1962 in science
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|List of years in science (table)|
|... 1952 . 1953 . 1954 . 1955 . 1956 . 1957 . 1958 ...
1959 1960 1961 -1962- 1963 1964 1965
... 1966 . 1967 . 1968 . 1969 . 1970 . 1971 . 1972 ...
|Art . Archaeology . Architecture . Literature . Music . Philosophy . Science +...|
Astronomy and space exploration
- January 26 – Ranger 3 is launched to study the Moon. The space probe later misses the Moon by 22,000 miles.
- February 4–5 – During a new moon and total solar eclipse, an extremely rare grand conjunction of the classical planets occurs, including all five of the naked-eye planets plus the Sun and Moon, all within 16° of each another on the ecliptic.
- February 19 – Penumbral lunar eclipse.
- February 20 – Mercury program: While aboard Friendship 7, John Glenn orbits the Earth three times in 4 hours, 55 minutes, becoming the first American to do so.
- April 26 – The Ranger 4 spacecraft crashes into the Moon.
- May 24 – Mercury program: Scott Carpenter becomes the second American to orbit the Earth aboard Aurora 7.
- July 17 – Penumbral lunar eclipse.
- July 11 – First live transatlantic television broadcast from the United States to Britain, via AT&T's Telstar satellite (launched the previous day) and Goonhilly Satellite Earth Station.
- July 22 – Mariner program: The Mariner 1 spacecraft flies erratically several minutes after launch and has to be destroyed.
- July 31 – Annular solar eclipse.
- August 15 – Penumbral lunar eclipse.
- September 29 – The Canadian Alouette 1, the first satellite built outside the United States or the Soviet Union, is launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.
- Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling publish a paper introducing what will become known as the molecular clock concept.
- The first nude mouse strain is discovered by Dr. N. R. Grist at Ruchill Hospital's Brownlee virology laboratory in Glasgow.
- At MIT, Ivan Sutherland uses the TX-2 computer to write Sketchpad, the origin of graphical programs used for computer-aided design.
- Roger Tomlinson leads development of the Canada Geographic Information System, the world's first geographic information system (GIS).
- May – J. C. R. Licklider of BBN co-presents a paper on "On-Line Man-Computer Communication".
- August – J. C. R. Licklider begins to refer to the Intergalactic Computer Network, effectively conceptualizing what will become the Internet.
- September 19 – The first ICT 1301 business mainframe sold, "Flossie", is installed at Senate House (University of London). It will still be operable 50 years later.
- October – J. C. R. Licklider becomes the first head of the computer research program at the United States Department of Defense's ARPA, which he names the Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO).
- November 3 – The earliest recorded use of the term "personal computer" features in The New York Times in a story about John Mauchly's speech the day before to the American Institute of Industrial Engineers. Mauchly, "inventor of some of the original room-size computers", says that "in a decade or so" everyone would have their own computer with "exchangeable wafer-thin data storage files to provide inexhaustible memories and answer most problems". He is quoted as saying, "There is no reason to suppose the average boy or girl cannot be master of a personal computer."
- December 7 – The Atlas supercomputer, the most powerful in the world at this date, is dedicated at the University of Manchester in England. It is the first system designed for multiprogramming, and will be in use for the next decade.
- December 28 – Mauchly is again reported as saying he "envisions a time when everyone will carry his own personal computer".
History of science
- November – English orthopedic surgeon John Charnley makes the first successful whole hip replacement operation using a high molecular weight polyethylene (HMWP) socket, at Wrightington Hospital, Wigan.
- James W. Black synthesises propranolol, the first beta blocker (used for regulation of angina pectoris), which becomes the world's best-selling drug.
- Joseph Murray performs the first permanent cadaveric kidney transplantation.
- Nodding disease is first documented, in southern Tanzania.
- October – The first practical visible-spectrum (red) light-emitting diode is developed by Nick Holonyak, Jr., while working at the General Electric Company in Syracuse, New York.
- The New Austrian Tunnelling method is so named.
- Fields Prize in Mathematics: Lars Hörmander and John Milnor
- Nobel Prizes
- Maxwell Medal and Prize of the Institute of Physics (first award): Abdus Salam
- April 27 – Edvard Moser, Norwegian neuroscientist, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
- June 18 – Lisa Randall, American theoretical physicist.
- June 29 – George D. Zamka, American astronaut.
- September 20 – Jim Al-Khalili, Iraqi-born British theoretical physicist and science communicator.
- February 19 – Georgios Papanikolaou (born 1883), Greek American inventor of the Pap smear.
- March 19 – Samuel Cate Prescott (born 1872), American food scientist and microbiologist.
- March 24 – Auguste Piccard (born 1884), Swiss physicist and explorer.
- May 13 – Henry Trendley Dean (born 1893), American dental researcher.
- November 18 – Niels Bohr (born 1885), Danish physicist.
- December 20 – Emil Artin (born 1898), Austrian-born mathematician.
- December 24 – Wilhelm Ackermann (born 1896), German mathematician.
- "The First Transatlantic Satellite Relay". British TV History. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2012-01-10.
- Zuckerkandl, E.; Pauling, L. (1962). "Molecular Disease, Evolution and Genetic Heterogeneity". In Kasha, M.; Pullman, B. (ed). Horizons in Biochemistry: Albert Szent-Györgyi dedicatory volume. New York: Academic Press. pp. 189–225.
- Morgan, Gregory J. (1998). "Emile Zuckerkandl, Linus Pauling, and the Molecular Evolutionary Clock, 1959-1965". Journal of the History of Biology 31: 155–178. doi:10.1023/A:1004394418084. PMID 11620303.
- "Mouse (immunodeficient)". AnimalResearch.info. Retrieved 2011-08-04.
- "NMRI Nude Mice". Charles River. Retrieved 2011-08-04.
- "The ICT 1301 Resurrection Project". Retrieved 2012-09-29.
- "Pocket Computer May Replace Shopping List". The New York Times. 1962-11-03.
- Reilly, Edwin D. (2003). "Atlas". Milestones in Computer Science and Information Technology. Greenwood Publishing. p. 20.
- "Computers for All". Hillsboro (Ohio) Press-Gazette. 1962-12-28. Retrieved 2012-01-10.
- Waugh, William (1990). John Charnley: The Man and the Hip. London: Springer-Verlag. pp. 122–4. ISBN 3-540-19587-4.
- Stapleton, Melanie P. (1997). "Sir James Black and Propranolol". Texas Heart Institute Journal 24 (4): 336–342. PMC 325477. PMID 9456487.
- ""anTAGonist" and "ciMETidine"". American Chemical Society. 2005. Retrieved 2005-12-25.
- "Sir James Black, OM". The Daily Telegraph (London). 23 March 2010. Retrieved 2011-08-05.
- "Led the way in heart drug find". The Age (Melbourne: Fairfax Digital). 25 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-25.
- Machado, Calixto (2005). "The first organ transplant from a brain-dead donor". Neurology 64 (11): 1938–42. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000163515.09793.cb.
- Wadman, Meredith (2011-07-13). "African outbreak stumps experts". Nature 475: 148–149. doi:10.1038/475148a. Retrieved 2012-03-04.
- Holonyak, Nick; Bevacqua, S. F. (1962-12-01). "Coherent (Visible) Light Emission from Ga(As1−xPx) Junctions". Applied Physics Letters 1 (4): 82–3. doi:10.1063/1.1753706.
- "LED at 50: An illuminating history by the light's inventor". BBC. 2012-10-10. Retrieved 2012-10-10.
- Golser, Johann. The New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM): Theoretical Background & Practical Experiences. 2nd Shotcrete conference, Easton (USA), 4–8 October 1976.