interference from outside influences. As the era progressed, many people established and populated new communities in response to not only disillusionment with standard community forms, but also dissatisfaction with certain elements of the counterculture itself. Some of these self-sustaining communities have been credited with the birth and propagation of the international Green Movement.

The emergence of an interest in expanded spiritual consciousness, yoga, occult practices and increased human potential helped to shift views on organized religion during the era. In 1957, 69% of US residents polled by Gallup said religion was increasing in influence. By the late 1960s, polls indicated less than 20% still held that belief.[47]

The "Generation Gap", or the inevitable perceived divide in worldview between the old and young, was perhaps never greater than during the counterculture era.[48] A large measure of the generational chasm of the 1960s and early 1970s was born of rapidly evolving fashion and hairstyle trends that were readily adopted by the young, but often misunderstood and ridiculed by the old. These included the wearing of very long hair by men,[49] the wearing of natural or "Afro" hairstyles by Blacks, the donning of revealing clothing by women in public, and the mainstreaming of the psychedelic clothing and regalia of the short-lived hippie culture. Ultimately, practical and comfortable casual apparel, namely updated forms of T-shirts (often tie-dyed, or emblazoned with political or advertising statements), and Levi Strauss-branded blue denim jeans[50] became the enduring uniform of the generation. The fashion dominance of the counterculture effectively ended with the rise of the Disco and Punk Rock eras in the later 1970s, even as the global popularity of T-shirts, denim jean pants, and casual clothing in general have continued to grow.

Emergent middle-class drug culture[edit]

In the western world, the ongoing criminal legal status of the recreational drug industry was instrumental in the formation of an anti-establishment social dynamic by some of those coming of age during the counterculture era. The explosion of marijuana use during the era, in large part by students on fast-expanding college campuses,[51] created an attendant need for increasing numbers of people to conduct their personal affairs in secret in the procurement and use of banned substances. The classification of marijuana as a narcotic, and the attachment of severe criminal penalties for its use, drove the act of smoking marijuana, and experimentation with substances in general, deep underground. Many began to live largely clandestine lives because of their choice to use such drugs and substances, fearing retribution from their governments.[52][53]

Anti-war protesters

Law enforcement[edit]

The often violent confrontations between college students (and other activists) and law enforcement officials became one of the hallmarks of the era. Many younger people began to show deep distrust of police, and terms such as "fuzz" and "pig" as derogatory epithets for police reappeared, and became key words within the counterculture lexicon. The distrust of police was based not only on fear of police brutality during political protests, but also on generalized police corruption - especially police manufacture of false evidence, and outright entrapment, in drug cases. In the US, the social tension between elements of the counterculture and law enforcement reached the breaking point in many notable cases, including: the Columbia University protests of 1968 in New York City,[54][55][56] the 1968 Democratic National Convention protests in Chicago,[57][58][59] the arrest and imprisonment of John Sinclair in Ann Arbor, Michigan,[60] and the Kent State shootings at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio.[61] Police malfeasance was also an ongoing issue in the UK during the era.[62]

The Vietnam War[edit]

The Vietnam War, and the protracted national divide between supporters and opponents of the war, were arguably the most important factors contributing to the rise of the larger counterculture movement.

Jerry Rubin, University at Buffalo, March 10, 1970.

The widely accepted assertion that anti-war opinion was held only among the young is a myth,[63][64] but enormous war protests consisting of thousands of mostly younger people in every major US city effectively united millions against the war, and against the war policy that prevailed under five congresses and during two presidential administrations.

The counterculture era essentially commenced in earnest with the assassination of US President John F. Kennedy. It ended with the termination of US combat military involvement in the communist insurgencies of Southeast Asia and the end of the draft in 1973, and ultimately with the resignation of disgraced President Richard M. Nixon in August 1974.

Many key movements were born of, or were advanced within, the counterculture of the 1960s. Each movement is relevant to the larger era. The most important stand alone, irrespective of the larger counterculture.[65]

In Western Europe[edit]

Revolutionary poster, France: "May 1968: The beginning of a prolonged struggle"

The counterculture movement took hold in Western Europe, with London, Amsterdam, Paris, Rome and West Berlin rivaling San Francisco and New York as counterculture centers.

Carnaby Street, London, 1969.

The UK Underground was a movement linked to the growing subculture in the US and associated with the hippie phenomenon, generating its own magazines and newspapers, fashion, music groups, and clubs. Underground figure Barry Miles said, "The underground was a catch-all sobriquet for a community of like-minded anti-establishment, anti-war, pro-rock'n'roll individuals, most of whom had a common interest in recreational drugs. They saw peace, exploring a widened area of consciousness, love and sexual experimentation as more worthy of their attention than entering the rat race. The straight, consumerist lifestyle was not to their liking, but they did not object to others living it. But at that time the middle classes still felt they had the right to impose their values on everyone else, which resulted in conflict."[66]

In the Netherlands, Provo was a counterculture movement that focused on "provoking violent responses from authorities using non-violent bait."[67]

In France, the General Strike centered in Paris in May 1968 united French students, and nearly toppled the government.[68]

Kommune 1 or K1 was a commune in West Germany, and was known for its bizarre staged events that fluctuated between satire and provocation. These events served as inspiration for the "Sponti" movement and other leftist groups. In the late summer of 1968, the commune moved into a deserted factory on Stephanstraße in order to reorient. This second phase of Kommune 1 was characterized by sex, music and drugs. Soon, the commune was receiving visitors from all over the world, including Jimi Hendrix.[69][70]

In Australia[edit]

Oz number 31 cover.

Oz Magazine was first published as a satirical humour magazine between 1963 and 1969 in Sydney, Australia, and, in its second and better known incarnation, became a "psychedelic hippy" magazine from 1967 to 1973 in London. Strongly identified as part of the underground press, it was the subject of two celebrated obscenity trials, one in Australia in 1964 and the other in the United Kingdom in 1971.[71][72]

In Latin America[edit]

Main articles: La Onda Chicana and Mexican rock
Three radical icons of the sixties. Encounter between Simone de Beauvoir, Jean-Paul Sartre and Ernesto "Che" Guevara in Cuba, in 1960

In Mexico, rock music was tied into the youth revolt of the 1960s. Mexico City, as well as northern cities such as Monterrey, Nuevo Laredo, Ciudad Juárez, and Tijuana, were exposed to US music. Many Mexican rock stars became involved in the counterculture. The three-day Festival Rock y Ruedas de Avándaro, held in 1971, was organized in the valley of Avándaro near the city of Toluca, a town neighboring Mexico City, and became known as "The Mexican Woodstock". Nudity, drug use, and the presence of the US flag scandalized conservative Mexican society to such an extent that the government clamped down on rock and roll performances for the rest of the decade. The festival, marketed as proof of Mexico's modernization, was never expected to attract the masses it did, and the government had to evacuate stranded attendees en masse at the end. This occurred during the era of President Luis Echeverría, an extremely repressive era in Mexican history. Anything that could be connected to the counterculture or student protests was prohibited from being broadcast on public airwaves, with the government fearing a repeat of the student protests of 1968. Few bands survived the prohibition; though the ones that did, like Three Souls in My Mind (now El Tri), remained popular due in part to their adoption of Spanish for their lyrics, but mostly as a result of a dedicated underground following. While Mexican rock groups were eventually able to perform publicly by the mid-1980s, the ban prohibiting tours of Mexico by foreign acts lasted until 1989.[73]

The Cordobazo was a civil uprising in the city of Córdoba, Argentina, in the end of May 1969, during the military dictatorship of General Juan Carlos Onganía, which occurred a few days after the Rosariazo, and a year after the French May '68. Contrary to previous protests, the Cordobazo did not correspond to previous struggles, headed by Marxist workers' leaders, but associated students and workers in the same struggle against the military government.[74]

Movements[edit]

US Senator Eugene McCarthy (D-MN), anti-war candidate for President in 1968.

Civil Rights[edit]

The US Civil Rights Movement, a key element of the larger counterculture movement, involved the use of applied nonviolence to assure that equal rights guaranteed under the US Constitution would apply to all citizens. Many states illegally denied many of these rights to African-Americans, and this was successfully addressed in the early and mid-1960s in several major nonviolent movements.[75][76]

Free Speech[edit]

Main article: Free Speech Movement

Much of the 1960s counterculture originated on college campuses. The 1964 Free Speech Movement at the University of California, Berkeley, which had its roots in the Civil Rights Movement of the US South, was one early example. At Berkeley a group of students began to identify themselves as having interests as a class that were at odds with the interests and practices of the University and its corporate sponsors. Other rebellious young people, who were not students, also contributed to the Free Speech Movement.[77]

The New Left[edit]

Main article: New Left

The New Left is a term used in different countries to describe left-wing movements that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. They differed from earlier leftist movements that had been more oriented towards labour activism, and instead adopted social activism. The US "New Left" is associated with college campus mass protests and radical leftist movements. The British "New Left" was an intellectually driven movement which attempted to correct the perceived errors of "Old Left" parties in the post-World War II period. The movements began to wind down in the 1970s, when activists either committed themselves to party projects, developed social justice organizations, moved into identity politics or alternative lifestyles, or became politically inactive.[78][79][80]

Herbert Marcuse, associated with the Frankfurt School of critical theory, was an influential libertarian socialist thinker on the radical student movements of the era[81] philosopher of the New Left[82]

The emergence of the New Left in the 1950s and 1960s led to a revival of interest in libertarian socialism.[83] The New Left's critique of the Old Left's authoritarianism was associated with a strong interest in personal liberty, autonomy (see the thinking of Cornelius Castoriadis) and led to a rediscovery of older socialist traditions, such as left communism, council communism, and the Industrial Workers of the World. The New Left also led to a revival of anarchism. Journals like Radical America and Black Mask in America, Solidarity, Big Flame and Democracy & Nature, succeeded by The International Journal of Inclusive Democracy,[84] in the UK, introduced a range of left libertarian ideas to a new generation. Social ecology, autonomism and, more recently, participatory economics (parecon), and Inclusive Democracy emerged from this.

A surge of popular interest in anarchism occurred in western nations during the 1960s and 1970s.[85] Anarchism was influential in the counterculture of the 1960s[86][87][88] and anarchists actively participated in the late sixties students and workers revolts.[89] During the IX Congress of the Italian Anarchist Federation in Carrara in 1965, a group decided to split off from this organization and created the Gruppi di Iniziativa Anarchica. In the seventies, it was mostly composed of "veteran individualist anarchists with an of pacifism orientation, naturism, etc, ...".[90] In 1968 in Carrara, Italy the International of Anarchist Federations was founded during an international anarchist conference held there in 1968 by the three existing European federations of France, the Italian and the Iberian Anarchist Federation as well as the Bulgarian federation in French exile.[91][92] During the events of May 68 the anarchist groups active in France were Fédération anarchiste, Mouvement communiste libertaire, Union fédérale des anarchistes, Alliance ouvrière anarchiste], Union des groupes anarchistes communistes, Noir et Rouge, Confédération nationale du travail, Union anarcho-syndicaliste, Organisation révolutionnaire anarchiste, Cahiers socialistes libertaires, À contre-courant, La Révolution prolétarienne, and the publications close to Émile Armand.

The New Left in the United States also included anarchist, countercultural and hippie-related radical groups such as the Yippies who were led by Abbie Hoffman, The Diggers[93] and Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers. By late 1966, the Diggers opened free stores which simply gave away their stock, provided free food, distributed free drugs, gave away money, organized free music concerts, and performed works of political art.[94] The Diggers took their name from the original English Diggers led by Gerrard Winstanley[95] and sought to create a mini-society free of money and capitalism.[96] On the other hand the Yippies employed theatrical gestures, such as advancing a pig ("Pigasus the Immortal") as a candidate for President in 1968, to mock the social status quo.[97] They have been described as a highly theatrical, anti-authoritarian and anarchist[98] youth movement of "symbolic politics".[99] Since they were well known for street theater and politically themed pranks, many of the "old school" political left either ignored or denounced them. According to ABC News, "The group was known for street theater pranks and was once referred to as the 'Groucho Marxists'."[100]

Anti-war[edit]

In Trafalgar Square, London in 1958,[101] in an act of civil disobedience, 60,000-100,000 protesters made up of students and pacifists converged in what was to become the "ban the Bomb" demonstrations.[102]

Opposition to the Vietnam War began in 1964 on United States college campuses. Student activism became a dominant theme among the baby boomers, growing to include many other demographic groups. Exemptions and deferments for the middle and upper classes resulted in the induction of a disproportionate number of poor, working-class, and minority registrants. Countercultural books such as MacBird by Barbara Garson and much of the counterculture music encouraged a spirit of non-conformism and anti-establishmentarianism. By 1968, the year after a large march to the United Nations in New York City and a large protest at the Pentagon were undertaken, a majority of people in the country opposed the war.[103]

Anti-nuclear[edit]

A sign pointing to an old fallout shelter in New York City.

The application of nuclear technology, both as a source of energy and as an instrument of war, has been controversial.[104][105][106][107][108]

Scientists and diplomats have debated the nuclear weapons policy since before the atomic bombing of Hiroshima in 1945.[109] The public became concerned about nuclear weapons testing from about 1954, following extensive nuclear testing in the Pacific. In 1961, at the height of the Cold War, about 50,000 women brought together by Women Strike for Peace marched in 60 cities in the United States to demonstrate against nuclear weapons.[110][111] In 1963, many countries ratified the Partial Test Ban Treaty which prohibited atmospheric nuclear testing.[112]

Some local opposition to nuclear power emerged in the early 1960s,[113] and in the late 1960s some members of the scientific community began to express their concerns.[114] In the early 1970s, there were large protests about a proposed nuclear power plant in Wyhl, Germany. The project was cancelled in 1975 and anti-nuclear success at Wyhl inspired opposition to nuclear power in other parts of Europe and North America.[115] Nuclear power became an issue of major public protest in the 1970s.[116]

Feminism[edit]

The role of women as full-time homemakers in industrial society was challenged in 1963, when US feminist Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, giving momentum to the women's movement and influencing what many called Second-wave feminism. Other activists, such as Gloria Steinem and Angela Davis, either organized, influenced, or educated many of a younger generation of women to endorse and expand feminist thought. Feminism gained further currency within the protest movements of the late 1960s, as women in movements such as Students for a Democratic Society rebelled against the "support" role they had been consigned to within the male-dominated New Left, as well as against manifestations and statements of sexism within some radical groups. The 1970 pamphlet Women and Their Bodies, soon expanded into the 1971 book Our Bodies, Ourselves, was particularly influential in bringing about the new feminist consciousness.

Environmentalism[edit]

Main article: Environmentalism
The cover of an early Whole Earth Catalog

The 1960s counterculture embraced a back-to-the-land ethic, and communes of the era often relocated to the country from cities. Influential books of the 1960s included Rachel Carson's Silent Spring and Paul Ehrlich's The Population Bomb. Counterculture environmentalists were quick to grasp the implications of Ehrlich's writings on overpopulation, the Hubbert "peak oil" prediction, and more general concerns over pollution, litter, the environmental effects of the Vietnam War, automobile-dependent lifestyles, and nuclear energy. More broadly they saw that the dilemmas of energy and resource allocation would have implications for geo-politics, lifestyle, environment, and other dimensions of modern life. The "back to nature" theme was already prevalent in the counterculture by the time of the 1969 Woodstock festival, while the first Earth Day in 1970 was significant in bringing environmental concerns to the forefront of youth culture. At the start of the 1970s, counterculture-oriented publications like the Whole Earth Catalog and The Mother Earth News were popular, out of which emerged a back to the land movement. The 1960s and early 1970s counterculture were early adopters of practices such as recycling and organic farming long before they became mainstream. The counterculture interest in ecology progressed well into the 1970s: particularly influential were New Left eco-anarchist Murray Bookchin, Jerry Mander's criticism of the effects of television on society, Ernest Callenbach's novel Ecotopia, Edward Abbey's fiction and non-fiction writings, and E.F. Schumacher's economics book Small is Beautiful.

Gay liberation[edit]

The Stonewall Inn, Greenwich Village, New York City, September, 1969.
Main article: Gay liberation

The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of New York City. This is frequently cited as the first instance in US history when people in the gay community fought back against a government-sponsored system that persecuted sexual minorities, and became the defining event that marked the start of the Gay rights movement in the United States and around the world.

Culture and lifestyles[edit]

Hippies[edit]

After the January 14, 1967 Human Be-In in San Francisco organized by artist Michael Bowen, the media's attention on culture was fully activated.[117] In 1967 Scott McKenzie's rendition of the song "San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)" brought as many as 100,000 young people from all over the world to celebrate San Francisco's "Summer of Love." While the song had originally been written by John Phillips of The Mamas & the Papas to promote the June 1967 Monterey Pop Festival, it became an instant hit worldwide (#4 in the United States, #1 in Europe) and quickly transcended its original purpose.

San Francisco's flower children, also called "hippies" by local newspaper columnist Herb Caen, adopted new styles of dress, experimented with psychedelic drugs, lived communally and developed a vibrant music scene. When people returned home from "The Summer of Love" these styles and behaviors spread quickly from San Francisco and Berkeley to many US and Canadian cities and European capitals. Some hippies formed communes to live as far outside of the established system as possible. This aspect of the counterculture rejected active political engagement with the mainstream and, following the dictate of Timothy Leary to "Turn on, tune in, drop out", hoped to change society by dropping out of it. Looking back on his own life (as a Harvard professor) prior to 1960, Leary interpreted it to have been that of "an anonymous institutional employee who drove to work each morning in a long line of commuter cars and drove home each night and drank martinis ... like several million middle-class, liberal, intellectual robots."

As members of the hippie movement grew older and moderated their lives and their views, and especially after US involvement in the Vietnam War ended in the mid-1970s, the counterculture was largely absorbed by the mainstream, leaving a lasting impact on philosophy, morality, music, art, alternative health and diet, lifestyle and fashion.

In addition to a new style of clothing, philosophy, art, music and various views on anti-war, and anti-establishment, some hippies decided to turn away from modern society and re-settle on ranches, or communes. The very first of communes in the United States was a 7-acre land in Southern Colorado, named Drop City. According to Timothy Miller,

Drop City brought together most of the themes that had been developing in other recent communities-anarchy, pacifism, sexual freedom, rural isolation, interest in drugs, art-and wrapped them flamboyantly into a commune not quite like any that had gone before[118]

Many of the inhabitants practiced acts like reusing trash and recycled materials to build Geodesic domes for shelter and other various purposes; using various drugs like marijuana and LSD, and creating various pieces of Drop Art. After the initial success of Drop City, visitors would take the idea of communes and spread them. Another commune called "The Ranch" was very similar to the culture of Drop City, as well as new concepts like giving children of the commune extensive freedoms known as "children's rights".[119]

Marijuana, LSD, and other recreational drugs[edit]

See also: History of LSD

During the 1960s, this 2nd group of casual LSD users evolved and expanded into a subculture that extolled the mystical and religious symbolism often engendered by the drug's powerful effects, and advocated its use as a method of raising consciousness. The personalities associated with the subculture, gurus such as Dr. Timothy Leary and psychedelic rock musicians such as the Grateful Dead, Jimi Hendrix, The Doors, Country Joe and the Fish, Big Brother and the Holding Company, Jefferson Airplane and the Beatles soon attracted a great deal of publicity, generating further interest in LSD.

The popularization of LSD outside of the medical world was hastened when individuals such as Ken Kesey participated in drug trials and liked what they saw. Tom Wolfe wrote a widely read account of these early days of LSD's entrance into the non-academic world in his book The Electric Kool Aid Acid Test, which documented the cross-country, acid-fueled voyage of Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters on the psychedelic bus "Furthur" and the Pranksters' later 'Acid Test' LSD parties. In 1965, Sandoz laboratories stopped its still legal shipments of LSD to the United States for research and psychiatric use, after a request from the US government concerned about its use. By April 1966, LSD use had become so widespread that Time Magazine warned about its dangers.[120] In December 1966, the exploitation film Hallucination Generation was released.[121] This was followed by The Trip (film) in 1967 and Psych-Out in 1968.

Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters[edit]

Ken Kesey and his Merry Pranksters helped shape the developing character of the 1960s counterculture when they embarked on a cross-country voyage during the summer of 1964 in a psychedelic school bus named "Furthur." Beginning in 1959, Kesey had volunteered as a research subject for medical trials financed by the CIA's MK ULTRA project. These trials tested the effects of LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, and other psychedelic drugs. After the medical trials, Kesey continued experimenting on his own, and involved many close friends; collectively they became known as "The Merry Pranksters." The Pranksters visited Harvard LSD proponent Timothy Leary at his Millbrook, New York retreat, and experimentation with LSD and other psychedelic drugs, primarily as a means for internal reflection and personal growth, became a constant during the Prankster trip.

The Pranksters created a direct link between the 1950s Beat Generation and the 1960s psychedelic scene; the bus was driven by Beat icon Neal Cassady, Beat poet Allen Ginsberg was on board for a time, and they dropped in on Cassady's friend, Beat author Jack Kerouac - though Kerouac declined to participate in the Prankster scene. After the Pranksters returned to California, they popularized the use of LSD at so-called "Acid Tests", which initially were held at Kesey's home in La Honda, California, and then at many other West Coast venues.

Other psychedelics[edit]

Experimentation with LSD, peyote, psilocybin mushrooms, MDA, marijuana, and other psychedelic drugs became a major component of 1960s counterculture, influencing philosophy, art, music and styles of dress. Jim DeRogatis wrote that peyote, a small cactus containing the psychedelic alkaloid mescaline, was widely available in Austin, Texas, a countercultural hub, as early as 1961.[122]

Sexual revolution[edit]

Main article: Sexual revolution

The sexual revolution(also known as a time of "sexual liberation") was a social movement that challenged traditional codes of behavior related to sexuality and interpersonal relationships throughout the Western world from the 1960s to the 1980s.[123] Sexual liberation included increased acceptance of sex outside of traditional heterosexual, monogamous relationships (primarily marriage).[124] Contraception and the pill, public nudity, the normalization of premarital sex, homosexuality and alternative forms of sexuality, and the legalization of abortion all followed.[125][126]

Alternative media[edit]

Main article: Alternative media

Underground newspapers sprang up in most cities and college towns, serving to define and communicate the range of phenomena that defined the counterculture: radical political opposition to "The Establishment", colorful experimental (and often explicitly drug-influenced) approaches to art, music and cinema, and uninhibited indulgence in sex and drugs as a symbol of freedom. The papers also often included comic strips, from which the underground comix were an outgrowth.

Avant-garde art and anti-art[edit]

The Situationist International was a restricted group of international revolutionaries founded in 1957, and which had its peak in its influence on the unprecedented general wildcat strikes of May 1968 in France. With their ideas rooted in Marxism and the 20th-century European artistic avant-gardes, they advocated experiences of life being alternative to those admitted by the capitalist order, for the fulfillment of human primitive desires and the pursuing of a superior passional quality. For this purpose they suggested and experimented with the construction of situations, namely the setting up of environments favorable for the fulfillment of such desires. Using methods drawn from the arts, they developed a series of experimental fields of study for the construction of such situations, like unitary urbanism and psychogeography. They fought against the main obstacle on the fulfillment of such superior passional living, identified by them in advanced capitalism. Their theoretical work peaked on the highly influential book The Society of the Spectacle by Guy Debord. Debord argued in 1967 that spectacular features like mass media and advertising have a central role in an advanced capitalist society, which is to show a fake reality in order to mask the real capitalist degradation of human life. Raoul Vaneigem wrote The Revolution of Everyday Life which takes the field of "everyday life" as the ground upon which communication and participation can occur, or, as is more commonly the case, be perverted and abstracted into pseudo-forms.

Fluxus - a name taken from a Latin word meaning "to flow" - is an international network of artists, composers and designers noted for blending different artistic media and disciplines in the 1960s. They have been active in Neo-Dada noise music, visual art, literature, urban planning, architecture, and design. Fluxus is often described as intermedia, a term coined by Fluxus artist Dick Higgins in a famous 1966 essay. Fluxus encouraged a "do-it-yourself" aesthetic, and valued simplicity over complexity. Like Dada before it, Fluxus included a strong current of anti-commercialism and an anti-art sensibility, disparaging the conventional market-driven art world in favor of an artist-centered creative practice. As Fluxus artist Robert Filliou wrote, however, Fluxus differed from Dada in its richer set of aspirations, and the positive social and communitarian aspirations of Fluxus far outweighed the anti-art tendency that also marked the group.

In the 1960s, the Dada-influenced art group Black Mask declared that revolutionary art should be "an integral part of life, as in primitive society, and not an appendage to wealth."[127] Black Mask disrupted cultural events in New York by giving made up flyers of art events to the homeless with the lure of free drinks.[128] After, the Motherfuckers grew out of a combination of Black Mask and another group called Angry Arts. Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers (often referred to as simply "the Motherfuckers", or UAW/MF) was an anarchist affinity group based in New York City.

Music[edit]

Main article: 1960s in music
A small part of the crowd of 400,000, after the rain, Woodstock, United States, August 1969

"The 60's were a leap in human consciousness. Mahatma Gandhi, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King, Che Guevara, Mother Teresa, they led a revolution of conscience. the Beatles, The Doors, Jimi Hendrix created revolution and evolution themes. The music was like Dalí, with many colors and revolutionary ways. The youth of today must go there to find themselves."

- Carlos Santana[129]

During the early 1960s, Britain's new wave of musicians gained popularity and fame in the United States. Artists such as the Beatles paved the way for their compatriots to enter the US market.[130] The Beatles themselves were influenced by many artists, among them US singer/songwriter Bob Dylan, who was a lyrical inspiration as well as their introduction to marijuana.[131] Dylan's early career as a protest singer had been inspired by artists like Pete Seeger[132] and his hero Woody Guthrie.[133] Other folksingers, like Joan Baez and Peter, Paul and Mary, took the songs of the era to new audiences and public recognition.[134]

The music of the 1960s moved towards an electric, psychedelic version of rock, thanks largely to Bob Dylan's decision to play an electric guitar at the 1965 Newport Folk Festival.[135] The newly popularized electric sound of rock was then built upon and molded into psychedelic rock by artists like The 13th Floor Elevators[136] and British bands Pink Floyd and the Beatles.[137] The Beach Boys' 1966 album Pet Sounds also paved the way for later hippie acts, with Brian Wilson's writing interpreted as a "plea for love and understanding."[138] Pet Sounds served as a major source of inspiration for other contemporary acts, most notably directly inspiring the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. The single "Good Vibrations" soared to number one globally, completely changing the perception of what a record could be. It was during this period that the highly anticipated album Smile was to be released. However, the project collapsed and The Beach Boys released a downgraded version called Smiley Smile, which failed to make a big commercial impact but was also highly influential, most notably on The Who's Pete Townshend.

The Beatles went on to become the most prominent commercial exponents of the "psychedelic revolution" (e.g., Revolver, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and Magical Mystery Tour) in the late 1960s.[139] In the United States, bands that exemplified the counterculture were becoming huge commercial and mainstream successes. These included The Mamas & the Papas (If You Can Believe Your Eyes and Ears), Big Brother and the Holding Company (Cheap Thrills), Jimi Hendrix (Are You Experienced), Jefferson Airplane (Surrealistic Pillow), The Doors and Sly and the Family Stone (Stand!).[140] Bands and other musicians, such as the Grateful Dead, Phil Ochs, Quicksilver Messenger Service, Melanie, Frank Zappa, Santana, and the Blues Project were considered key to the counterculture movement.

While the hippie scene was born in California,[141] an edgier scene emerged in New York City[142] that put more emphasis on avant-garde and art music. Bands such as The Velvet Underground came out of this underground music scene, which was predominantly centered at Andy Warhol's legendary Factory. The Velvet Underground supplied the music for the Exploding Plastic Inevitable, a series of multimedia events staged by Warhol and his collaborators in 1966 and 1967. The Velvet Underground's lyrics were considered risqué for the era, since they discussed sexual fetishism, transgender identities, and the use of drugs associated with Warhol's Factory and its superstars.[143]

The Jimi Hendrix Experience performs for the Dutch television show Fenklup in March, 1967.

Detroit's MC5 also came out of the underground rock music scene of the late 1960s. They introduced a more aggressive evolution of garage rock which was often fused with sociopolitical and countercultural lyrics of the era, such as in the song "Motor City Is Burning" (a John Lee Hooker cover adapting the story of the Detroit Race Riot of 1943 to the Detroit riot of 1967). MC5 had ties to radical leftist organizations such as "Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers" and John Sinclair's White Panther Party,[144] and MC5 performed a lengthy set before the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, where an infamous riot subsequently broke out between police and students protesting the Vietnam War and the recent assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert Kennedy.[145] MC5, The Stooges and the aforementioned Velvet Underground, are now seen as an influence on the protopunk sound that would lead to punk rock and heavy metal music in the late 1970s.[146]

Another hotbed of the 1960s counterculture was Austin, Texas, with two of the era's legendary music venues-the Vulcan Gas Company and the Armadillo World Headquarters-and musical talent like Janis Joplin, the 13th Floor Elevators, Shiva's Headband, the Conqueroo, and, later, Stevie Ray Vaughan. Austin was also home to a large New Left activist movement, one of the earliest underground papers, The Rag, and cutting edge graphic artists like Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers creator Gilbert Shelton, underground comix pioneer Jack Jackson (Jaxon), and surrealist armadillo artist Jim Franklin.[147]

The 1960s was also an era of rock festivals, which played an important role in spreading the counterculture across the US.[148] The Monterey Pop Festival, which launched Jimi Hendrix's career in the US, was one of the first of these festivals.[149] Britain's 1968–1970 Isle of Wight Festivals drew big names such as The Who, The Doors, Joni Mitchell, Hendrix, Dylan, and others.[150] The 1969 Woodstock Festival in New York state became a symbol of the movement,[151] although the 1970 Isle of Wight Festival drew a larger crowd.[152] Some believe the era came to an abrupt end with the infamous Altamont Free Concert held by The Rolling Stones, in which heavy-handed security from the Hells Angels resulted in the stabbing of an audience member, apparently in self-defense, as the show descended into chaos.[153]

The Doors performing for Danish television in 1968

As the psychedelic revolution progressed, lyrics grew more complex, (such as Jefferson Airplane's "White Rabbit"[154]). Long-playing albums enabled artists to make more in-depth statements than could be made in just a single song (such as the Mothers of Invention's satirical Freak Out![155]). Even the rules governing single songs were stretched, and singles lasting longer than three minutes emerged, such as Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone", Arlo Guthrie's "Alice's Restaurant", and Iron Butterfly's 17-minute-long "In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida.".[135]

The 1960s saw the protest song gain a sense of political self-importance, with Phil Ochs's "I Ain't Marching Anymore" and Country Joe and the Fish's "I-Feel-Like-I'm-Fixin'-to-Die-Rag" among the many anti-war anthems that were important to the era.[152]

Free jazz is an approach to jazz music that was first developed in the 1950s and 1960s. Though the music produced by free jazz composers varied widely, the common feature was a dissatisfaction with the limitations of bebop, hard bop, and modal jazz, which had developed in the 1940s and 1950s. Each in their own way, free jazz musicians attempted to alter, extend, or break down the conventions of jazz, often by discarding hitherto invariable features of jazz, such as fixed chord changes or tempos. While usually considered experimental and avant-garde, free jazz has also oppositely been conceived as an attempt to return jazz to its "primitive", often religious roots, and emphasis on collective improvisation. Free jazz is strongly associated with the 1950s innovations of Ornette Coleman and Cecil Taylor and the later works of saxophonist John Coltrane. Other important pioneers included Charles Mingus, Eric Dolphy, Albert Ayler, Archie Shepp, Joe Maneri and Sun Ra. Although today "free jazz" is the generally used term, many other terms were used to describe the loosely defined movement, including "avant-garde", "energy music" and "The New Thing". During its early and mid-60s heyday, much free jazz was released by established labels such as Prestige, Blue Note and Impulse, as well as independents such as ESP Disk and BYG Actuel. Free improvisation or free music is improvised music without any rules beyond the logic or inclination of the musician(s) involved. The term can refer to both a technique (employed by any musician in any genre) and as a recognizable genre in its own right. Free improvisation, as a genre of music, developed in the U.S. and Europe in the mid to late 1960s, largely as an outgrowth of free jazz and modern classical musics. None of its primary exponents can be said to be famous within mainstream; however, in experimental circles, a number of free musicians are well known, including saxophonists Evan Parker, Anthony Braxton, Peter Brötzmann and John Zorn, drummer Christian Lillinger, trombonist George Lewis, guitarists Derek Bailey, Henry Kaiser and Fred Frith and the improvising groups The Art Ensemble of Chicago and AMM.

Allmusic Guide states that "until around 1967, the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly completely separate".[156] The term, "jazz-rock" (or "jazz/rock") is often used as a synonym for the term "jazz fusion". However, some make a distinction between the two terms. The Free Spirits have sometimes been cited as the earliest jazz-rock band.[157] During the late 1960s, at the same time that jazz musicians were experimenting with rock rhythms and electric instruments, rock groups such as Cream and the Grateful Dead were "beginning to incorporate elements of jazz into their music" by "experimenting with extended free-form improvisation". Other "groups such as Blood, Sweat & Tears directly borrowed harmonic, melodic, rhythmic and instrumentational elements from the jazz tradition".[158] The rock groups that drew on jazz ideas (like Soft Machine, Colosseum, Caravan, Nucleus, Chicago, Spirit and Frank Zappa) turned the blend of the two styles with electric instruments.[159] Since rock often emphasized directness and simplicity over virtuosity, jazz-rock generally grew out of the most artistically ambitious rock subgenres of the late '60s and early '70s: psychedelia, progressive rock, and the singer/songwriter movement."[160] Miles Davis' Bitches Brew sessions, recorded in August 1969 and released the following year, mostly abandoned jazz's usual swing beat in favor of a rock-style backbeat anchored by electric bass grooves. The recording "...mixed free jazz blowing by a large ensemble with electronic keyboards and guitar, plus a dense mix of percussion."[161] Davis also drew on the rock influence by playing his trumpet through electronic effects and pedals. While the album gave Davis a gold record, the use of electric instruments and rock beats created a great deal of consternation amongst some more conservative jazz critics

Film[edit]

Main article: 1960s in film

The counterculture was not only affected by cinema, but was also instrumental in the provision of era-relevant content and talent for the film industry. Bonnie and Clyde struck a chord with the youth as "the alienation of the young in the 1960s was comparable to the director's image of the 1930s."[162] Films of this time also focused on the changes happening in the world. A sign of this was the visibility that the hippie subculture gained in various mainstream and underground media. Hippie exploitation films are 1960s exploitation films about the hippie counterculture[163] with stereotypical situations associated with the movement such as marijuana and LSD use, sex and wild psychedelic parties. Examples include The Love-ins, Psych-Out, The Trip, and Wild in the Streets. The musical play Hair shocked stage audiences with full-frontal nudity. Dennis Hopper's "Road Trip" adventure Easy Rider (1969) became accepted as one of the landmark films of the era.[164][165] Medium Cool portrayed the 1968 Democratic Convention alongside the 1968 Chicago police riots which has led to it being labeled as "a fusion of cinema-vérité and political radicalism".[166] One film-studio attempt to cash in on the hippie trend was 1968's Psych-Out,[167] which is in contrast to the film version of Arlo Guthrie's Alice's Restaurant, which some say portrayed the generation as "doomed".[168] The music of the era was represented by films such as 1970s Woodstock, a documentary of the music festival.[169] (See also: List of films related to the hippie subculture)

In France the New Wave was a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s, influenced by Italian Neorealism and classical Hollywood cinema. Although never a formally organized movement, the New Wave filmmakers were linked by their self-conscious rejection of classical cinematic form and their spirit of youthful iconoclasm and is an example of European art cinema. Many also engaged in their work with the social and political upheavals of the era, making their radical experiments with editing, visual style and narrative part of a general break with the conservative paradigm. The Left Bank, or Rive Gauche, group is a contingent of filmmakers associated with the French New Wave, first identified as such by Richard Roud.[170] The corresponding "right bank" group is constituted of the more famous and financially successful New Wave directors associated with Cahiers du cinéma (Claude Chabrol, François Truffaut, and Jean-Luc Godard).[170] Left Bank directors include Chris Marker, Alain Resnais, and Agnès Varda.[170] Roud described a distinctive "fondness for a kind of Bohemian life and an impatience with the conformity of the Right Bank, a high degree of involvement in literature and the plastic arts, and a consequent interest in experimental filmmaking", as well as an identification with the political left.[170] Other film "new waves" from around the world associated with the 1960s are New German Cinema, Czechoslovak New Wave, Brazilian Cinema Novo and Japanese New Wave. During the 1960s, the term "art film" began to be much more widely used in the United States than in Europe. In the U.S., the term is often defined very broadly, to include foreign-language (non-English) "auteur" films, independent films, experimental films, documentaries and short films. In the 1960s "art film" became a euphemism in the U.S. for racy Italian and French B-movies. By the 1970s, the term was used to describe sexually explicit European films with artistic structure such as the Swedish film I Am Curious (Yellow). The 1960s was an important period in art film; the release of a number of groundbreaking films giving rise to the European art cinema which had countercultural traits in filmmakers such as Michelangelo Antonioni, Federico Fellini, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Luis Buñuel and Bernardo Bertolucci.

Technology[edit]

External video
Counterculture technology prodigy and Apple co-founder Steve Jobs' 2005 Commencement Address at Stanford University on YouTube

In his 1986 essay "From Satori to Silicon Valley",[171] cultural historian Theodore Roszak pointed out that Apple Computer emerged from within the West Coast counterculture. Roszak outlines the Apple computer's development, and the evolution of 'the two Steves' (Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs, the Apple's developers) into businessmen. Like them, many early computing and networking pioneers - after discovering LSD and roaming the campuses of UC Berkeley, Stanford, and MIT in the late 1960s and early 1970s - would emerge from this caste of social "misfits" to shape the modern world.

Religion, spirituality and the occult[edit]

Many hippies rejected mainstream organized religion in favor of a more personal spiritual experience, often drawing on indigenous and folk beliefs. If they adhered to mainstream faiths, hippies were likely to embrace Buddhism, Unitarian Universalism, Hinduism and the restorationist Christianity of the Jesus Movement. Some hippies embraced neo-paganism, especially Wicca.

In his 1991 book, Hippies and American Values, Timothy Miller described the hippie ethos as essentially a "religious movement" whose goal was to transcend the limitations of mainstream religious institutions. "Like many dissenting religions, the hippies were enormously hostile to the religious institutions of the dominant culture, and they tried to find new and adequate ways to do the tasks the dominant religions failed to perform."[172] In his seminal, contemporaneous work, The Hippie Trip, author Lewis Yablonsky notes that those who were most respected in hippie settings were the spiritual leaders, the so-called "high priests" who emerged during that era.[173]

One such hippie "high priest" was San Francisco State University Professor Stephen Gaskin. Beginning in 1966, Gaskin's "Monday Night Class" eventually outgrew the lecture hall, and attracted 1,500 hippie followers in an open discussion of spiritual values, drawing from Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu teachings. In 1970 Gaskin founded a Tennessee community called The Farm, and he still lists his religion as "Hippie."[174][175][176]

Recording "Give Peace a Chance". Left to right: Rosemary Leary (face not visible), Tommy Smothers (with back to camera), John Lennon, Timothy Leary, Yoko Ono, Judy Marcioni and Paul Williams, June 1, 1969.

Timothy Leary was an American psychologist and writer, known for his advocacy of psychedelic drugs. On September 19, 1966, Leary founded the League for Spiritual Discovery, a religion declaring LSD as its holy sacrament, in part as an unsuccessful attempt to maintain legal status for the use of LSD and other psychedelics for the religion's adherents based on a "freedom of religion" argument. The Psychedelic Experience was the inspiration for John Lennon's song "Tomorrow Never Knows" in The Beatles' album Revolver.[177] He published a pamphlet in 1967 called Start Your Own Religion to encourage just that (see below under "writings") and was invited to attend the January 14, 1967 Human Be-In a gathering of 30,000 hippies in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park In speaking to the group, he coined the famous phrase "Turn on, tune in, drop out".[178]

The Principia Discordia is the founding text of Discordianism written by Greg Hill (Malaclypse the Younger) and Kerry Wendell Thornley (Lord Omar Khayyam Ravenhurst). It was originally published under the title "Principia Discordia or How The West Was Lost" in a limited edition of five copies in 1965. The title, literally meaning "Discordant Principles", is in keeping with the tendency of Latin to prefer hypotactic grammatical arrangements. In English, one would expect the title to be "Principles of Discord."[179]

The English magician Aleister Crowley became an influential icon to the new alternative spiritual movements of the decade as well as for rock musicians. The Beatles included him as one of the many figures on the cover sleeve of their 1967 album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band while Jimmy Page, the guitarist and co-founder of 1970s rock band Led Zeppelin was fascinated by Crowley, and owned some of his clothing, manuscripts and ritual objects, and during the 1970s bought Boleskine House, which also appears in the band's movie The Song Remains the Same. On the back cover of the Doors' album 13, Jim Morrison and the other members of the Doors are shown posing with a bust of Aleister Crowley. Timothy Leary openly acknowledged the inspiration of Crowley.[180]

Criticism and legacy[edit]

A small segment of the "Wall" at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial listing the names of the nearly 60,000 American war dead.

The lasting impact, including unintended consequences, creative output and general legacy of the counterculture era continue to be actively discussed, debated, despised and celebrated.

Even the notions of "when" the counterculture subsumed the Beat Generation, when it gave way to the successor generation, and what happened in between are open for debate. According to notable UK Underground and counterculture author Barry Miles, "It seemed to me that the Seventies was when most of the things that people attribute to the sixties really happened: this was the age of extremes, people took more drugs, had longer hair, weirder clothes, had more sex, protested more violently and encountered more opposition from the establishment. It was the era of sex and drugs and rock’n’roll as Ian Drury said. The countercultural explosion of the 1960s really only involved a few thousand people in the UK and perhaps ten times that in the USA – largely because of opposition to the Vietnam war, whereas in the Seventies the ideas had spread out scross (sic) the world.[181]

External video
1968: "Beat" author Jack Kerouac, an early critic of the hippies and the larger counterculture, debates with sociologist Dr. Lewis Yablonksy, musician Ed Sanders, and conservative commentator William F. Buckley, Jr. on US TV's Firing Line on YouTube

A Columbia University teaching unit on the counterculture era notes: "Although historians disagree over the influence of the counterculture on American politics and society, most describe the counterculture in similar terms. Virtually all authors—for example, on the right, Robert Bork in Slouching Toward Gomorrah: Modern Liberalism and American Decline (New York: Regan Books,1996) and, on the left, Todd Gitlin in The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage (New York: Bantam Books, 1987)—characterize the counterculture as self-indulgent, childish, irrational, narcissistic, and even dangerous. Even so, many liberal and leftist historians find constructive elements in it, while those on the right tend not to."[182]

In 2003, author and former Free Speech activist Greil Marcus was quoted, "What happened four decades ago is history. It's not just a blip in the history of trends. Whoever shows up at a march against war in Iraq, it always takes place with a memory of the efficacy and joy and gratification of similar protests that took place in years before…It doesn't matter that there is no counterculture, because counterculture of the past gives people a sense that their own difference matters." [183]

The plaque honoring the victims of the August, 1970 Sterling Hall bombing, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Screen legend John Wayne equated aspects of 1960s social programs with the rise of the welfare state, "…I know all about that. In the late Twenties, when I was a sophomore at USC, I was a socialist myself—but not when I left. The average college kid idealistically wishes everybody could have ice cream and cake for every meal. But as he gets older and gives more thought to his and his fellow man's responsibilities, he finds that it can't work out that way—that some people just won't carry their load ... I believe in welfare—a welfare work program. I don't think a fella should be able to sit on his backside and receive welfare. I'd like to know why well-educated idiots keep apologizing for lazy and complaining people who think the world owes them a living. I'd like to know why they make excuses for cowards who spit in the faces of the police and then run behind the judicial sob sisters. I can't understand these people who carry placards to save the life of some criminal, yet have no thought for the innocent victim."[184]

Former liberal democrat Ronald Reagan, who later became a conservative Governor of California and 40th President of the US, remarked about one group of protesters carrying signs, "The last bunch of pickets were carrying signs that said 'Make love, not war.' The only trouble was they didn't look capable of doing either.[185][186]

In economic terms, it has been contended that the counterculture really only amounted to creating new marketing segments for the "hip" crowd.[187]

Even before the counterculture movement reached its peak of influence, the concept of the adoption of socially-responsible policies by establishment corporations was discussed by economist and Nobel laureate Milton Friedman (1962), "Few trends could so thoroughly undermine the very foundation of our free society as the acceptance by corporate officials of a social responsibility other than to make as much money for their stockholders as possible. This is a fundamentally subversive doctrine. If businessmen do have a social responsibility other than making maximum profits for stockholders, how are they to know what it is? Can self-selected private individuals decide what the social interest is?"[188]

In the UK, commentator Peter Hitchens identifies the counterculture as one of the contributing factors to what he sees as the current malaise in British politics.[189]

External video
2014-06-14: Stanford Professor Fred Turner discusses 1960s counterculture and urges Class of '14 to embrace technology and politics to improve society. on YouTube

When asked about the prospects of the counterculture movement moving forward in the digital age, former Grateful Dead lyricist and self-styled "cyberlibertarian" John Perry Barlow said, "I started out as a teenage beatnik and then became a hippie and then became a cyberpunk. And now I'm still a member of the counterculture, but I don't know what to call that. And I'd been inclined to think that that was a good thing, because once the counterculture in America gets a name then the media can coopt it, and the advertising industry can turn it into a marketing foil. But you know, right now I'm not sure that it is a good thing, because we don't have any flag to rally around. Without a name there may be no coherent movement." [190]

Free Speech advocate and social anthropologist Jentri Anders observed that a number of freedoms were endorsed within a countercultural community in which she lived and studied: "freedom to explore one’s potential, freedom to create one’s Self, freedom of personal expression, freedom from scheduling, freedom from rigidly defined roles and hierarchical statuses..." Additionally, Anders believed some in the counterculture wished to modify children's education so that it didn't discourage, but rather encouraged, "aesthetic sense, love of nature, passion for music, desire for reflection, or strongly marked independence."[191][192]

External video
2009: Peter Coyote on the legacy of the counterculture (excerpt) on YouTube

In 2007, Merry Prankster Carolyn "Mountain Girl" Garcia commented, "I see remnants of that movement everywhere. It's sort of like the nuts in Ben and Jerry's ice cream -- it's so thoroughly mixed in, we sort of expect it. The nice thing is that eccentricity is no longer so foreign. We've embraced diversity in a lot of ways in this country. I do think it's done us a tremendous service."[193]

Key figures[edit]

The following people are well known for their involvement in 1960s era counterculture. Some are key incidental or contextual figures, such as Beat Generation figures who also participated directly in the later counterculture era. The primary area(s) of each figure's notability are indicated, per these figures' Wikipedia pages. Although many of the people listed are known for civil rights activism, some figures whose primary notability was within the realm of the civil rights movement are listed elsewhere. (see also: List of civil rights leaders; Key figures of the New Left).

Timeline: chronology of events and milestones[edit]

(See also: Opposition to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War: Timeline; Timeline of the African-American Civil Rights Movement)

Pre-1950[edit]

1920[edit]

1938[edit]

1944[edit]

1945[edit]

1946[edit]

  • Levittown: A model of post-war desire for quieter suburban life, and a signpost of the breakdown of the close-knit, extended urban family, the first mass-produced housing subdvision breaks ground on a former potato farm in New York. Thousands of new homes are sold-out virtually overnight, and the trend soon spreads nationwide. The baby boom is underway.[204][205][206]

1947[edit]

1948[edit]

  • Shelley v. Kraemer: The enforcement by states of deed restrictions prohibiting the transfer of real estate to non-Caucasians is deemed unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court, clearing the way for home ownership by Blacks and Jews in previously segregated communities.[216][217]

1949[edit]

  • January: Cheap transportation for a new generation, the first Volkswagen Beetle arrives in the US. By 1970, over 4 million are on American roads, when annual US sales top out at 570,000. The "Bug" and VW "Bus", introduced in 1950, become closely associated with the hippie and counterculture eras.[218][219][220]
  • August 29: The USSR detonates its first atomic bomb with essential aid of atomic spies from the US, Great Britain, and Canada. The Cold War has commenced in earnest.[221]
  • October 1: Communist China: After a long and bloody civil war, Party Chairman Mao Zedong proclaims the establishment of the People's Republic of China.[222][223]

1950s[edit]

1950[edit]

1951[edit]

1952[edit]

  • August: Mad Magazine debuts as a comic book before switching to standard magazine format in 1955.[227][228]
  • The National Security Agency is established, bringing most civilian US communications and technical intelligence collection under one roof. Intended as a tool against foreign enemies, the later use of the agency's extensive resources by bureaucrats and politicians against domestic, anti-war counterculture radicals is revealed and debated in congress in the 1970s.[229][230]
  • Invisible Man: Ralph Ellison's highly acclaimed novel of Black life in 20th Century America is published.[231]

1953[edit]

1954[edit]

  • April 6: On the floor of the US Senate, Senator John F. Kennedy proclaims that to "pour money, material, and men into the jungles of Indochina without at least a remote prospect of victory would be dangerously futile and self-destructive."[238]
  • April 27: The Geneva Accords grant independence to French Indochina, establishing Vietnam as a unified, independent nation in name only. The US is not a signatory to the treaty. The French are officially out of Southeast Asia, leaving a people, and a raging civil war, behind.[239]
  • May 17: Brown vs. Board of Ed: The US Supreme Court rules that racial segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. True racial integration begins in the US.[240]

1955[edit]

  • February: The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) is formally activated, nominally obligating the US to intervene as part of collective action in case of military conflagration in the region. The non-binding SEATO commitment, however, is only invoked as justification for involvement in Vietnam by President Johnson after later escalation of hostilities there prove unpopular.[241]
  • July 9: Bill Haley's version of "Rock Around the Clock" begins an eight-week run at #1 on Billboard. The Rock & Roll era begins.[242]
  • October 26: Village Voice: One of the earliest and most enduring alternative newspapers is launched by Ed Fancher, Dan Wolf, John Wilcock and Norman Mailer in New York City.[243]
  • December 1: Activist Rosa Parks refuses to cede her seat on a public bus in Montgomery, AL, is arrested, and allows the NAACP to take on, and later win her case.[244]

1956[edit]

  • April 21: "Heartbreak Hotel", Elvis Presley's first #1 hit, tops the charts for 8 weeks and creates teenage pandemonium in households across the western world.[245]
  • August: The FBI's COINTELPRO domestic counterintelligence program commences. It is initially directed against stateside communist activities, but grows to include illegal surveillance of civil rights and anti-war activists.[246][247]

1957[edit]

  • British psychiatrist Humphry Osmond coins the word "psychedelic" from the Greek words psyche ("mind") and delos ("manifest"), intended as an alternative to "hallucinogenic" in LSD parlance.[248]
  • Masters and Johnson begin scientific research into human sexual response in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Washington University in St. Louis.
  • January 10: The Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC) is formed in Atlanta, GA.[249]
  • September 5: Years in the works, a somewhat tamed version of Jack Kerouac's On The Road is published and becomes the seminal novel of the Beat Generation.[250][251]
  • September 23: President Eisenhower signs an executive order sending Federal troops to maintain peace and order during the racial integration of Central High School in Little Rock, AR.[252]
  • October 4: The western world is shocked and deeply fearful when the USSR launches Sputnik 1, the first artificial space satellite.[253][254]
  • November 15: Albert Schweitzer, Coretta Scott King, and Benjamin Spock post an ad in The New York Times calling for an end to the nuclear arms race. SANE is later formed.[255]

1958[edit]

1959[edit]

1960s[edit]

1960[edit]

1961[edit]

  • January: Look Magazine journalist George Leonard writes about “Youth of the Sixties: The Explosive Generation,” and predicts that the "quiet generation" of the 1950s "is rumbling and is going to explode…"[284][285]
  • January 17: US President Eisenhower gives his farewell address to the nation, and uses much of his time to warn of the undue influence of the "Military Industrial Complex."[286]
  • January 20: In a powerful inaugural address, new US President Kennedy calls upon citizens to "ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country."[287][288]
  • March 1: JFK signs an executive order creating the Peace Corps.[289]
  • March 28: President Kennedy orders final cancellation of the oft-resurrected USAF B-70 Bomber program in a significant rollback of the nuclear arms race.[290]
  • March 30: The UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is signed in New York City, tightening controls on international trade in opiates.[291]
  • April 12: Vostok: Man in Space: The western world is again shocked when Cold War foe the USSR follows its Sputnik triumph, putting the first human in space.[292]
  • April 17: A CIA-led invasion force intent on the overthrow of Fidel Castro lands at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba. Anti-Castro Cuban expatriates and CIA mercenaries are overtaken and captured by Cuban forces after President Kennedy (who inherited the operation planned under the previous administration) denies US air support at the last minute.
  • May 4: Civil rights activists known as the Freedom Riders begin to travel on public buses and trains across the south to challenge segregation.
  • June 4: JFK meets with Soviet Premier Khrushchev in Vienna, and reports no progress on issues concerning partitioned Germany. The Berlin Crisis ensues.
  • August 13: Berlin Wall: To stem the massive tide of emigration from the communist east into the free west, the construction of a wall dividing the city of Berlin begins under Soviet direction.[293]
  • October 25: US and Soviet tanks face off at Checkpoint Charlie in Berlin.[294][295]
  • November 1: Women Strike for Peace: 50,000 women march in 60 cities in the US to demonstrate against nuclear weapons.
  • November 14: US military advisors in Vietnam total 16,000.
  • November 30: Cuban Project: aggressive covert operations against Fidel Castro's revolutionary government in Cuba are authorized by JFK.
  • December 14: JFK signs an executive order establishing the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women.

1962[edit]

1963[edit]

1964[edit]

  • January: The Holy Modal Rounders' version of "Hesitation Blues" marks the first reference to the term psychedelic in music.
  • January 8: President Johnson's State of the Union Address features a declaration of "war on poverty".
  • January 23: 24th Amendment ratified: US Congress and states are prohibited from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of poll or other forms of tax.
  • January 27: Defense Secretary Robert McNamara states that there are now 15,000 US troops in South Vietnam, and that most will be withdrawn by the end of 1965.
  • February 1: "I Want to Hold Your Hand:" The Beatles achieve their first hit #1 on Billboard with a 7 week run on top. Beatlemania has spread to the US, and the monumental British Invasion of UK music begins.
  • February 7–22: The Beatles make their first US visit and appear on The Ed Sullivan Show. The February 9 telecast is seen by over 73 million, the largest TV audience to date in the US.[319]
  • February 21–24: Students at Maryland State College protesting a segregated restaurant are fought by police.
  • February 25–26: Tens of thousands of school students in Boston and Chicago skip classes in protest of segregation.
  • March 16: 25% of school students in New York City strike to protest segregation.
  • April 4: Beatles singles occupy the top 5 slots on the Billboard Hot 100. It's an unprecedented, and never repeated, chart achievement.[320]
  • April 20: 86% of black students in Cleveland boycott classes to protest segregation.
  • May: Appearance of the Faire Free Press (later the Los Angeles Free Press), earliest of many "underground" US newspapers of the counterculture era.
  • May: San Francisco Sheraton Palace Hotel sit-ins result in arrests of UC, Berkeley students protesting racially discriminatory Bay area hiring practices.[321]
  • May 7: President Johnson first refers to "the Great Society" in a speech in Athens, OH.
  • May 12: The first public draft-card burning is reported in New York City.
  • June 14: Ken Kesey and the drug-drenched Merry Pranksters depart California in the repurposed school bus "Further" en route to the 1964 World's Fair in Queens, NY.
  • June 22: "I know it when I see it": The US Supreme Court overturns the obscenity conviction of an Ohio theater operator. Although local obscenity battles continue to the present,[322] the decision clears the way for the commercial exhibition of sexually-explicit film material in the US.[323][324]
  • July 2: The Civil Rights Act is signed by President Johnson. Racial segregation in public places and race-based employment discrimination are now banned under federal law.
  • July: The US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) adopts radio non-duplication rules: FM must broadcast original content, not simply simulcasts of AM sister stations.
  • August 2: War Dance: the spurious Gulf of Tonkin Incidents off the coast of Vietnam lead to the nearly unanimous passage of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution by the US Congress on August 7, giving the president unprecedented broad authority to engage in full "conventional" military escalation in Southeast Asia without a formal declaration of war.[325]
  • October 1: The Free Speech Movement begins with a student sit-in at the University of California, Berkeley.
  • October 14: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. wins the Nobel Peace Prize.
  • November 3: Sitting President Lyndon B. Johnson is elected President of the US in his own right, defeating Republican Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater in a landslide.
  • November 4: Comedian Lenny Bruce is convicted on obscenity charges in New York City.
  • December 2: In a famous speech during a sit-in, Berkeley student Mario Savio tells supporters of the Free Speech Movement to "put your bodies upon the gears."

1965[edit]

  • February 8: Aerial bombing of North Vietnam by the US commences.
  • February 9–15: Thousands demonstrate against the US attacks on North Vietnam at the US Embassies in Moscow, Budapest, Jakarta, and Sofia.
  • February 21: Malcolm X is assassinated in New York City.
  • March: The "Filthy Speech Rally" at Berkeley.[263][326]
  • March 6: Regular US troops engage in combat in Vietnam for the first time.
  • March 7–25: The SCLC stages the watershed Selma to Montgomery marches, initiated and initially organized by James Bevel.
  • March 16: Alice Herz, age 82, self-immolates in Detroit, MI in protest of Vietnam escalation. Herz dies 10 days later.[327]
  • March 24–25: The first major "Teach-in" is held by the SDS in Ann Arbor, MI. 3000 attend.
  • March 27: Beatles John Lennon and George Harrison are given LSD without their knowledge by their UK dentist at a dinner party.
  • March 30: Owsley Stanley begins manufacturing "White Lightning" LSD in large quantities for sale as a recreational drug.
  • Spring: "Never trust anyone over 30": UC Berkeley grad student and Free Speech activist Jack Weinberg's quip is quoted in paraphrase, inadvertently creating a key catchphrase of the generation.[328]
  • April: US combat troops in Vietnam total 25,000.
  • April 17: The first major anti-Vietnam War rally in the US is organized by the SDS in Washington, DC. 25,000 attend. Joan Baez, Judy Collins, and Phil Ochs perform.
  • May 17: Hunter S. Thompson's article The Motorcycle Gangs: Losers and Outsiders appears in The Nation. A book soon follows.
  • May: Draft card burnings take place at University of California, Berkeley. A coffin is marched to the Berkeley draft board, and President Johnson is hanged in effigy. Jerry Rubin forms the Vietnam Day Committee[329] with Abbie Hoffman and others during these events.[330]
  • June–August: Red Dog Experience comes into full flower at Virginia City, Nevada's Red Dog Saloon - full-fledged "hippie" identity takes shape.
  • June 7: Griswold v. Connecticut: The US Supreme Court rules that Constitutional privacy guarantees trump a Connecticut statute banning use of contraceptives by married couples. "Comstock-era" laws are likewise now moot in other states. In 1972, the court rules that protections apply to unmarried couples as well. [331][332][333]
  • June 11: International Poetry Incarnation: Notables including Allen Ginsburg, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Michael Horovitz and William S. Burroughs participate in a breakthrough event for the UK Underground, Royal Albert Hall, London.[334]
  • June 11: The Beatles are awarded as Members of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (MBE) by the Queen for their contributions to British commerce.
  • July 25: Bob Dylan "goes electric" and is booed at the Newport Folk Festival.
  • July 30: Medicare is signed into law in the US, giving seniors a healthcare safety net.
  • August 6: The Voting Rights Act is signed into law in the US; "Literacy tests", poll taxes and other local schemes to prevent voting by blacks are newly or further banned under federal law.
  • August 11: 6 days of massive race riots erupt in the Watts section of Los Angeles: 35 dead, 1000 buildings damaged or destroyed. Meanwhile, smaller riots occur in Chicago.
  • August 31: The ban on the burning of draft cards is signed into law in the US.
  • September 5: The word hippie is used in print by San Francisco writer Michael Fallon, helping popularise use of the term in the media, although the tag was seen earlier in a passing remark about pot cookies in journalist Dorothy Kilgallen's June 11, 1963 column.[335][336]
  • September 15: I-Spy: Comedian Bill Cosby becomes the first African-American to star in a dramatic American television series. (Amanda Randolph had starred in the comedy The Laytons on the short-lived DuMont Network in the late 1940s.)[337]
  • September 25: Debut of The Beatles Saturday morning cartoon series.
  • September 25: Barry McGuire's "Eve of Destruction" becomes the first protest song to hit #1 in the charts, while drawing heavy criticism and being banned by many stations.
  • October: The Yardbirds featuring Jeff Beck release the B-side "Still I'm Sad." Psychedelic music first makes the charts.
  • October 15–16: Vietnam War protests in cities across the US draw 100,000.
  • October 16: "A Tribute to Dr. Strange": 1,000 original San Francisco "hippies" first party en masse at Longshoreman's Hall. Owsley's "White Lightning" acid is available to all.
  • November 2: Quaker leader Norman Morrison self-immolates at the Pentagon to protest the war.
  • November 5: My Generation: The Who speak to the new youth. "This is my generation!" and "I hope I die before I get old" become mantras of the rising counterculture.[338][339]
  • November 9: Catholic activist Roger Allen LaPorte self-immolates at the UN building in New York City.
  • November 20: 8,000 anti-war protesters march from Berkeley to Oakland in CA.
  • November 27: Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters hold the first "Acid Test" at Soquel, CA.
  • November 27: Up to 35,000 anti-war protesters march on the White House.
  • December: Clarion call "California Dreamin'" is first released by The Mamas and the Papas.[340]
  • December 3: The Beatles' Rubber Soul is released in the UK with a visually distorted image of the group on the cover. The single "Day Tripper" is also released. Paul McCartney later states that the song was about drugs, but the lyrics are about a female Sunday tourist.[341]
  • December 25: Timothy Leary is arrested for drug possession at the Mexican border.
  • December: The Pretty Things release Get the Picture? The album includes a song entitled L.S.D.[342]
  • Phil Ochs releases the satirical "Draft Dodger Rag." He later performs the song on the CBS News Special Avoiding the Draft. Pete Seeger's version appears in 1966.
  • The East Village Other begins publication in New York City.
  • Early commune Drop City is founded in Colorado.
  • Unsafe at Any Speed: Activist attorney Ralph Nader's wake-up call concerning automotive safety is published and fuels the modern Consumer Movement. Nader's ongoing work leads to the passage of the US National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966. In 1972, annual US highway deaths peak at 54,589, approaching the total number of war dead during the 10-year US combat involvement in Vietnam.[343][344][345]

1966[edit]

  • Resurgence magazine first published in UK.[346] Contributors have included E.F. Schumacher,[346] Ivan Illich, R. D. Laing and The Dalai Lama.
  • January 8: 2400 attend when the "Acid Test" arrives at the Fillmore West.[347][348]
  • January 21–23: Family Dog "Trips Festival" attended by 10,000 in San Francisco.
  • March 11: Timothy Leary is sentenced to 30 years on his 1965 border drug offense.
  • March 14: Eight Miles High: The Byrd's psychedelic 12-string-electric guitar anthem is released and briefly banned on radio due to perceived drug-culture subject matter.[349]
  • March 16: Twelve Australians burn their draft cards at a Sydney rally against Australia's participation in Vietnam.
  • March 25–27: Anti-Vietnam War demonstrations take place in many cities across the US and around the world.
  • April 5: US Food and Drug Administration warns about the danger of LSD in a letter to 2000 universities.
  • April 7: Sandoz, the sole legitimate manufacturer of pharmaceutical-grade LSD, stops supplying the drug to researchers.
  • April 17: Timothy Leary is arrested for possession of marijuana.
  • May 7: Psychedelic bellwether "Paint it Black" is released by the Rolling Stones.
  • May 12: Students take over administration building at the University of Chicago to protest the draft.
  • May 15: 10,000 anti-war protesters picket the White House.
  • May 18: 10,000 students rally against draft at University of Wisconsin.
  • May 29: The phrase "Black Power" re-emerges in 1960s Civil Rights context."[350]
  • May 30: Featuring backward snippets, John Lennon's psychedelic "Rain" is released as the B-side of Paul McCartney's hit "Paperback Writer."[351]
  • June 4: The New York Times publishes a petition to end the Vietnam War, with 6400 signatures including many prominent scholars and clergy.
  • June 13: Miranda v. Arizona: The US Supreme Court rules that the Fifth Amendment to the US Constitution provides protection against self-incrimination, requiring law enforcement officials to advise a suspect interrogated in custody of their right to remain silent and their right to obtain an attorney.[352]
  • June 25: Lenny Bruce performs for the last time. The show at the Fillmore in San Francisco also showcases Frank Zappa.
  • June 27: Psychedelic concept album Freak Out! is released by Frank Zappa's Mothers of Invention.
  • June 30: The National Organization of Women (NOW) is founded in Washington, DC.
  • July: Beatle backlash: US Bible Belt DJs incite thousands to burn Beatle records after the viral spread of John Lennon's "we're more popular than Jesus" comment.
  • July: Donovan's "Sunshine Superman" contains the first open reference to (LSD) "tripping" in a chart-topping song.
  • July–September: Riots break out throughout the summer in several US cities, with deaths in Chicago and Cleveland (July), Waukegan IL and Benton Harbour MI (August), and damage in many other cities.
  • August 3: Lenny Bruce, called "the most radically relevant of all contemporary social satirists..." is found dead at age 40 from a morphine overdose in Los Angeles.[353]
  • August 5: Revolver is released by the Beatles, and includes John Lennon's groundbreaking psychedelic track "Tomorrow Never Knows."
  • August 29: The Beatles perform their last concert with ticket sales at Candlestick Park in San Francisco.[354][355]
  • September 12: US TV's response to the Beatles, The Monkees, debuts on NBC.
  • September 19: Timothy Leary begins his "Turn on, tune in, drop out" crusade in New York City, founding the LSD religion "League for Spiritual Discovery".
  • September 20: Anti-Establishment publisher Allen Cohen's underground newspaper The San Francisco Oracle begins publication in Haight-Ashbury.
  • October 6: LSD is banned in the US.
  • October 6: The Love Pageant Rally protest against the LSD ban is held in San Francisco.[356]
  • October 10: The Beach Boys release Brian Wilson's psychedelic tour de force "Good Vibrations."
  • October 15: The Black Panther Party is established by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, CA.
  • November 9: Beatle John Lennon first meets avant-garde Japanese artist and future wife Yoko Ono at London's Indica Gallery.[357]
  • November 12: For What It's Worth: The Sunset Strip teen curfew riots inspire Stephen Stills to pen the Buffalo Springfield protest song, West Hollywood, CA.
  • December 8: MGM releases the British film Blow-Up without approval of the movie ratings group MPAA, signalling the beginning of the end of enforcement of the Hays Code. In late 1968, the MPAA institutes the first voluntary system of movie ratings, intended as a guide for viewers as to a film's content and age-appropriateness.[358]

1967[edit]

  • January: The "Human Be-In", "the joyful, face-to-face beginning of the new epoch" is held in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. 20,000 attend.[359][360][361]
  • January 12: US TV on LSD: Acid is the subject of the debut "Blue Boy" episode of the square, sermon-laden police drama Dragnet '67.[362][363]
  • January 29: Ultimate High: Mantra-Rock Dance at the Avalon Ballroom in San Francisco. Hare Krishna is promoted, and the Grateful Dead, Big Brother and the Holding Company and Moby Grape perform. Ginsberg, Leary and Owsley attend.[364][365]
  • February: Surrealistic Pillow by Jefferson Airplane is released. Psilocybin mushrooms are visible on the album cover, and tracks include "D.C.B.A.-25," referring to the chords and LSD-25.[366]
  • February: Quagmire: Noam Chomsky's anti-Vietnam essay The Responsibility of Intellectuals is published in The New York Review of Books.[367]
  • February 5: The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour debuts on CBS and soon pushes the boundaries of acceptable TV content to the limit.[368]
  • February 11: Human Fly-In: New York DJ Bob Fass uses the airwaves to inspire an impromtu gathering of thousands at Kennedy Airport, in what was later called a "prehistoric flash mob".[369][370][371]
  • February 12: Stones Bust: Keith Richards and Mick Jagger are arrested for drugs at Richards' UK mansion. In June they are tried and convicted, but soon freed on appeal.[372]
  • February 13: The Beatles issue Lennon's "Strawberry Fields Forever" as B-side to Paul's hit "Penny Lane." "Cranberry sauce" is heard after the song fades-out. Or is it "I buried Paul"?[373]
  • February 17: The cover of Life Magazine features Ed Sanders of The Fugs below "HAPPENINGS - The worldwide underground of the arts creates - THE OTHER CULTURE."[374][375]
  • February 22: MacBird! opens at the Village Gate in New York City and runs for 386 performances. The controversial play compares Lyndon Johnson to Shakespeare's Macbeth, who caused the death of his predecessor.[376]
  • March 26: 10,000 attend the New York City "Be-In" in Central Park.[377]
  • March 31: Life Magazine publishes an editorial opining that "the hour of the hippie ... is coming."
  • April 4: Beyond Vietnam: Dr. King delivers a monumental anti-war speech.[378]
  • April 7: The cover of TIME features the birth control pill.[379]
  • April 8–10: Race riots break out in Nashville, TN. Activist Stokely Carmichael and Allen Ginsburg are present.[380]
  • April 15: National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam: an estimated 400,000 protest the escalating Vietnam War in New York City, marching from Central Park to UN Headquarters. Dr. King and Stokely Carmichael speak. 75,000 assemble in San Francisco.[381]
  • April 28: Boxing Champ Muhammad Ali refuses induction into the US Army in Houston, TX, on the grounds that he is a conscientious objector to the war in Vietnam.
  • April 29: Technicolour Dream: 7000 attend a groundbreaking, televised 14-hour psychedelic rave to promote love and peace at Alexandra Palace, London.
  • May 2: Armed Black Panthers led by Bobby Seale enter the California State Assembly, protesting a bill to outlaw open carry of loaded firearms. Seale and five others are arrested.
  • May 5: Mr. Natural, the soon to be ubiquitous underground comix counterculture icon, makes his first appearance in the premiere issue of Yarrowstalks.
  • May 10: Rolling Stone Brian Jones is arrested for drug possession. He is later fined, given probation, and ordered to see a counselor.
  • May 11: Police fire on student protesters at Jackson State College, MS, killing one.
  • May 16: Student confrontation with police at Texas Southern University; one killed.
  • May 20–21: The Spring Mobilization Conference is held in Washington, D.C. 700 anti-war activists gather to discuss the April 15 protests, and to plan future demonstrations.[382]
  • June–July: Deaths, property damage, injuries, and arrests follow US race riots in Tampa, Rochester, Brooklyn, Chicago, and Grand Rapids.
  • June: Vietnam Veterans Against the War is formed.
  • June–September: The "Summer of Love" in the Haight Ashbury district of San Francisco and recognition of the Hippie movement. Runaways inundate, TV crews visit, Gray Line sells bus tours.[383]
  • June 1: The Beatles' Sgt Pepper is released and is widely recognised as the high-water mark of the brief psychedelic music era.
  • June 10–11: Fantasy Fair and Magic Mountain Music Festival: The Summer of Love kicks off at Mount Tamalpais, Marin County, California. Over 30,000 see the Doors, Jefferson Airplane, Country Joe & the Fish, and many other acts perform in the first rock festival gathering of its kind.[384][385]
  • June 16–18: The Monterey Pop Festival in California draws 200,000 and is the first large extended festival of the rock era. Jimi Hendrix returns from the UK and makes his US "debut." David Crosby uses microphone time to brashly condemn the Warren Report.[386][387]
  • June 20: Muhammad Ali is found guilty of draft evasion. The US Supreme Court eventually hears Ali's legal appeal.[388]
  • June 25: All You Need Is Love: The BBC's live satellite broadcast of the Beatles' summer UK hit breaks records, reaching an estimated 200-400 million worldwide.[389][390]
  • June 30: US military forces in Vietnam total 448,000.
  • July 7: The cover of Time features hippies.
  • July 12–17: Rioting in Newark, NJ with 24 deaths.
  • July 16: Hyde Park Rally: 5000 gather in London to protest "immoral in principle and unworkable in practice" pot laws. A petition signed by many notables is published.
  • July 23–27: The worst riots of the century to date erupt in Detroit, MI: 43 deaths, 467 injuries, over 7,200 arrests, and the burning of over 2,000 buildings to the ground.[391][392]
  • July 30-August 3: Four are killed in Milwaukee rioting.
  • August 22: Look Magazine runs a cover story on "The Hippies".
  • August 27: Beatles manager Brian Epstein dies of a prescription drug overdose in London at age 32.[393]
  • September 30: Pirates No More: Hip Radio 1 commences broadcast over the legitimate airwaves of the BBC following the UK ban on offshore "pirate" radio transmissions.
  • October: "Guerrilla theater" group The Diggers stages the "Death of Hippie" in San Francisco.
  • October 8: Groovy Murders: James "Groovy" Hutchinson and Linda Fitzpatrick are murdered in New York City in a drug deal gone bad. Two drifters plead guilty.[394]
  • October 9: Che Guevara is executed in Bolivia.
  • October 17: Stop the Draft Week: Demonstrators mob the US Army Induction Center in Oakland, CA. Joan Baez is among those arrested. Some are charged with sedition.
  • October 17: The rock musical Hair, featuring controversial full frontal nudity, premieres off-Broadway in New York City. The play becomes a Broadway smash in 1968.
  • October 19: Thousands of students clash with police at Brooklyn College in New York after two military recruiters appear on campus. Students strike the following day.
  • October 20–21: The "Mobe" Redux: 100,000 protest the war in Washington, DC. Jerry Rubin, Abbie Hoffman and others lead attempts at "exorcism" and levitation of the Pentagon.[395][396]
  • October 27: "Baltimore Four": Catholic priest Philip Berrigan and three others are jailed after pouring blood on draft files in the SSS office, protesting bloodshed in Vietnam. Berrigan is later convicted.[397]
  • October 28: Black Panther leader Huey Newton is stopped by Oakland police. A shootout resulting in the death of an officer leads to Newton's conviction, which is later overturned.[398][399]
  • November: The activity at the Diggers' Free Store is the impetus for an anti-hippie turf war with local thugs in New York City.[400]
  • November 9: The first issue of Rolling Stone Magazine features a photo of John Lennon from the film How I Won The War.
  • November 20: Police using teargas charge a large student demonstration against recruiters for Dow Chemical (napalm manufacturer) at San Jose State College.
  • November 24: The Beatles release John Lennon's psychedelic coda "I Am the Walrus" The album Magical Mystery Tour arrives November 27.
  • December 4–8: Anti-war groups all across the US attempt to shut down draft board centers; Dr. Benjamin Spock and poet Allen Ginsburg are among the 585 arrested.
  • December 10: Monterey Pop Fest standout and soon-to-be soul legend Otis Redding dies in a plane crash at age 26.
  • December 22: Owsley Stanley is found in possession of 350,000 doses of LSD and 1,500 doses of STP, arrested, and sentenced to 3 years.
  • December 31: The term "Yippie" is coined by Jerry Rubin, Abbie Hoffman, Dick Gregory, Paul Krassner and others. The Youth International Party is formed the following month.
  • December: The Moody Blues' masterpiece Days of Future Passed, featuring psychedelic themes and the London Festival Orchestra, is released.
  • December: US troops in Vietnam total 486,000. US war dead total 15,000.
  • Chemist Alexander Shulgin first ingests the MDMA (Ecstasy) he's been synthesizing in his Dow Chemical lab, and discovers mind-altering properties unknown since patent of the compound by Merck in 1912.[401]

1968[edit]

  • Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test is published.[402]
  • January: Owsley-inspired pioneer Heavy Metal band Blue Cheer release Vincebus Eruptum.[403]
  • January 22: Laugh-In: The sketch comedy "phenomenon that both reflected and mocked the era’s counterculture," and brought it into "mainstream living rooms" debuts on US TV.[404][405]
  • January 31: The Tet Offensive is launched by the NVA and Vietcong. Western forces are victorious on the battlefield, but not in the press.[406][407]
  • February 1: Following the free-form programming experimentations at KFRC-FM in San Francisco, WABX-FM in Detroit and other stations nationwide begin officially changing format. FM playlists and other content are now chosen by local DJs, not corporate executives or record companies. The Progressive Rock format takes hold.[408]
  • February 8: Police fire on and kill 3 protesting segregation at a South Carolina bowling alley, in what is known as the Orangeburg Massacre.[409]
  • February 15: The Beatles begin to arrive by rail in Rishikesh, India, for Transcendental Meditation training with the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, amid widespread publicity.[410]
  • February 27: CBS News anchor Walter Cronkite, the "most trusted man in America", publicly expresses personal doubts regarding the possibility of ultimate victory in Vietnam.[411][412][413]
  • February 29: Kerner Report: The Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders is released after seven months of investigation into US urban rioting.[414][415]
  • March 16: My Lai Massacre in Vietnam. Apparent wanton rape and murder of innocents by US GIs creates enormous new anti-war outcry when news leaks in 1969.[416][417][418]
  • March 17: London police stop 10,000 anti-war marchers from storming the US Embassy. 200 are arrested.[419]
  • March 18: Senator Robert F. Kennedy, a long-time supporter of US policy in Vietnam, speaks out against the war for the first time, and announces his candidacy for President.[420]
  • March 22: 3,000 Yippies take over Grand Central Station in New York City, staging a "Yip-In" that ultimately results in an "extraordinary display of unprovoked police brutality" and 61 arrests.[421][422][423]
  • March 31: President Johnson addresses the US public about Vietnam on TV, and shocks the nation with his closing remark that he will not seek a second term as President.[424]
  • Spring: Reggae: "Nanny Goat" by Larry Marshall, and Do the Reggay by Toots and the Maytals mark the arrival of a new musical genre.[425][426] Johnny Nash ("Hold Me Tight"), and Paul McCartney ("Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da") are inspired by the Jamaican sound.[427]
  • March–May: Columbia University protests, New York, NY. Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers becomes a protest slogan at this time, as well as the name of a radical activist group.[428]
  • April: The US Department of Defense begins calling-up reservists for duty in Vietnam. The US Supreme Court turns down a challenge to the mobilization in October.[429]
  • April: The US Bureau of Narcotics (from Treasury) and Bureau of Drug Abuse Control (from the Food and Drug Administration) merge, substantially ramping-up anti-drug efforts.[430]
  • April 4: The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated in Memphis, TN. Drifter James Earl Ray is soon arrested for the murder. The King family later expresses complete doubt as to Ray's guilt.[431] Violence erupts in cities across the US, with thousands of Federal guardsman dispatched. Memphis, TN, Chicago, IL, Baltimore, MD, Kansas City, MO, and Washington, DC are hotspots.[432]
  • April 6: Oakland Shootout: Black Panther Bobby Hutton is killed and Eldridge Cleaver is wounded in a gun battle with police. Cleaver later claims that Hutton was murdered while in police custody.[433]
  • April 5: A Yippie plot to disrupt the upcoming August Democratic Convention in Chicago is published in Time.[434]
  • April 14: The Easter Sunday "Love-In" is held in Malibu Canyon, CA.[435]
  • April 27: Anti-war protesters march in several US cities, including 87,000 in Central Park, NYC.
  • May: The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers first appear in The Rag, an Austin TX underground paper.[436][437]
  • May 2: Student protests erupt in France, which spread, escalate and lead to a general strike and widespread unrest during May and June, bringing the country to a virtual standstill.[438]
  • May 10: The Paris Peace Talks commence in France. The war in Southeast Asia is the subject of the negotiations.[439][440][441]
  • May 12: Dr. King's Poor People's Campaign establishes "Resurrection City", a shanty town on the National Mall in Washington D.C., with around 5,000 protesters.
  • May 17: Catonsville Nine: Catholic priests opposed to the war destroy draft records in a Maryland draft office.[442]
  • May 24–27: Louisville Riots: After a claim of police brutality, police and thousands of National Guard confront rioting protesters and looters. Two black teens die before order is restored.[443]
  • June 3: Artist Andy Warhol shot and wounded by a "radical feminist" writer.[444][445]
  • June 5: Senator Robert Francis Kennedy, winner of the California primary, and presumed presidential front-runner, is assassinated in Los Angeles. RFK dies June 6.[446]
  • June 19: "Solidarity Day" protest at Resurrection City draws 55,000 participants.
  • June 24: Remnants of "Resurrection City", with only about 300 protesters still remaining, razed by riot police.
  • July 17: The Beatles' post-psychedelic, pop-art animated film Yellow Submarine is released in the UK (November 13 in the US).[447][448]
  • July 28–30: University of California, Berkeley campus shut down by protests.
  • August 21: Communist tanks roll in Czechoslovakia and crush the popular "Prague Spring" uprising.[449]
  • August 25–29: Democratic National Convention in Chicago. The proceedings are overshadowed by massive protests staged by thousands of demonstrators of every stripe.[58] Mayor Daley's desire to enforce order in the city results in egregious police brutality, televised on national airwaves. On the third night, police indiscriminately attack protesters and bystanders, including journalists such as Mike Wallace, Dan Rather and Hugh Hefner. The spectacle is a turning point for both supporters and critics of the larger movement.
  • August 26: Revolution?: Lennon's B-side to McCartney's smash Hey Jude is released. Its eschewing of violent protest is seen as a betrayal by some on the left. A version recorded earlier was released in November and suggests indecision as to Lennon's stance on violence.[450]
  • August 31: First Isle of Wight Festival featuring Jefferson Airplane, Arthur Brown, The Move, Tyrannosaurus Rex and The Pretty Things.
  • September 7: At the Miss America protest, feminists demonstrate against what they call "The Degrading Mindless-Boob-Girlie Symbol", filling a "freedom trash can" with items including mops, pots and pans, Cosmopolitan and Playboy magazines, false eyelashes, high-heeled shoes, curlers, hairspray, makeup, girdles, corsets, and bras.
  • September 28: 10,000 in Chicago protest on one-month anniversary of the convention violence.
  • Fall: Stewart Brand begins publication of The Whole Earth Catalog.[451]
  • October 2: The Night of Sorrow: Students and police violently clash in Mexico City.
  • October 18: John Lennon and Yoko Ono are arrested for drug possession in London. Lennon is only fined for his first offence, and more serious obstruction charges against the pair are dropped, but the arrest will later serve as the pretext for the politically-motivated attempted deportation of Lennon from the US in the 1970s.[452][453]
  • October 25: Emile de Antonio's highly controversial and Oscar nominated anti-war documentary In the Year of the Pig (per the Chinese "Year of the Pig") is released. de Antonio later earns a spot on President Nixon's Enemies List.[444][454]
  • October 27: 50,000 march in London against the Vietnam war.
  • Ocotber 31: President Johnson orders a halt to the aerial bombing of North Vietnam.[455][456]
  • November 5: Former Vice President Richard M. Nixon defeats sitting VP Hubert Humphrey, and the Wallace/Lemay ticket in a close race. Nixon in January becomes the 37th President of the US, ending 8 years of democrat control of the White House.[457][458]
  • November 6: Students demanding minority studies courses begin a strike at San Francisco State College, where demonstrations and clashes occur into March, 1969, making it the longest student strike in US history.[459][460]
  • November 22: The Beatles' White Album is released. The band's hair is very long, and the musical content is not psychedelic.[461]
  • December 24: Earthrise, a photograph of the Earth, is taken from Moon orbit. "The most influential environmental photograph ever taken."[462]

1969[edit]

  • January 8–18: Students at Brandeis University take over Ford and Sydeman Halls, demanding creation of an Afro-American Dept., which is approved by the University on April 24.
  • January 12: 5,000 students protesting discrimination in London clash with police.
  • January 29: Sir George Williams Computer Riot in Montreal is the largest student campus occupation in Canadian history.
  • January 30-February 15: Administration building of University of Chicago taken over by around 400 student protesters in a "sit-in".
  • February 13: National Guard with teargas and riot sticks crush a pro-black demonstration at University of Wisconsin
  • February 16: After 3 days of clashes between police and Duke University students, the school agrees to establish a Black Studies program.
  • February 24: Tinker v. Des Moines: The US Supreme court affirms public school students' First Amendment rights to protest the war.[463]
  • March 1: Arrest warrants are issued for Doors frontman Jim Morrison after he allegedly simulates masturbation and threatens to expose himself at a concert in Miami, FL.
  • March 22: President Nixon condemns trend of campus takeovers and violence.
  • March 25–31: Following their wedding at Gibraltar, John Lennon & Yoko Ono hold a "Bed-In" peace event in Amsterdam.[464]
  • April: US troop strength in Vietnam peaks at over 543,000.[465][466]
  • April 3–4: National Guard called into Chicago, and Memphis placed on curfew on anniversary of Dr. King's assassination.
  • April 4: Smothered: CBS Chairman William S. Paley personally cancels the highly controversial Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour.
  • April 9: 300 students "sit-in" at offices of Harvard protesting the ROTC. 400 police restore order April 10. The college makes ROTC extracurricular April 19.
  • April 19: Armed black students take over Willard Straight Hall at Cornell. The University accedes to their demands the following day, promising an Afro-American studies program.
  • April 25–28: Activist students takeover Merrill House at Colgate University demanding Afro-American studies programs.
  • May 7: Students at Howard University occupy 8 buildings. They are cleared by US Marshals May 9.
  • May 8: City College of New York closes following a 14-day-long student takeover demanding minority studies; riots among students break out when CCNY tries to reopen.
  • May 9–11: 3000 college students flock to the "Zip to Zap" event in rural North Dakota, degenerating into a riot dispersed by the National Guard.
  • May 15: Bloody Thursday: Alameda County Sheriffs sent in by governor Ronald Reagan to eject flower children from People's Park in Berkeley, CA open fire with buckshot-loaded shotguns, mortally wounding student James Rector, permanently blinding carpenter Alan Blanchard, and inflicting lesser wounds on hundreds of other Berkeley residents.
  • May 21–25: 1969 Greensboro uprising: student protesters battle police for five days on campus of North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University; one student killed May 22. National Guard assault the campus using teargas, even dropping it by helicopter.
  • May 26-June 2: Celebrities gather as John & Yoko conduct their second Bed-In in Montreal, where the anti-war anthem "Give Peace a Chance" is recorded live.[467]
  • June 18: SDS convenes in Chicago; they oust the Progressive Labour faction June 28, which sets up its own rival convention.
  • June 28: The Stonewall Riots in New York City are the first major gay-rights uprisings in the US.
  • July 3: Brian Jones, founder of the Rolling Stones, dies "by misadventure" in his swimming pool in East Sussex, UK, under mysterious circumstances at age 27.[468]
  • July 14: The low-budget film Easy Rider is released and becomes a de facto cultural landmark. The film's success helps open doors for independent film makers of the 1970s.
  • July 15: Cover story on LOOK: "How Hippies Raise their Children."
  • July 18: The cover of LIFE Magazine features "hippie communes."
  • July 20: Apollo 11 lands. Humans walk on the moon. A tablet with the inscription "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" is left on the lunar surface.[469]
  • July 25: Vietnamization: RMN's Nixon Doctrine calls on Asian regional allies formerly guaranteed protection under treaty to fend for themselves in non-nuclear conflicts.
  • August 9–10: Helter Skelter: Actress Sharon Tate, Tate's unborn baby, and five others are viciously murdered at knifepoint by cult members acting under the direction of psychopath Charles Manson during a 2-day killing spree in California. The events shock the nation. For many, the crimes and Manson's "family" are seen as products of the counterculture.[470][471][472]
  • August 15–17: 3 Days of Peace & Music: The Woodstock festival is attended by an estimated total of 300,000-500,000 people, and becomes the watershed musical event in counterculture history.[473]
  • August 19: Immediately following Woodstock, David Crosby, Stephen Stills, Joni Mitchell and Jefferson Airplane appear on the Dick Cavett Show. The latter's use of the slogan "Up against the wall, motherfuckers!" in the lyrics for "We Can Be Together" slips past the censors and is played on national television.
  • August 30–31: Second Isle of Wight Festival attracts 150,000 people to see acts including Bob Dylan and The Band, The Who, Free, Joe Cocker and The Moody Blues
  • September: First US issue of Penthouse Magazine is published by Robert Guccione.
  • September 1–2: Race rioting in Hartford, CT and Camden, NJ.
  • September 2: Ho Chi Minh, President of communist North Vietnam, dies.[474]
  • September 6: First broadcast of H.R. Pufnstuf.
  • September 24: The Chicago Eight trial commences. Tom Hayden, Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, et al., face charges including conspiracy to incite riots at the 1968 DNC Convention. They become the Chicago Seven November 5 after defendant Bobby Seale is bound, gagged, and severed from the proceedings.
  • October 4: TV star Art Linkletter's daughter Diane, 20, jumps to her death from her 6th story apartment. Linkletter claims Timothy Leary and LSD are responsible.[475]
  • October 8–11: Days of Rage: Elements of the SDS and the Weather Underground faction continue radical efforts to "bring the war home" in Chicago, and exchange brutalities with Chicago Police.[476]
  • October 15: Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam: massive anti-war demonstrations across the US and world.
  • October 21: Jack Kerouac dies from complications of alcoholism at age 47.
  • October 29: "login": The first message on the ARPANET - precursor to the internet and WWW - is sent by UCLA student programmer Charley Kline.[477]
  • November 13: Vice President Agnew publicly criticizes the three mainstream television networks for their lack of favorable coverage.
  • November 15: Moratorium redux: over 500,000 march in Washington, DC. It is the largest anti-war demonstration in US history.[478]
  • November 20: Native American protesters begin the Occupation of Alcatraz; occupation continues 19 months until June 11, 1971.
  • December: Total US casualties (dead & seriously wounded) in Vietnam total 100,000.
  • December 1: The first draft lottery in the US since World War II is held in New York City. Later statistical analysis indicates the lottery method was flawed.
  • December 4: Black Panther Fred Hampton is killed by combined elements of Federal, Illinois State, and Chicago law enforcement under circumstances which to some suggest political assassination.
  • December 6: Altamont: the Rolling Stones help organize and headline at a free concert attended by 300,000. The event devolves into chaos and violent death at a speedway between Tracy and Livermore, CA.[479][480]
  • December 27–31: Flint War Council, Michigan. SDS is abolished, the Weathermen break off, and one of the most significant seditious revolts since the US Civil War emerges.
  • Wavy Gravy's Hog Farm Hippie commune is established near Llano, NM.
  • Friends of the Earth is founded in the US. It becomes an international network in 1971.

1970s[edit]

1970[edit]

  • President Nixon establishes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The agency is activated in December, 1970.
  • January 1: Voting age in Britain lowered from 21 to 18.
  • February: Weather Underground bombings and arsons in US states of NY, CA, WA, MD, & MI.
  • February 18: Chicago 7 verdicts are handed down: 2 are exonerated, 5 are soon sentenced for "crossing state lines with intent to incite a riot".
  • February 23–26: Students riot at University of California-Santa Barbara.
  • February 25–28: Students riot, occupy campus buildings, etc. at SUNY Buffalo, NY.
  • March 6: Greenwich Village townhouse explosion: 3 members of the Weather Underground are killed while assembling a bomb in New York City.
  • March 26: The documentary film Woodstock is released.
  • April 1: Jerry Rubin guest appears the Phil Donahue Show and lambastes Donahue for his conservative appearance.
  • April 7: California Governor Ronald Reagan is quoted on college campus student unrest: "If it takes a blood bath, let's get it over with."
  • April 7: X-Rated Midnight Cowboy wins 3 Oscars including Best Picture in Hollywood.[481][482]
  • April 10: Paul McCartney, when promoting his first solo album, announces that the Beatles have disbanded.
  • April 15: 100,000 gather on Boston Common to protest Vietnam War; about 500 radicals attempt to seize microphone, disrupting meeting.
  • April 22: The first Earth Day is held.
  • April 30: President Nixon reveals secret US military operations in Cambodia.
  • May 1–3: 13,000 people take part in peaceful demonstrations at Yale University in support of defendants in the New Haven Black Panther trials.
  • May 2: Students at Kent State University protesting the spread of the war into Cambodia burn the ROTC building to the ground. Ohio Governor Jim Rhodes calls in the National Guard at the request of Kent's Mayor.[483]
  • May 4: In what is perhaps the greatest tragedy of the stateside anti-war protest movement, poorly-trained soldiers of the Ohio National Guard are set loose into confrontation with - and open fire on - unarmed students at Kent State University leaving 4 dead and nine wounded, including Dean Kahler, who was paralyzed.[484]
  • May 5: The International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty takes effect.
  • May 6: Student Strike of 1970: Many colleges across the US shut down in protest of the war and Kent State events.
  • May 8: Hard Hat Riot: Construction workers confront anti-war demonstrators, Wall St., New York City. They march again May 11. On May 20, 100,000 construction workers and longshoremen demonstrate in favor of administration war policy at New York City Hall.
  • May 9: 100,000 rally against war in Washington, DC. At 4:15am, President Nixon defies Secret Service security, leaving the White House to meet and chat with astonished protesters camping out at the Lincoln Memorial.[485][486]
  • May 14: Jackson State killings: Police kill two and injure 11 during violent student demonstrations at Jackson State College, MS. This is two days after six African-American men were fatally shot in the back for violating curfew in Augusta by the Georgia National Guard.
  • May 19: Student riot at Fresno State University.
  • May 21: 5,000 National Guard troops occupy Ohio State University following violence.
  • June 11: Daniel Berrigan is arrested by the FBI for kidnapping/bombing conspiracy.
  • June 13: President Nixon appoints the President's Commission on Campus Unrest. The report issued in September finds a direct correlation between the unrest and the level of US military involvement in Indochina.
  • June 15: The US Supreme Court confirms conscientious objector protection on moral grounds.
  • June 22: The US voting age is lowered to 18. This is soon challenged and overturned in the Supreme Court, leading to the swift adoption of the 26th Amendment on June 1, 1971 guaranteeing suffrage at 18.
  • June 27–28: Bath Festival of Blues and Progressive Music, Shepton Mallet, Somerset, UK, featuring Hot Tuna, Fleetwood Mac, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd and many more.
  • July: Huston Plan: A broad, cross-agency scheme for illegal domestic surveillance of anti-war figures is concocted by a White House staffer, and accepted but then quickly quashed by President Nixon. Elements of the plan were, however, allegedly implemented in any event.[487][488][489]
  • August 6: Riot police evacuate Disneyland in Anaheim, CA after a few hundred Yippies stage a protest.
  • August 17: Communist activist Angela Davis appears on the FBI's Ten Most Wanted list after a firearm purchased in her name is linked to a murder plot involving a judge.
  • August 24: The Sterling Hall Bombing at the University of Wisconsin in Madison by anti-war activists kills physics researcher Robert Fassnacht. Four others are severely injured, and millions of dollars in damages occur.[490]
  • August 26: Women's Strike for Equality: 50 years after US women's suffrage, 20,000 celebrate and march in New York City, demanding true equality for women in American life.[491]
  • August 26–31: 600,000+ attend Third Isle of Wight Festival. Over fifty acts including The Who, Hendrix, Miles Davis, The Doors, Ten Years After, ELP, Joni Mitchell, and Jethro Tull.
  • August 29–30: Rioting and violence erupts at Chicano Moratorium anti-war rally in Los Angeles; reporter Rubén Salazar is killed by a teargas shell.
  • September: Jesus Christ Superstar: The Christian Rock Opera debuts as an album. It later becomes a smash on Broadway and on film.[492]
  • September 12: Timothy Leary escapes prison with help from the Weather Underground, and joins Eldridge Cleaver in Algiers.
  • September 16: London: Apolitical hard rock act Led Zeppelin end The Beatles' 8-year run as Melody Maker's world #1 group of the year.
  • September 18: Exceptionally influential musician Jimi Hendrix dies from complications of a probable drug overdose at age 27 in London.
  • September 19: Pilton Pop, Blues & Folk Festival, the first ever Glastonbury Festival, features T-Rex and is attended by 1,500 people.
  • October: The Female Eunuch: Germaine Greer's pro-feminist bestseller is published.[493]
  • October: Keith Stroup founds NORML, a group working to end marijuana prohibition, in Washington, DC.
  • October 4: Janis Joplin, rock's first female superstar, dies as the result of an apparent accidental heroin overdose at age 27 in Los Angeles.
  • October 13: Political activist Angela Davis is arrested on kidnapping, murder, and conspiracy charges.
  • October 26: Doonesbury debuts as a syndicated comic strip, acknowledges the counterculture, and continues to chronicle events into the 21st century.[494]
  • October 29: President Nixon is pelted with eggs by an unfriendly crowd of 2000 after giving a speech in San Jose, CA.
  • November 7: Jerry Rubin appears live on The David Frost Show and tries to pass a joint to the talkshow host, the signal for Yippies in the audience to rush the stage and protest.
  • December 6: The Maysles Brothers release their film documentary of Altamont: Gimme Shelter.
  • December 21: Elvis Presley arrives unannounced at the White House. The King meets and is photographed with President Nixon. They discuss patriotism, hippies, and the war on drugs.[495][496]
  • December: Paul McCartney sues to dissolve the Beatles.

1971[edit]

  • January 2: The ban on cigarette advertising on US TV and radio takes effect.[497]
  • January 12: Styled after the UK TV hit Till Death Us Do Part, the long-running US smash All in the Family debuts with Rob Reiner as Michael Stivic, the counterculture's college-educated answer to the working-class Archie Bunker.[498]
  • January 31: Police fire on a peace march in Los Angeles, killing one.
  • February 4: A military induction center in Oakland, CA is bombed.
  • February 4–8: Rioting in Wilmington, NC leaves 2 dead.
  • February 13: An induction center in Atlanta, GA is bombed.
  • February 21: The UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances is signed in Vienna, with the intention of controlling psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics at the international level.[291]
  • March 1: The US Capitol building is bombed by war protesters; no injuries, but extensive damage results.
  • March 5: The FCC says that it can penalize radio stations for playing music that seems to glorify or promote illegal drug usage.
  • March 8: The Fight of the Century: Conscientious Objector and counterculture hero Muhammad Ali loses to default symbol of the pro-war right Joe Frazier at Madison Square Garden, NYC, in what is widely considered to be the greatest heavyweight fight in boxing history.[499][500][501]
  • March 11: Rioting at University of Puerto Rico leaves 3 dead.
  • April 23: Vietnam veterans protest against the war at the US Capitol in Washington, DC, throw their medals on the steps, and testify to US war crimes.
  • April 24: 500,000 protesters rally at US Capitol to petition for an end to the war; 200,000 rally against the war in San Francisco.
  • May 3: Over 12,000 anti-war protesters are arrested on the third day of the 1971 May Day Protests in Washington, DC.
  • May 10: Attorney General John N. Mitchell compares the anti-war protesters to Nazis, and on May 13, calls them Communists.
  • May 17: The play Godspell opens in New York, depicting Jesus and his disciples in a contemporary, countercultural milieu.
  • May 31: US military personnel in London petition at US Embassy against the Vietnam War.
  • June 13: Pentagon Papers: The New York Times publishes the first excerpt of illegally leaked secret US military documents detailing US intervention in Indochina since 1945. A Federal Court injunction on June 15 temporarily stops the releases.[502]
  • June 18: The Washington Post publishes excerpts from the Pentagon Papers, halted by court order the following day.
  • June 20–24 : 'Glastonbury Fayre', the second Glastonbury Festival, features David Bowie, Traffic, Fairport Convention, and the first incarnation of the "Pyramid Stage".
  • June 22: The Boston Globe publishes Pentagon Papers excerpts; this is halted by injunction on the 23rd and the newspapers are impounded.
  • June 28: Muhammad Ali's conviction for draft resistance is unanimously overturned by the US Supreme Court in Washington, DC.
  • June 28: President Nixon releases all 47 volumes of Pentagon Papers to Congress.
  • June 30: Supreme Court rules 6-3 that newspapers have a right to publish the Pentagon Papers. The Times and Post resume publication the following day.
  • July 3: Jim Morrison, founding member of The Doors, dies of a probable heroin overdose at age 27 in Paris.
  • August 1: Concert for Bangladesh: George Harrison and friends including Ravi Shankar, Ringo Starr, Eric Clapton, Leon Russell, Billy Preston and Bob Dylan stage a landmark charity event in New York. Popular albums and a film follow, and the shows become a model for huge rock benefits such as Live Aid.[503]
  • August 18: Attorney General Mitchell announces there will be no Federal investigation of the 1970 Kent State shootings.
  • August: Cheech & Chong's eponymous first album is released.
  • September 3: Burglars operating under the direction of White House officials break in to the office of Daniel Ellsburg's psychiatrist in a botched attempt to find files to discredit the Pentagon Papers leaker.[504]
  • September 9: Attica: Prisoners take control, hold hostages, and riot at Attica State Prison, NY. 39 die before prisoner demands are met and order is restored.
  • September 15: Greenpeace is founded in Vancouver, BC.
  • October: est, the controversial self-improvement training program holds its first conference in San Francisco.[505]
  • October 8: Three FBI informants reveal on PBS that they were paid to infiltrate anti-war groups and instigate them to commit violent acts which could be prosecuted.
  • October 19–23: Rioting in Memphis leaves one dead.
  • October 29: Guitar phenomenon Duane Allman of the Allman Brothers Band is killed in a motorcycle accident in Macon, GA at age 24.
  • November 10: Berkeley, CA City Council votes to provide sanctuary to all military deserters.
  • November: Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, Hunter S. Thompson's drug-drenched indictment of 1960s counterculture, is published in Rolling Stone in 2 parts.
  • December 10: John Lennon and others perform at the John Sinclair Freedom Rally at Crisler Arena, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
  • December 26–28: 15 Vietnam veterans occupy the Statue of Liberty to protest the war.
  • December 28: Anti-war veterans attempt takeover of Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. 80 are arrested.
  • December: Feminism comes of age: Gloria Steinem's Ms. Magazine is first published as an insert in New York Magazine. The first standalone issue arrives the following month.
  • Stephen Gaskin establishes "The Farm" hippie commune in Tennessee.
  • Saul Alinski's Rules for Radicals is published.[506]
  • Abbie Hoffman's Steal This Book is published.
  • The Anarchist Cookbook is published.
  • Our Bodies, Ourselves is published.[507]

1972[edit]

  • March: The Nixon administration begins deportation proceedings against John Lennon, on the pretext of his 1968 marijuana charge in London.[508]
  • March 22: The National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, appointed by President Nixon, finds "little danger" in cannabis, recommending abolition of all criminal penalties for possession.
  • April 16: Facing heavy ground losses, US forces resume the bombing of Northern Vietnam.
  • April 17–18: Students at University of Maryland protesting the bombing battle with police and National Guard are sent in.
  • April 22: Large anti-war marches in New York, San Francisco, and Los Angeles.
  • May 2: FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover dies at 77, after nearly 50 years as the top US law enforcement official.[509]
  • May 19: Weather Underground bomb at the Pentagon causes damage but no injuries.
  • May 21–22: 15,000 demonstrate in Washington against the war.
  • June 4: Angela Davis is acquitted on all counts in her weapons trial.
  • June 12: John Lennon's Plastic Ono Band releases the politically charged double album Some Time in New York City.
  • June 17: The Watergate burglars are arrested in Washington, DC.
  • July 28: Actress Jane Fonda visits North Vietnam. Her return incites outrage when she insists that POWs held captive have not been tortured or brainwashed by the communists.
  • July: The first Rainbow Gathering of the Tribes is held over 4 days in Colorado, US.
  • October 26: October Surprise?: US National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger tells a White House press conference that "we believe that peace is at hand."[510]
  • November 2–8: About 500 protesters from the American Indian Movement take over the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington.
  • November 7: Republican Richard Nixon is re-elected in a landslide over progressive democrat Senator George McGovern.
  • November 16: Police kill 2 students during campus rioting at Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
  • November 21: A Federal Appeals Court overturns the conviction of the "Chicago 7" members.
  • December 18–29: US Operation Linebacker II becomes most intensive bombing campaign of the war.
  • The Joy of Sex: Unthinkable a decade earlier, the widely read sex manual for the liberated 1970s is published and openly displayed in mainstream bookstores.
  • Michael X, a self-styled black revolutionary and civil rights activist in 1960s London, is convicted of murder. He was executed by hanging in Spain in 1975.

1973[edit]

  • January 1: Bangladeshis burn down the US Information Service in Dacca in protest of the bombing of North Vietnam.
  • January 2: Aerial bombing of North Vietnam resumes after a 36-hour New Year's truce.
  • January 4: Forty neutral member nations of the UN formally protest the US bombing campaign.
  • January 5: Canada's Parliament votes unanimously to condemn US bombing actions and calls for them to cease.
  • January 10: Anti-war demonstrators attack US consulate in Lyons, France, and burn down the library of America House in Frankfurt, West Germany.
  • January 15: Anti-war protesters occupy US consulate in Amsterdam.
  • January 15: President Nixon suspends the bombing, citing progress in the Peace talks with Hanoi. West German Chancellor Willy Brandt warns Nixon that US relations with Western Europe are at risk.[511]
  • January 22: Former US President Lyndon B. Johnson dies of cancer at his Texas ranch.
  • January 22: The US Supreme Court rules on Roe v. Wade, effectively legalizing abortion.[512][513]
  • January 28: US combat military involvement in Vietnam ends with a ceasefire, and commencement of withdrawal as called for under the Paris Peace Accords.
  • February 27-May 8: Wounded Knee incident: Native American activists occupy the town of Wounded Knee, SD; 2 protesters and 1 US Marshal are killed during a lengthy standoff.
  • March: The first military draftees who are not subsequently called to service are selected, unceremoniously ending the Vietnam era of conscription in the US.
  • March 8: Ron "Pigpen" McKernan, a founding member of the Grateful Dead, dies of a gastrointestinal hemorrhage at age 27 in Corte Madera, CA.[514]
  • March 29: Last US combat troops leave Vietnam as US POWs have been released.
  • May 17: The Senate Watergate Committee begins televised hearings on the ever-growing Watergate scandal implicating the President for gross abuses of power.
  • July 1: The Drug Enforcement Administration supplants the BNDD.
  • July 28: Summer Jam at Watkins Glen, NY draws 600,000 to see the Grateful Dead, the Band, and the Allman Brothers - the largest such gathering in the US since Woodstock.
  • August 15: All US military involvement in Indochina conflict officially ends under the Case–Church Amendment.
  • October 10: Vice President Spiro Agnew resigns. President Nixon names Gerald Ford to replace Agnew on October 12.
  • October 23: Congress begins to consider articles of impeachment against Nixon.
  • November 14: Greece: Students at Athens Polytechnic strike against the military junta. Tanks roll the 17th and at least 24 die.[515]
  • November 17: At a session with 400 AP editors, President Nixon states, "People have got to know whether or not their President is a crook. Well, I'm not a crook. I've earned everything I've got."[516]

1974[edit]

  • January 3: A Federal judge dismisses charges against 12 members of the Weathermen involved in the October 1969 "Days of Rage".
  • February 5: Patty Hearst is kidnapped by extremist group Symbionese Liberation Army and joins them, possibly after becoming a victim of Stockholm Syndrome.
  • March–April: Short-lived fad of "streaking" is at its height in the US.
  • April 20: Disco music, following the success of "Love Train" a year earlier, again hits number one on the Billboard charts with "TSOP", a clear sign that the post-"sixties counterculture" era is now at hand. The punk rock subculture also traces its genesis to around this time, with groups like Ramones and Television playing the CBGB club in NYC.
  • May 17: Six SLA members are killed fighting police in Los Angeles.
  • Summer: First issue of High Times is published.
  • July 29: Singing star "Mama" Cass Elliot, age 32, dies from heart failure in Mayfair, London.[517]
  • August 8: Facing imminent impeachment, Richard Nixon announces he will resign as President of the United States. Vice President Gerald Ford is sworn in as president on August 9 and declares "our long national nightmare is over."
  • September–December: Police repeatedly quell unrest as desegregation comes to Boston high schools.
  • September 8: President Ford fully pardons former president Nixon.
  • September 16: President Ford offers conditional amnesty to military deserters and evaders of the Vietnam era draft, creating a path for re-entry into the US.[518]
  • December 13: President Ford invites George Harrison to luncheon at the White House.[519]
  • December 21: The New York Times reports that the CIA illegally spied on 10,000 anti-war dissidents under Nixon's presidency.

1975[edit]

  • January 1: John Mitchell and three other Watergate conspirators are found guilty and sentenced to prison Feb. 21.
  • January 27: Church Committee: The US Senate votes to begin unprecedented investigation into US intelligence activities, including illegal spying on domestic radicals.[520]
  • January 29: Weather Underground bomb at the US State Department, none injured.
  • April 30: Operation Frequent Wind: The last remaining US military and intelligence personnel escape Saigon as South Vietnam is invaded by communist forces, in direct violation of the Peace Accords.
  • July 28–39: Livernois–Fenkell riot in Detroit; one person killed.
  • September 5 & 22: President Ford survives assassination attempts by two women in one month.[521]
  • September 18: Patty Hearst is arrested by the FBI.[522]
  • October 7: A New York State Supreme Court judge reverses the deportation order against John Lennon, allowing Lennon to legally remain in the US.[523]

1977[edit]

  • January 21: Newly inaugurated US President Jimmy Carter unconditionally pardons thousands of Vietnam draft evaders, allowing them to re-enter the US, mostly from Canada.[524]

1980[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Liungman, Carl (1991). Dictionary of Symbols. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 253. ISBN 0-87436-610-0. 
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  320. ^ Bronson, p. 145.
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  322. ^ Stafford, Katrease (2014-07-22). "Grosse Pointe attorneys to look at legality of Metro Times ban". freep.com. The Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 2014-07-22. 
  323. ^ Green; Nicholas J. Karolides (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of Censorship. Infobase Publishing. pp. 301–. ISBN 978-1-4381-1001-1. 
  324. ^ "Jacobellis v. Ohio - 378 U.S. 184 (1964)". supreme.justia.com. justia.com. Retrieved 2014-07-09. 
  325. ^ Krock, p.411
  326. ^ Enfield, Robert. "Photographs:Filthy Speech Rally, Spring, 1965". cdlib.org. University of California. Retrieved 2014-05-07. 
  327. ^ Spencer C. Tucker (20 May 2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History [4 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 775–. ISBN 978-1-85109-961-0. 
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  329. ^ Enfield, Robert. "Photographs:Vietnam Day, Spring, 1965". cdlib.org. University of California. Retrieved 2014-05-07. 
  330. ^ "Unforgettable Change: 1960s: 1960s in Vietnam and in Berkeley (Text and Audio Content)". http://museumca.org. Oakland Museum of California. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  331. ^ William E. Hudson (28 December 2007). The Libertarian Illusion: Ideology, Public Policy and the Assault on the Common Good. SAGE Publications. pp. 191–. ISBN 978-1-4833-0122-8. 
  332. ^ "Margaret Sanger (1879–1966)". http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu. Harvard University Library. Retrieved 2014-08-13. "In 1965, the Supreme Court decision in Griswold v. Connecticut legalized contraception for married couples." 
  333. ^ CNN (2014-08-07). "The Times they are a Changin'". The Sixties (Documentary Series). CNN.
  334. ^ Hodgkinson, Will (2005-06-13). "Snapshot: Allen Ginsberg at the Albert Hall". theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 2014-06-19. 
  335. ^ Howard Smead (1 November 2000). Don't Trust Anyone Over Thirty: The First Four Decades of the Baby Boom. iUniverse. pp. 155–. ISBN 978-0-595-12393-3. 
  336. ^ Kilgallen, Dorothy (1963-06-11). "Dorothy Kilgallen's Voice of Broadway". Syndicated column via The Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 2014-07-10. "New York hippies have a new kick - baking marijuana in cookies..." 
  337. ^ Kathleen Fearn-Banks (15 November 2005). Historical Dictionary of African-American Television. Scarecrow Press. pp. 90–. ISBN 978-0-8108-6522-8. 
  338. ^ Donna E. Alvermann (2002). Adolescents and Literacies in a Digital World. Peter Lang. pp. 68–. ISBN 978-0-8204-5573-0. 
  339. ^ "The Who and the New Generation". historyengine.richmond.edu. University of Richmond (Digital Scholarship Lab). Retrieved 2014-07-26. "“Things they do look awful c-cold,” Daltry continued stuttering, “Hope I die before I get old.” Daltry then screamed, drilling the purpose of the song into everyone’s heads, “This is my generation!” And this truly was the youths’ generation. All the years of old men from bygone eras had to pave way to Roger Daltry’s generation, for the young men and women of the Western world were finally speaking up and letting their voices be heard. “It’s my generation, baby,” Daltry repeated his mantra." 
  340. ^ "The Mamas and the Papas, 'California Dreamin". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone Magazine. Retrieved 2014-07-11. "#89 of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time" 
  341. ^ Miles, Barry (1997). Paul McCartney: Many Years From Now. New York: Henry Holt & Company. ISBN 0-8050-5249-6. 
  342. ^ Alan Clayson (2002). The Yardbirds: The Band that Launched Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, Jimmy Page. Backbeat Books. pp. 107–. ISBN 978-0-87930-724-0. 
  343. ^ Hyde, Justin. "June 24: Ralph Nader wins Senate passage of Highway Safety Act on this date in 1966". autos.yahoo.com. Yahoo News / Motoramic. Retrieved 2014-06-25. "Article includes video of Nader reflecting on auto safety legislation." 
  344. ^ Nader, Ralph (1965). Unsafe at Any Speed. New York: Grossman Publishers. ISBN 978-1561290505. 
  345. ^ US NHTSA. "Highway Safety Act of 1966, 23 USC Chapter 4, As Amended by SAFETEA-LU Technical Corrections Act of 2008, Revision June 2008". nhtsa.gov. US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  346. ^ a b E .F. Schumacher: His Life and Thought by Barbara Wood. Harper & Row, 1984. ISBN 0-06-015356-3, (p. 348–349).
  347. ^ William S. McConnell (14 May 2004). The Counterculture Movement of the 1960s. Greenhaven Press. ISBN 978-0-7377-1819-5. 
  348. ^ "Archived: Grateful Dead Live at Fillmore Auditorium on 1966-01-08". archive.org. 1967. Retrieved 2014-06-19. 
  349. ^ "Song Stories: Eight Miles High". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2014-06-19. 
  350. ^ Shapiro, Fred (2006). Yale Book of Quotations. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10798-2. 
  351. ^ Bronson, p. 201
  352. ^ "Miranda v. Arizona; et al, Facts and Case Summary". uscourts.gov. Administrative Office of the US Courts. Retrieved 2014-05-23. 
  353. ^ "Lenny Bruce, Uninhibited Comic, Found Dead in Hollywood Home". nytimes.com. AP via New York Times Co. 1966-08-03. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  354. ^ Matier, Phillip; Ross, Andrew (2014-04-24). "Paul McCartney to play Candlestick's final show (with photo album including 1966 show)". sfgate.com. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  355. ^ Ghosh, Palash (2012-08-29). "Beatles Last Concert At Candlestick Park: The Dream Is Over (Analysis)". ibtimes.com. International Business Times/IBT Media. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  356. ^ "Love Pageant". pbs.org. American Experience/PBS. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  357. ^ "On this day in 1966: John meets Yoko". pbs.org/newshour. MacNeil / Lehrer Productions. Retrieved 2014-05-05. 
  358. ^ "Film Censorship: Noteworthy Moments in History". aclu.org. American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 2014-08-11. "Rather than cut nude scenes from Blow-Up, Michelangelo Antonioni chooses to release it without an MPAA seal." 
  359. ^ "The Year of the Hippie/Summer of Love". pbs.org. American Experience/PBS. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  360. ^ Sanking, Aaron (2012-09-11). "Human Be-In Planned In Golden Gate Park This Weekend (PHOTOS)". huffingtonpost.com. TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  361. ^ "Human Be-In". youtube.com. Amateur Footage Uploaded to Youtube by Author. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  362. ^ Wheeler Winston Dixon (1 December 2013). Cinema at the Margins. Anthem Press. pp. 36–. ISBN 978-1-78308-016-8. 
  363. ^ David Marc (1 January 2011). Demographic Vistas: Television in American Culture. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 78–. ISBN 0-8122-0271-6. 
  364. ^ Haripada Adhikary (2012). Unifying Force of Hinduism: The Harekrsna Movement. AuthorHouse. pp. 213–. ISBN 978-1-4685-0393-7. 
  365. ^ File:1967 Mantra-Rock Dance Avalon poster.jpg
  366. ^ "Jefferson Airplane: Surrealistic Pillow". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. 1987-08-27. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  367. ^ Chomsky, Noam (1967-02-23). "A Special Supplement: The Responsibility of Intellectuals". nybooks.com. NYREV, Inc. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  368. ^ Bodroghkozy, Aniko. "The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour". museum.tv. The Museum of Broadcast Communications. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  369. ^ Jeff Land (1999). Active Radio: Pacifica's Brash Experiment. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 118–. ISBN 978-1-4529-0372-9. 
  370. ^ Scott, A.O. (2012-09-18). "Rekindling the Spirit of the ’60s, Even for Those Who Can’t Remember". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-07-26. "On the night of Feb. 11, 1967, hundreds — maybe thousands — of people congregated in the international terminal of Kennedy Airport, not to embark on flights to far-flung places but rather, well, it isn’t entirely clear or relevant. The gathering was an impromptu party, a nonpolitical demonstration, a happening named, in the spirit of the times, a fly-in. Now we might be inclined to see it as a prehistoric flash mob, an example of the power of communication technology to create instantaneous, ephemeral but nonetheless meaningful communities." 
  371. ^ Christopher H. Sterling; Cary O'Dell (9 February 2011). The Concise Encyclopedia of American Radio. Routledge. pp. 311–. ISBN 978-1-135-17684-6. 
  372. ^ Greenfield, Robert (1971-08-19). "Keith Richard: The Rolling Stone Interview". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2014-07-03. "From the Archives" 
  373. ^ Sheila Whiteley (2 September 2003). The Space Between the Notes: Rock and the Counter-Culture. Routledge. pp. 66–. ISBN 978-1-134-91662-7. 
  374. ^ "Life Magazine Cover February 17, 1967". Life Magazine. Retrieved 2014-05-06. 
  375. ^ Ratliff, Ben (2012-01-11). "Present at the Counterculture's Creation". nytimes.com (The New York Times Co.). Retrieved 2014-05-06. 
  376. ^ Horwitz, Jane (2006-09-05). "Backstage: She Hopes 'MacBird' Flies in a New Era". washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  377. ^ McNeill, Don (1967-03-30). "The 1967 Central Park Be-In: A 'Medieval Pageant'". villagevoice.com. Village Voice. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  378. ^ "Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle (sourced)". stanford.edu. Martin Luther King, Jr. Research & Education Center. Retrieved 2014-05-03. 
  379. ^ "TIME Magazine Cover: The Pill". Time.com. April 7, 1967. Retrieved 2010-03-20. 
  380. ^ "Photos: Nashville race riots 1967". tennessean.com. Gannett (archive.tennessean.com). 2008-02-29. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  381. ^ "The MOBE: “What are we waiting for?”". pbs.org. PBS / Independent Television Service (ITVS). Retrieved 2014-08-11. "After the elections, the committee became the Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, which organized major anti-war demonstrations that took place in April 1967. In New York City, 400,000 protesters marched from Central Park to the United Nations, with speakers including Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Stokely Carmichael. 75,000 gathered for a similar rally in San Francisco." 
  382. ^ Crane, Ralph (1967-04). "1967: Pictures from a Pivotal Year". life.time.com. Time, Inc. Retrieved 2014-05-07. 
  383. ^ Weller, Sheila (2012-07). "Suddenly That Summer". Vanity Fair / Conde Nast. Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2014-06-23. "It was billed as “the Summer of Love,” a blast of glamour, ecstasy, and Utopianism that drew some 75,000 young people to the San Francisco streets in 1967. Who were the true movers behind the Haight-Ashbury happening that turned America on to a whole new age?" 
  384. ^ Paul Hegarty; Martin Halliwell (23 June 2011). Beyond and Before: Progressive Rock since the 1960s. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-1-4411-1480-8. 
  385. ^ "Photos: KFRC Fantasy Fair 1967 and Mountain Music Festival". jeffersonairplane.com. Jefferson Airplane, Inc. 1967-06. Retrieved 2014-06-19. 
  386. ^ Barney Hoskyns (9 December 2010). Hotel California: The True-Life Adventures of Crosby, Stills, Nash, Young, Mitchell, Taylor, Browne, Ronstadt, Geffen, the Eagles, and Their Many Friends. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-1-118-04050-8. 
  387. ^ David S. Kidder; Noah D. Oppenheim (14 October 2008). The Intellectual Devotional Modern Culture: Revive Your Mind, Complete Your Education, and Converse Confidently with the Culturati. Rodale. pp. 248–. ISBN 978-1-60529-793-4. 
  388. ^ Johnson Publishing Company (October 1995). Ebony. Johnson Publishing Company. pp. 136–. ISSN 00129011. 
  389. ^ Roger Beebe; Jason Middleton (5 September 2007). Medium Cool: Music Videos from Soundies to Cellphones. Duke University Press. pp. 256–. ISBN 0-8223-9020-5. 
  390. ^ George Martin (15 October 1994). All You Need Is Ears: The Inside Personal Story of the Genius who Created The Beatles. St. Martin's Press. pp. 193–. ISBN 978-0-312-11482-4. 
  391. ^ "Photos and Detroit News page image captures". detroitnews.mycapture.com. The Detroit News. July 1967. Retrieved 2014-05-27. 
  392. ^ McGee, Frank (1967). "1967 NBC News Special Report: Summer '67 "What We Learned"". youtube.com. NBC News. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  393. ^ "Beatles' manager Epstein dies". bbc.co.uk. BBC. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  394. ^ Goldstein, Richard (1967-10-19). "Love: A Groovy Idea While He Lasted". villagevoice.com. Village Voice, LLC. Retrieved 2014-05-01. 
  395. ^ Sharin N. Elkholy (22 March 2012). The Philosophy of the Beats. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 239–. ISBN 0-8131-4058-7. 
  396. ^ Leen, Jeff (1999-09-27). "The Vietnam Protests: When Worlds Collided". washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-08-11. "The Pentagon march was the culmination of five days of nationwide anti-draft protests organized by the National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam -- "the Mobe." But a singular spark was provided by the Youth International Party (Yippies), a fringe group whose leaders, Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, had announced that they planned an "exorcism" of the Pentagon. They would encircle the building, chant incantations, "levitate" the structure and drive out the evil war spirits." 
  397. ^ Ron Chepesiuk (1 January 1995). Sixties Radicals, Then and Now: Candid Conversations with Those Who Shaped the Era. McFarland. pp. 303–. ISBN 978-0-7864-3732-0. 
  398. ^ "Huey P. Newton Biography: Civil Rights Activist (1942–1989)". biography.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved 2014-08-11. "Newton himself was arrested in 1967 for allegedly killing an Oakland police officer during a traffic stop. He was later convicted of voluntary manslaughter and sentenced to two to 15 years in prison. But public pressure—"Free Huey" became a popular slogan of the day—helped Newton's cause. The case was eventually dismissed after two retrials ended with hung juries." 
  399. ^ Huey P. Newton (29 September 2009). Revolutionary Suicide: (Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition). Penguin Group US. ISBN 978-1-101-14047-5. 
  400. ^ Wetzteon, Ross; Ortega, Tony (1967-11-16). "Not Everyone Loves You For Giving Things Away". villagevoice.com. The Village Voice. Retrieved 2014-08-15. "Hippies' Free Store Not So Popular With Thugs (headline from Ortega's excerpt of original article, published by Village Voice 2010-03-24)" 
  401. ^ Karch, Steven (2011). "A Historical Review of MDMA". benthamscience.com. Open Forensic Science Journal via Bentham Science. Retrieved 2014-06-04. 
  402. ^ Gross, Terry (1987-10-29). "Tom Wolfe: Chronicling Counterculture's 'Acid Test'". npr.org. National Public Radio (US). Retrieved 2014-07-09. "Fresh Air: Text & Audio of Interview w/Wolfe" 
  403. ^ "Blue Cheer Biography". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone Magazine. 2001. Retrieved 2014-07-09. "Blue Cheer appeared in spring 1968 with a thunderously loud remake of Eddie Cochran's "Summertime Blues" that many regard as the first true heavy-metal record. One of the first hard-rock power trios, the group was named for an especially high-quality strain of LSD. Its manager, Gut, was an ex-Hell's Angel. (This biography originally appeared in The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll (Simon & Schuster, 2001))" 
  404. ^ "‘Laugh-In’ Comic Alan Sues Dies At 85". sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com. CBS/AP. 2011-12-04. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  405. ^ Cheng, Jim (2008-05-26). "'Laugh-in' comic Dick Martin dies at 86". usatoday.com. USA Today/Gannett. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  406. ^ Oberdorfer, Don (2004-11). "TET: Who Won?". smithsonianmag.com. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 2014-07-09. "http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/tet-who-won-99179501/" 
  407. ^ James Arnold (20 September 2012). Tet Offensive 1968: Turning point in Vietnam. Osprey Publishing. pp. 88–. ISBN 978-1-78200-428-8. 
  408. ^ Nielsen Business Media, Inc. (30 March 1968). Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. pp. 35–. ISSN 00062510. 
  409. ^ Bass, Jack (2003). "Documenting the Orangeburg Massacre". http://www.nieman.harvard.edu. Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard / Harvard University. Retrieved 2014-07-09. "Campus killings of black students received little news coverage in 1968, but a book about them keeps their memory alive." 
  410. ^ Hunter Davies (1985). The Beatles. W.W. Norton. pp. 234–. ISBN 978-0-393-31571-4. 
  411. ^ Raz, Guy (2009-07-18). "Final Words: Cronkite's Vietnam Commentary (Parting words from Walter Cronkite: His famous Vietnam commentary, originally aired on a special CBS News broadcast Feb. 27, 1968.)". npr.org. NPR (US). Retrieved 2014-06-19. 
  412. ^ Stephen L. Vaughn (12 September 2007). Encyclopedia of American Journalism. Routledge. pp. 127–. ISBN 978-1-135-88020-0. 
  413. ^ Franklin, Charles (2009-07-17). "Walter Cronkite, Most Trusted Man in America". pollster.com. Pollster.com. Retrieved 2014-06-19. 
  414. ^ Moyers, Bill (2008-03-28). "The Kerner Commission — 40 Years Later". pbs.org. Bill Moyers Journal / Public Affairs Television. Retrieved 2014-07-10. "...the Kerner Report, with its stark conclusion that "Our nation is moving towards two societies — one white, one black — separate and unequal" — was a best-seller. It was also the source of great controversy and remains so today." 
  415. ^ Thernstrom, Stephan; Siegel, Fred; Woodson, Robert (1998-06-24). "The Kerner Commission Report". heritage.org. Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 2014-07-10. "This lecture was held at The Heritage Foundation on March 13, 1998." 
  416. ^ "3 Honored for Saving Lives at My Lai". nytimes.com. The New York Times. 1998-03-07. Retrieved 2014-07-10. "Thirty years after one of the darkest moments in United States military history, three soldiers who happened upon the My Lai massacre and risked their lives to save Vietnamese civilians by aiming their weapons at fellow Americans were proclaimed heroes today by the Army." 
  417. ^ William Thomas Allison (21 July 2012). My Lai: An American Atrocity in the Vietnam War. JHU Press. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-1-4214-0706-7. 
  418. ^ "Report of the Department of the Army Review of the Preliminary Investigations into the My Lai Incident: Vol. 1, the Report of the Investigation". loc.gov. United States Army. 1970-03-14. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  419. ^ "1968: Anti-Vietnam demo turns violent". bbc.co.uk. BBC (UK). 2008. Retrieved 2014-07-10. "The trouble followed a big rally in Trafalgar square, when an estimated 10,000 demonstrated against American action in Vietnam and British support for the United States." 
  420. ^ Kennedy, Robert Francis (1968-03-18). "Robert F. Kennedy Speeches: Remarks at the University of Kansas, March 18, 1968". jfklibrary.org. John F. Kennedy Library & Museum. Retrieved 2014-07-10. "I don't want to be part of a government, I don't want to be part of the United States, I don't want to be part of the American people, and have them write of us as they wrote of Rome: "They made a desert and they called it peace."" 
  421. ^ McNeill, Don; Ortega, Tony (1968-03-28). "The Grand Central Riot: Yippies Meet the Man". villagevoice.com. The Village Voice. Retrieved 2014-07-27. "Clip Job: Yip-In Turns Into Bloody Mess as Police Riot at Grand Central (headline from archived article published 2010-04-10)" 
  422. ^ Peter Knight (2003). Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 752–. ISBN 978-1-57607-812-9. 
  423. ^ Boxer, Tim. "Photo: Yippies In Grand Central Station". gettyimages.com. Getty Images. Retrieved 2014-07-10. "Caption:Members of the Youth International Party, or Yippies, gathering Grand Central Station for a sit-down demonstration New York, New York, March 22, 1968. (Photo by Tim Boxer/Pictorial Parade/Getty Images)" 
  424. ^ Johnson, Lyndon Baines (1968-03-31). "Presidential Johnson's Address to the Nation, 3/31/68". lbjlibrary.net. The Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library (video via Youtube). Retrieved 2014-07-10. "I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president." 
  425. ^ Campbell, Howard (2012-09-12). "Larry Marshall makes sweet Nanny Goat". Jamaica Observer. Retrieved 2014-07-11. "The song he recorded at Dodd's Studio One was Nanny Goat which some musicologists and reggae historians say is the first reggae song. Others argue that Toots and the Maytals' Do The Reggay, also done in 1968, and Games People Play by Bob Andy the following year, marked the transition from rocksteady to reggae. But for most, Nanny Goat was the game-changer." 
  426. ^ Kevin O'Brien Chang; Wayne Chen (1998). Reggae Routes: The Story of Jamaican Music. Temple University Press. pp. 129–. ISBN 978-1-56639-629-5. 
  427. ^ Don Voorhees (4 October 2011). The Super Book of Useless Information: The Most Powerfully Unnecessary Things You Never Need to Know. Penguin. pp. 123–. ISBN 978-1-101-54513-3. 
  428. ^ Cox Commission (1968). Crisis at Columbia (Cox Commission Report) (Paperback) (First Vintage Press, 1968 ed.). Random House. p. 222. "Report of the Fact Finding Commission Appointed to Investigate the Disturbances at Columbia University in April and May 1968" 
  429. ^ "Reservists Lose Plea, High Court OK's Vietnam Duty". AP via Milwaukee Journal. 1968-10-28. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  430. ^ Pear, Robert (1981-07-12). "Plan to Merge FBI and Drug Agency Pressed (Special to the NY Times)". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-07-11. "The Bureau of Narcotics, a Treasury Department agency established in 1930, was combined in 1968 with the Bureau of Drug Abuse Control, a unit of the Food and Drug Administration, to form the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, within the Justice Department. Then, with the transfer of more than 500 narcotics investigators from the Treasury's old Bureau of Customs, the Drug Enforcement Administration was created in 1973." 
  431. ^ "Complete Transcript of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassination Conspiracy Trial". thekingcenter.org. The Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change. Retrieved 2014-07-09. 
  432. ^ Flock, Elizabeth (2012-04-12). "Martin Luther King assassination in 1968 a ‘cruel and wanton act’". washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-07-09. "After King’s death, riots spread through Memphis. Some 4,000 National Guard troops were ordered into the city, and a curfew was imposed on the city...The riots soon spread across the nation— to Chicago, Baltimore, Kansas City and Washington, D.C." 
  433. ^ "Interview: Eldridge Cleaver". PBS / Frontline (US). Retrieved 2014-07-10. "Bobby Hutton didn't get wounded during the shootout, but they murdered him after we were in custody." 
  434. ^ "Youth: The Politics of YIP" (April 5, 1968). Time Magazine. "April 5, 1968. Vol. 91 No. 41" 
  435. ^ Law, Lisa. "Photo: Easter Sunday Love-In, Malibu Canyon, California, 1968. This was a celebration of the counterculture movement.". nwhistorycourse.org. Lisa Law. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  436. ^ Emmis Communications (November 1991). Texas Monthly. Emmis Communications. pp. 118–. ISSN 01487736. 
  437. ^ Alverson, Brigid. "Felix Dennis, defendant in Rupert Bear obscenity case, dies". comicbookresources.com. Comic Book Resources. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  438. ^ Poggioli, Sylvia (2008-05-13). "Marking the French Social Revolution of '68". npr.org. Morning Edition /National Public Radio (US). Retrieved 2014-07-10. "Audio, Text & Photos" 
  439. ^ "People & Events: Paris Peace Talks". pbs.org. PBS/WGBH/American Experience (US). Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  440. ^ Robert Dallek (19 March 1998). Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961-1973. Oxford University Press. pp. 738–. ISBN 978-0-19-977190-5. 
  441. ^ Christine Bragg (2005). Vietnam, Korea and US Foreign Policy 1945-75. Heinemann. pp. 153–. ISBN 978-0-435-32708-8. 
  442. ^ ""Catonsville 9" All Get Prison". AP via Milwaikee Journal. 1968-11-08. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  443. ^ "Rioting in Louisville, KY (1968)". http://nkaa.uky.edu. University of Kentucky. 2003–2014. Retrieved 2014-07-11. "The skirmish escalated, growing into a full-fledged riot in the West End, lasting for almost a week. Six units of the national guard, over 2,000 guardsmen, were ordered to Louisville. Looting and shooting occurred, buildings were burned, two teens were killed, and 472 people were arrested" 
  444. ^ a b Robert Niemi (1 January 2006). History in the Media: Film and Television. ABC-CLIO. pp. 305–. ISBN 978-1-57607-952-2. 
  445. ^ Smith, Jack (1968-06-03). "(Photo:Andy Warhol being lifted into an ambulance after he was shot, June 3, 1968". warhol.org. The Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh; Founding Collection, Contribution The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. Retrieved 2014-06-12. 
  446. ^ Granberry, Michael (2014-06-05). "Forty-six years ago today, an assassin shot Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, stamping 1968 as the year that forever changed America". dallasnews.com. The Dallas Morning News Inc. Retrieved 2014-06-12. 
  447. ^ Christopher P. Lehman (26 October 2006). American Animated Cartoons of the Vietnam Era: A Study of Social Commentary in Films and Television Programs, 1961-1973. McFarland. pp. 116–. ISBN 978-0-7864-5142-5. 
  448. ^ "The Beatles' 1968 Pop Art masterpiece Yellow Submarine has been digitally restored and re-released to huge acclaim". thebeatles.com. Apple Corps. 2012-06-22. Retrieved 2014-07-12. 
  449. ^ Günter Bischof; Stefan Karner; Peter Ruggenthaler (2010). The Prague Spring and the Warsaw Pact Invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7391-4304-9. 
  450. ^ Kenneth Womack; Todd F. Davis (1 February 2012). Reading the Beatles: Cultural Studies, Literary Criticism, and the Fab Four. SUNY Press. pp. 149–. ISBN 978-0-7914-8196-7. 
  451. ^ "Whole Earth History: 1968 to 1988". wholeearth.com. New Whole Earth LLC. Retrieved 2014-07-12. "1968: Stewart Brand initiates The Whole Earth Catalog as "a Low Maintenance, High Yield, Self Sustaining, Critical Information Service." Self-published, with no advertising, it sold 1000 copies at $5 each." 
  452. ^ "Oct 18, 1968: John Lennon and Yoko Ono arrested for drug possession". history.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 2014-06-10. 
  453. ^ Burley, Leo (2008-03-09). "Jagger vs Lennon: London's riots of 1968 provided the backdrop to a rock'n'roll battle royale". independent.co.uk. The Independent (UK). Retrieved 2014-07-11. "Forty years ago, the world was on the brink of revolution. But while Mick was urging insurrection on the streets of London, John was preaching peace and love. In a series of incendiary, rediscovered interviews, Jagger and Lennon reveal themselves as never before or since: battling one another for the soul of rock'n'roll" 
  454. ^ "Cold War Chronicles: The Films of Emile de Antonio". harvard.edu. Harvard Film Archive. Retrieved 2014-05-05. 
  455. ^ "Oct 31, 1968: President Johnson announces bombing halt". A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  456. ^ "Material at the LBJ Library Pertaining to the October 31, 1968 Bombing Halt". lbjlibrary.net. Lyndon Baines Johnson Library & Museum. Retrieved 2014-07-10. "This list highlights several key files that contain material on the October 31, 1968, bombing halt." 
  457. ^ "Nixon wins heated battle". Walker County Messager via Google News. 1968-11-06. Retrieved 2014-07-10. "25 years ago..." 
  458. ^ "Poltical Round: Humphrey, Nixon, Wallace". http://news.google.com. AP via Washington Observer-Reporter. 1968-10-19. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  459. ^ Springer, Denize (2008-09-22). "Campus commemorates 1968 student-led strike". sfsu.edu. SF State News (University Communications). Retrieved 2014-07-11. "The five-month event defined the University's core values of equity and social justice, laid the groundwork for establishment of the College of Ethnic Studies..." 
  460. ^ Schevitz, Tanya (2008-10-26). "S.F. State to mark 40th anniversary of strike". sfgate.com. San Francisco Chronicle/Hearst. Retrieved 2014-07-11. "Pioneer in ethnic studies: Early in 1969, the university agreed to many of the student demands, including the establishment of the nation's first and only college of ethnic studies. The strike ended March 20." 
  461. ^ "The Beatles (White Album): Releases". allmusic.com. All Music. Retrieved 2014-07-11. "Release Date: November 22, 1968" 
  462. ^ "The Earthrise Photograph". Abc.net.au. 1968-12-24. Retrieved 2013-08-31. 
  463. ^ "ACLU History". ACLU.org. American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 2014-04-25. 
  464. ^ Fawcett, Anthony (1976). "THE PEACE POLITICIAN – THE BED-INS-AMSTERDAM AND MONTREAL". imaginepeace.com. Grove Press via Imagine Peace. Retrieved 2014-07-16. "From the (Anthony Fawcett) book One Day at a Time" 
  465. ^ Marc Jason Gilbert (2001). The Vietnam War on Campus: Other Voices, More Distant Drums. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 121–. ISBN 978-0-275-96909-7. 
  466. ^ "This Day in History. Vietnam War:Westmoreland requests more troops". history.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 2014-08-13. "Gen. William Westmoreland, senior U.S. military commander in Vietnam, sends a new troop request to the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Westmoreland stated that he needed 542,588 troops for the war in Vietnam in 1967--an increase of 111,588 men to the number already serving there. In the end, President Johnson acceded to Westmoreland's wishes and dispatched the additional troops to South Vietnam, but the increases were done in an incremental fashion. The highest number of U.S. troops in South Vietnam was 543,500, which was reached in 1969." 
  467. ^ Lennon, John; Lennon, Yoko Ono (1969-05). "Bed Peace". imaginepeace.com. Bag Productions / Yoko Ono Lennon. Retrieved 2014-07-16. "In 1969, John and I were so naïve to think that doing the Bed-In would help change the world. Well, it might have. But at the time, we didn’t know. It was good that we filmed it, though. The film is powerful now. What we said then could have been said now...-Yoko Ono Lennon, 2014.(Film hosted on Youtube.)" 
  468. ^ "Brian Jones: Sympathy for the Devil". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. 1969-08-09. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  469. ^ Wilford, John Noble (1969). We Reach the Moon. New York: New York Times / Bantam. p. XV. ISBN 9780552082051. "The Story of Man's Greatest Adventure" 
  470. ^ "Charles Manson Biography: Charles Manson is an American cult leader whose followers carried out several notorious murders in the late 1960s and inspired the book Helter Skelter.". biography.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  471. ^ Woods, William Crawford (2013-08-08). "From the Stacks (January 4, 1975): "Demon in the Counterculture"". newrepublic.com. The New Republic. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  472. ^ DeCurtis, Anthony (2009-08-01). "Peace, Love and Charlie Manson: The Anti-Woodstock?". nytimes.com. The New York Times Co. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  473. ^ Christopher Gair (2007). The American Counterculture. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 205–. ISBN 978-0-7486-1989-4. 
  474. ^ "Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969)". http://www.bbc.co.uk. BBC. Retrieved 2014-05-04. 
  475. ^ "Linkletter blames LSD for death of daughter". Associated Press. Retrieved 2014-05-23. 
  476. ^ "Photos: Days of Rage". chicagotribune.com. Chicago Tribune. 1969. Retrieved 2014-06-13. 
  477. ^ Savio, Jessica (2011-04-01). "Browsing history: A heritage site is being set up in Boelter Hall 3420, the room the first Internet message originated in". dailybruin.com. The Daily Bruin. Retrieved 2014-05-01. 
  478. ^ Skarda, Erin (2011-06-28). "Moratorium Against the Vietnam War, Nov. 15, 1969". http://content.time.com. Time, Inc. Retrieved 2014-07-16. "In the frigid fall of 1969, more than 500,000 people marched on Washington to protest U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. It remains the largest political rally in the nation's history." 
  479. ^ Ian Inglis; Norma Coates (2006). "Chapter 6". Performance and Popular Music: History, Place and Time. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 58–. ISBN 978-0-7546-4057-8. 
  480. ^ Buckley, Jr., William F. (1970-12-10). "Altamont was Funeral for the Woodstock Nation". news.google.com. The Milwaukee Journal. Retrieved 2014-07-03. "Re: release of 'Gimme Shelter'" 
  481. ^ "Midnight Cowboy". tcm.com. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 2014-07-27. "1969 was an interesting turning point in American cinema and no film better reflects that than Midnight Cowboy. Not only was it the first X-rated film to win the Best Picture Oscar but it presented a view of New York City that was the most bleak and depressing portrait since Ray Milland hit every seedy Manhattan bar in The Lost Weekend (1945)." 
  482. ^ Keith M. Booker (17 March 2011). Historical Dictionary of American Cinema. Scarecrow Press. pp. 25–. ISBN 978-0-8108-7459-6. 
  483. ^ "May 4 Sequence of Events". www.kentwired.com. kentwired. 2010-05-04. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  484. ^ Bhatia, Kabir (2013-05-03). "Dean Kahler: visitors' Center helps him move past May 4, 1970". wksu.org. WKSU Public Radio. Retrieved 2014-06-10. 
  485. ^ McNichol, Tom (2011-11-14). "I Am Not a Kook: Richard Nixon's Bizarre Visit to the Lincoln Memorial". theatlantic.com. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  486. ^ Suarez, Ray (2011-11-25). "New Nixon Tapes Reveal Details of Meeting With Anti-War Activists (Text & Video)". pbs.org. PBS Newshour. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  487. ^ Michael Howard Holzman (2008). James Jesus Angleton, the CIA, and the Craft of Counterintelligence. Univ of Massachusetts Press. pp. 273–. ISBN 1-55849-650-5. 
  488. ^ Loch K. Johnson (1989). America's Secret Power. Oxford University Press. pp. 155–. ISBN 978-0-19-536153-7. 
  489. ^ HEARINGS BEFORE THE SELECT COMMITTEE TO STUDY GOVERNMENTAL OPERATIONS WITH RESPECT TO INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES OF THE UNITED STATES SENATE NINETY-FOURTH CONGRESS FIRST SESSION - VOLUME 2 - HUSTON PLAN (PDF). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Senate. 1975-09. 
  490. ^ "Sterling Hall bombing: Seven men linked by a moment in history". Madison.com. Wisconsin State Journal. 2010-08-17. Retrieved 2014-06-10. 
  491. ^ Breasted, Mary; Ortega, Tony (1970-09-30). "Women on the March: 'We're a Movement Now!'-1970: The Women's National Strike for Equality". villagevoice.com. The Village Voice. Retrieved 2014-07-03. 
  492. ^ Eder, Bruce. "Jesus Christ Superstar". allmusic.com. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved 2014-06-10. 
  493. ^ Christine Wallace (1 July 2013). Germaine Greer: Untamed Shrew. Pan Macmillan Australia. pp. 184–. ISBN 978-1-74334-189-6. 
  494. ^ "Trudeau Reflects On Four Decades Of 'Doonesbury'". npr.org. NPR Morning Edition. 2010-10-26. Retrieved 2014-06-02. 
  495. ^ Carlson, Peter. "When Elvis Met Nixon". smithsonianmag.com. Smithsonian.com. Retrieved 2014-07-27. "From the Archives: A bizarre encounter between the president and the king of rock and roll" 
  496. ^ File:Elvis-nixon.jpg
  497. ^ Jordan Goodman. Tobacco in History and Culture: An Encyclopedia. Granite Hill Publishers. pp. 676–. ISBN 978-0-684-31453-2. 
  498. ^ Ray Broadus Browne; Pat Browne (2001). The Guide to United States Popular Culture. Popular Press. pp. 744–. ISBN 978-0-87972-821-2. 
  499. ^ Silver, Michael (2003-11-19). "Where Were You on March 8, 1971?". espn.go.com. ESPN Classic. Retrieved 2014-06-27. "The country was split between those supporting our efforts in Vietnam and those opposed to the war. Hawks, doves, hard hats, flower children, black power, Woodstock, Kent State and the silent majority were bywords for the most divisive American decade since the American Civil War some 100 years earlier." 
  500. ^ Fitzpatrick, Frank (2014-04-14). "When politics enter the playing field". philly.com. The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 2014-06-27. "People forget the intensity of opposing passions in 1971. No one was neutral. Friends and families were bitterly divided. If you supported the Vietnam War, you supported Frazier. And if you opposed it, you were in the corner of Ali, who had forfeited his title for refusing military induction in 1967." 
  501. ^ Cosgrove, Ben; Shearer, John. "Ali, Frazier and the ‘Fight of the Century’: A Photographer Remembers Read more: Ali-Frazier: Rare and Classic Photos From the ‘Fight of the Century’ (w/Text)". life.time.com. Time, Inc. Retrieved 2014-06-27. "Long before the first bell of their March 1971 fight sounded, the contest was billed as “The Fight of the Century” and, amazingly, it lived up to the hype. That night, a star-studded crowd watched two of the greatest fighters who ever lived battle for supremacy in the world’s premier sports arena. Read more: Ali-Frazier: Rare and Classic Photos From the ‘Fight of the Century’" 
  502. ^ Sheehan, Neil; Smith, Hedrick; Kenworthy, E.W.; Butterfield, Fox (1971). The Pentagon Papers. New York: New York Times/Bantam. "The Secret History of the Vietnam War. The Complete and Unabridged Series as Published in the New York Times. With key documents and 64 page of photographs" 
  503. ^ Mitchell K. Hall (29 September 2005). Crossroads: American Popular Culture and the Vietnam Generation. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 166–. ISBN 978-0-7425-7586-8. 
  504. ^ Krogh, Egil (2007-06-30). "The Break-In That History Forgot". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-07-28. "The premise of our action was the strongly held view within certain precincts of the White House that the president and those functioning on his behalf could carry out illegal acts with impunity if they were convinced that the nation’s security demanded it. As President Nixon himself said to David Frost during an interview six years later, “When the president does it, that means it is not illegal.” To this day the implications of this statement are staggering." 
  505. ^ "Est History Is Short but Successful". latimes.com (Los Angeles Times). 1986-04-27. Retrieved 2014-05-23. 
  506. ^ Alinsky, Saul D. (1971). Rules for Radicals (A Pragmatic Primer for Realistic Radicals) (Vintage Books Edition, March, 1972 ed.). New York: Random House/Vintage. ISBN 0-394-71736-8. 
  507. ^ "OBOS Timeline: 1969-Present". ourbodiesourselves.org. Our Bodies Ourselves. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  508. ^ Jon Wiener (22 December 1999). Gimme Some Truth: The John Lennon FBI Files. University of California Press. pp. 24–. ISBN 978-0-520-92454-3. 
  509. ^ Gentry, Curt (1991). J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets (First Plume, 1992-09 ed.). New York: Norton/Penguin/Plume. p. 33. ISBN 0-452-26904-0. 
  510. ^ Henry Kissinger (11 February 2003). Ending the Vietnam War: A History of America's Involvement in and Extrication from the Vietnam War. Simon and Schuster. pp. 591–. ISBN 978-0-7432-4577-7. 
  511. ^ Edward W. Knappman, ed. South Vietnam: Volume 7, US-Communist Confrontation in Southeast Asia 1972–1973. p. 226.
  512. ^ McBride, Alex (2006-12). "Roe v. Wade (1973)". pbs.org. Educational Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  513. ^ Donald E. Lively; Russell L. Weaver (1 January 2006). Contemporary Supreme Court Cases: Landmark Decisions Since Roe V. Wade. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-33514-3. 
  514. ^ Sprovtsoff, Rachel. "Ron "Pigepen" McKernan - Artist Biography". allmusic.com. AllMusic. Retrieved 2014-05-02. 
  515. ^ "Greece Marks '73 Student Uprising". Athens News (Athens, Greece). 1999-11-17. Archived from the original on 2007-03-13. Retrieved 2014-04-23. "The Polytechnic Uprising, as it has come to be known, dealt a blow to the self-confidence of the junta leaders and led directly to the toppling of the dictator and chief putschist of the April 21, 1967, coup d'etat that brought the junta to power, Colonel George Papadopoulos." 
  516. ^ Kilpatrick, Carroll (1973-11-18). "Nixon Tells Editors, 'I'm Not a Crook'". washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post Co. Retrieved 2014-06-12. 
  517. ^ "Mama Cass". biography.com. A&E Networks. 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-28. 
  518. ^ Hunter, Marjorie (1974-09-17). "Ford Offers Amnesty Program Requiring 2 Years Public Work; Defends His Pardon Of Nixon". nytimes.com. The New York Times Co. Retrieved 2014-05-21. 
  519. ^ File:George Harrison 1974 edited.jpg
  520. ^ "January 27, 1975 Church Committee Created". www.senate.gov. US Senate. Retrieved 2014-04-25. 
  521. ^ Lee, Vic (January 2, 2007). "Interview: Woman Who Tried To Assassinate Ford". San Francisco: KGO-TV. Retrieved January 3, 2007. 
  522. ^ "Patti's Twisted Journey". Time. September 29, 1975. 
  523. ^ "New York Judge Reverses John Lennon's Deportation order". History Channel/A&E Networks. 
  524. ^ Glass, Andrew (2008-01-21). "Carter pardons draft dodgers Jan. 21, 1977". politico.com. The Politico/Allbritton Communications Company. Retrieved 2014-05-21. 
  525. ^ "John Lennon Biography". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2014-08-11. "But on December 8, 1980, Lennon, returning with Ono to their Dakota apartment on New York City's Upper West Side, was shot seven times by a 25-year-old drifter and Beatles fan to whom Lennon had given an autograph a few hours earlier. Lennon was pronounced dead on arrival at Roosevelt Hospital. On December 14, at Ono's request, a 10-minute silent vigil was held at 2 p.m. EST in which millions around the world participated." 

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