1964 Atlantic hurricane season

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
1964 Atlantic hurricane season
Season summary map
First system formed June 2, 1964
Last system dissipated November 10, 1964
Strongest storm Hilda – 941 mbar (hPa) (27.8 inHg), 150 mph (240 km/h)
Total depressions 17
Total storms 12
Hurricanes 6
Major hurricanes (Cat. 3+) 6
Total fatalities 261
Total damage ~ $605 million (1964 USD)
Atlantic hurricane seasons
1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966

The 1964 Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 15, 1964, and lasted until November 15, 1964.[1] These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The season was slightly above average, with twelve total storms and six hurricanes; unusually, all six of the hurricanes strengthened into major (Category 3) storms.

Three storms were notable enough to have their names retired: Cleo, Dora, and Hilda. Hurricane Cleo killed over 200 in its trek from the Caribbean Sea across Florida. Hurricane Dora struck northeastern Florida, causing nearly $300 million (1964 US dollars) in damages. Hurricane Hilda caused damage when it struck Louisiana. Three hurricanes hit Florida this season (Cleo, Dora and Isbell); the first time this had happened since 1886 and the last time it would happen until the 2004 season.

Operationally, the season began on June 16.[2]

Season summary[edit]

Hurricane Isbell Hurricane Hilda Hurricane Gladys (1964) Hurricane Dora Hurricane Cleo Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale

Storms[edit]

Tropical Storm One[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Counterclockwise vortex
Duration June 2 – June 11
Peak intensity 60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 

The Intertropical Convergence Zone developed a tropical depression in the Northwest Caribbean Sea on June 2. It drifted northward without strengthening. Moving faster through the Gulf of Mexico, the depression crossed Florida on June 6, causing strong winds and hail from thunderstorms. When it reached the Atlantic Coast, it strengthened to a tropical storm, remaining away from landmass until its dissipation on June 11. Tropical Storm One caused $1 million (1964 USD, $7.6 million 2014 USD) in flood damage to areas along the First Coast and further inland.

Tropical Storm Two[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Counterclockwise vortex
Duration July 28 – August 2
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 

Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) noted an area of disturbed weather with a weak surface circulation in the vicinity of Cape Verde on July 25.[3] Reports from a reconnaissance aircraft indicate that a tropical depression developed at 0600 UTC on July 28, while located about halfway between the Leeward Islands and the northernmost islands of Cape Verde.[3][4] Initially the depression moved rapidly west-northwestward, which likely caused the minimal intensification. By July 30, a north-northwest to south-southeast oriented trough forced the depression to re-curve north-northwestward.[3]

While situated about 300 mi (480 km) east of Bermuda on July 31, it began heading northeastward. Later that day, the depression finally organized further and developed a well-defined rainband. The Atlantic hurricane database indicates that the depression strengthened into a tropical storm at 1800 UTC on July 31, due to ships reports of winds reaching 46 mph (74 km/h).[3][4] Around that time, maximum sustained winds peaked at 50 mph (85 km/h).[4] The storm continued moving rapidly northeastward and began to interact with a cold front.[3] It transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on August 2, while located about 525 mi (845 km) east of Cape Race, Newfoundland.[4]

Tropical Storm Abby[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration August 5 – August 8
Peak intensity 65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  1000 mbar (hPa)

A weak trough developed into a tropical depression on August 5 while located about 225 mi (360 km) south of Dauphin Island, Alabama.[5][4] The depression moved westward and initially remained disorganized.[5][4] At 1200 UTC on August 7, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Abby.[4] It was a small tropical cyclone, spanning a diameter of less than 100 mi (160 km).[5] The storm quickly intensified further to peak with winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) late on August 7. A few hours later, Abby made landfall near Matagorda, Texas at the same intensity. It weakened to a tropical depression early on August 8, before dissipating later that day.[4]

Overall, impact from this system was minor. In Texas, precipitation peaked at 6.14 in (156 mm) at the Victoria Regional Airport.[6] However, only localized flooding occurred and rainfall was mostly beneficial. In the city of Victoria, several streets were temporarily inundated with water.[7] A fishing company in Matagorda lost a portion of its roof.[8] Abby resulted in an estimated $750,000 in losses, with $150,000 in damage to property and $600,000 to crops. The impacts from the storm were most severe in Jackson and Victoria counties, where damage to crops were estimated at $275,000 and $250,000, respectively.[9]

Tropical Storm Brenda[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Counterclockwise vortex
Duration August 7 – August 10
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1006 mbar (hPa)

A minor trough of low pressure was situated west of Bermuda in early August. An airline crew member observed a low-level circular cloud forming at 32.0°N, 69.0°W at 1800 UTC on August 7.[10] Around that time, a tropical depression developed about 245 miles (395 km) west of Bermuda. It moved just north of due east and strengthened into Tropical Storm Brenda on August 8. Shortly thereafter, the storm struck Bermuda.[4] Sustained winds on the island reached 45 mph (75 km/h), while gusts up to 65 mph (100 km/h) were reported. A tornado damaged several aircraft, most of which were privately owned.[10] Losses reached approximately $275,000.[11]

Shortly after moving across Bermuda on August 8, spiral bands appeared on the island's radar.[10] Advisories on Brenda were not initiated until 1800 UTC on August 8, due to sparsity of data making it difficult to confirm a tropical cyclone.[12] A cold front caused the storm to re-curve northeastward on August 9.[10] Later that day, Brenda attained its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 1,006 mbar (29.7 inHg).[4] Thereafter, Brenda began weakening and dissipated late on the following day, while located about 585 miles (940 km) east-northeast of Bermuda.[4][12]

Hurricane Cleo[edit]

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration August 20 – September 5
Peak intensity 155 mph (250 km/h) (1-min)  950 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Hurricane Cleo

A tropical wave strengthened into a depression on August 20, and was named Tropical Storm Cleo soon after. Cleo moved quickly to the west and strengthened into a Category 4 storm by the time it churned through the Lesser Antilles. The hurricane remained a Category 4 as it passed into the Caribbean, and moved just to the south of Hispaniola on August 24, and then veered more to the north which brought a landfall on the tip of Haiti. The storm then turned to the north and weakened to a Category 1 before it struck Cuba, but remained a hurricane the whole time over land. Cleo then brushed against Miami and the east coast of Florida as it weakened from a Category 2 hurricane to a tropical storm. Cleo killed a total of 217 people and caused serious property damage as it travelled through the Caribbean Sea and into Florida, totaling $198 million (1964 USD, $1.51 billion 2014 USD) in damage.

Hurricane Dora[edit]

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration August 28 – September 14
Peak intensity 130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  942 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Hurricane Dora

A tropical depression developed form a low pressure on August 28, shortly after moving offshore the west coast of Africa near Dakar, Senegal. After a reconnaissance aircraft flight on September 1, the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Dora.[11] It then curved northeastward and continued to strengthen. By early on September 3, Dora became a Category 1 hurricane. Six hours later, the storm reached Category 2 intensity. Intensification slowed somewhat, though Dora became a Category 3 on September 5. Deepening further, the peaked as a Category 4 with maximum sustained winds of 130 mph (215 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 942 mbar (27.8 inHg) early the following day.[4]

At 18:00 UTC on September 16, Dora weakened to a Category 3 hurricane, then a Category 2 hurricane while curving westward early the following day. However, later on September 17, the system re-strengthened into a Category 3 hurricane.[4] Approaching the east coast of Florida, Dora's motion became erratic, making a few cyclonic loops. Around 04:00 UTC on September 10,[13] the hurricane made landfall near St. Augustine with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h). Two hours later, Dora weakened to a Category 2 hurricane. However, deterioration then slowed, with the hurricane falling to tropical storm intensity over Jefferson County on September 11. Dora then briefly drifted over southwestern Georgia, until turned east-northeastward late the next day. Early on September 14, the storm re-emerged into the Atlantic Ocean near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and became extratropical several hours later. The remnants of Dora moved rapidly northeastward and dissipated offshore Newfoundland early on September 16.[4]

Strong winds lashed North Florida, with sustained wind of 125 mph (205 km/h) observed in St. Augustine.[11] In Jacksonville, approximately 156,000 customers were left without electricity, while about 19% of phones in Duval County were out of service.[14] Along the coast, tides reached up to 10 ft (3.0 m) above mean sea level.[11] Hurricane Dora was the only hurricane in the twentieth Century to make landfall on the First Coast region of Florida. It caused $280 million in damage (1964 USD, $2.13 billion 2014 USD).

Hurricane Ethel[edit]

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration September 4 – September 15
Peak intensity 115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min)  969 mbar (hPa)

TIROS observed a large cloud mass near 18°N, 37°W on September 4.[15] Later that day, it developed into a tropical depression while located about 665 miles (1,070 km) east of Cape Verde. The depression moved west-northwestward and intensified into Tropical Storm Ethel at 1200 UTC on September 4.[4] Initially, it was suggested that Hurricane Dora could absorb Ethel, as the storms were located 690 miles (1,110 km) apart.[15] On September 7, Ethel strengthened into a hurricane. By early on the following day, it curved westward and continued to slowly deepen. Late on September 9, the storm peaked as a Category 3 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 115 mph (185 km/h).[4]

Thereafter, the storm weakened back to a Category 2 hurricane early on September 10. It further deteriorated to a Category 1 on the following day. Early on September 12, Ethel re-strengthened to a Category 2 hurricane. Later that day, the storm passed to the northwest of Bermuda on September 12,[4] bringing squalls and wind gusts up to 70 mph (110 km/h) to the island.[15] Thereafter, it resumed weakened and was downgraded to a Category 1 late on September 13. Ethel accelerated northeastward and became extratropical late on September 15, while located about 540 miles (870 km) northwest of Corvo Island in the Azores.[4]

Tropical Storm Florence[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Counterclockwise vortex
Duration September 5 – September 10
Peak intensity 45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min) ≤ 1002 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave emerged into the Atlantic Ocean from the west coast of Africa on September 5.[11] The wave quickly developed into a tropical depression at 1800 UTC on September 5, while located about 180 miles (290 km) northwest of Dakar, Senegal (then known as French West Africa).[4] Shortly thereafter, the depression produced squally weather in Cape Verde.[11] Despite having sustained winds of only 25 mph (35 km/h),[4] the system's minimum barometric pressure of 1,002 mbar (29.6 inHg) was recorded early on September 6.[11] The depression then re-curved northwestward and began to intensify. Early on September 8, it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Florence. Six hours later, the storm attained its maximum sustained wind speed of 45 mph (75 km/h). Florence curved north-northeastward on September 8 and slowly weakened.[4] A reconnaissance aircraft reported that Florence degenerated into an area of squalls to the south of the Azores at 0600 UTC on September 10.[11][4]

Hurricane Gladys[edit]

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration September 13 – September 24
Peak intensity 145 mph (230 km/h) (1-min)  945 mbar (hPa)

A emerged into the Atlantic from the west coast of Africa on September 8.[16] Tracking westward, it developed into a tropical depression while centered about midway between the Lesser Antilles and Cape Verde on September 13. Shortly thereafter, it strengthened Tropical Storm Gladys. On September 14, Gladys abruptly strengthened into a Category 2 hurricane, with winds increasing from 70 mph (110 km/h) to 100 mph (155 km/h) in just six hours. However, early on the following day, Gladys weakened slightly to a Category 1 hurricane. Between late on September 16 and late on September 17, the storm rapidly intensified and peaked as a 145 mph (230 km/h) Category 4 hurricane later that day. Gladys began weakening on the following day and re-curved northward on September 19.[4]

The storm turned northwestward on September 22 and briefly threatened the East Coast of the United States. However, it veered northeastward on September 23 and moved rapidly toward Atlantic Canada. By 0000 UTC on September 25, Gladys became extratropical while centered between Sable Island and Nova Scotia.[4] Along the East Coast of the United States, Gladys produced light rainfall, gusty winds, and storm surge. Coastal flooding was reported in North Carolina and Virginia.[17][18] In the former, high tides inundated homes and buildings with 2 feet (0.61 m) of water in two small villages on the Outer Banks and flooded a highway to Manteo.[17][19] In the state of Virginia, one indirect death occurred when a man was fatally struck in the throat by debris.[20] Tides also affected the Mid-Atlantic, New England,[21][22] and Atlantic Canada.[23]

Hurricane Hilda[edit]

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration September 28 – October 4
Peak intensity 150 mph (240 km/h) (1-min)  941 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Hurricane Hilda

A tropical wave developed into a tropical depression at 1200 UTC on September 28, while located about 40 miles (64 km) south of Trinidad, Cuba.[24][4] The depression tracked west-northwestward and struck Isla de la Juventud, Cuba early on September 29. After briefly re-emerging into the northwestern Caribbean Sea later that day, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Hilda at 1200 UTC on September 29. Around that time, Hilda made landfall near Sandino, Cuba with winds of 40 mph (65 km/h). By late on September 29, it emerged into the Gulf of Mexico near Cape San Antonio. The storm continued to intensify, reaching hurricane status on September 30. During the following 30 hours, Hilda strengthened significantly and peaked as a Category 4 hurricane with winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) late on October 1. It re-curved northward and began weakening due to unfavorable conditions. Around 0000 UTC on October 4, the storm made landfall near Franklin, Louisiana with winds of 110 mph (175 km/h). It rapidly weakened inland and became extratropical over southern Mississippi by 1200 UTC that day.[4]

In Cuba, the storm caused minor impact, with damage totaling about $1 million.[11] Offshore the United States in the Gulf of Mexico, 13 oil platforms were destroyed and 5 others were damage beyond repair. Losses to the oil industry reached $100 million.[25] In Louisiana, sustained winds of 100 to 120 mph to (155 to 195 km/h) lashed the Abbeville-Morgan City-New Iberia area. Additionally, several tornadoes in the New Orleans area resulted in significant damage. There were 37 fatalities and an estimated 5,000 injuries. Approximately 19,000 homes were damaged in the state, 2,600 of which were severely impacted. Outside of Louisiana, damage was primarily caused by flooding in the Southeastern United States. Impacted worst by flooding was North Carolina, where 2000 homes and buildings suffered water damage and one death was reported.[26] Throughout the United States, the storm caused 38 fatalities and $125 million in losses.[11]

Hurricane Isbell[edit]

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration October 8 – October 16
Peak intensity 125 mph (205 km/h) (1-min)  964 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Hurricane Isbell

A diffused frontal trough developed into a tropical depression in the southwestern Caribbean on October 8.[11] The depression initially remained disorganized as it track northwestward, but strengthened into Tropical Storm Isbell on October 13. Re-curving northeastward, Isbell quickly strengthened further and reached hurricane status by later that day. Late on October 13, Isbell made landfall in the Pinar del Río Province of Cuba. Despite land interaction, the storm continued strengthening and peaked as a Category 3 hurricane winds of 125 mph (205 km/h) on the following day. Isbell moved northeastward and made landfall near Everglades, Florida at the same intensity late on October 14. After reaching the Atlantic on the following day, the storm began to weaken and fell Category 1 hurricane. Isbell turned northward and continued weakening, before transitioning to an extratropical cyclone while located just offshore of eastern North Carolina on October 16.[4]

The storm produced strong winds throughout western Cuba. Hundreds of homes were destroyed, as were several tobacco warehouses. There were four deaths in Cuba,[27][28] three of them caused by collapsing houses in the Guane area.[28] Several tornadoes in Florida caused significant damage overall.[29] Throughout the state, 1 house was destroyed, 33 severely damage, and 631 suffered minor impact. Additionally, 66 trailers were destroyed and 88 were inflicted with major damage.[30] Three deaths occurred in the state, one due to a heart attack and two from drowning in Florida Keys when their shrimp boat sank.[29] Because the storm weakened considerably, impact in North Carolina was generally minor. The storm also spawned at least six tornadoes in the state, which demolished trailers and unroofed homes and other buildings in several communities.[27] Damage throughout the United States totaled $10 million.[11]

Tropical Storm Twelve[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Counterclockwise vortex
Duration November 5 – November 10
Peak intensity 40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  997 mbar (hPa)

An area of disturbed weather within the Intertropical Convergence Zone developed into a tropical depression early on November 5, while located about 135 mi (220 km) north-northwest of Colón, Panama.[11][4] The depression strengthened slowly, reaching tropical storm status on November 6. Thereafter, it curved westward and headed for Central America. Early on November 7, the storm made landfall near Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua with winds of 40 mph (65 km/h). Several hours later, it weakened to a tropical depression, shortly before re-emerging into the Caribbean Sea. The storm failed to re-intensify and made landfall in Belize on November 9. It dissipated early on the following day.[4]

In Nicaragua, winds and heavy rainfall caused significant crop damage, especially to bananas. Many residents living near the Caratasca Lagoon evacuated. The entire town of Caukira was flooded, with five small houses completely destroyed. Tides were as high as 18 ft (5.5 m). In Puerto Castilla, large amounts of precipitation caused flooding and destroyed a bridge, leaving part of the population out of communication. Another bridge collapsed in the town of Rus-Rus. Strong winds and heavy rainfall also resulted in "considerable damage" on the Bay Islands. Overall, the storm resulted in about $5 million in damage.[11]

Other storms[edit]

In addition to the twelve tropical storms, there were three depressions monitored throughout the season. On July 25, a tropical depression developed east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Winds of 35–45 mph (55–75 km/h) occurred in squalls associated with the system as it moved northeast. It was last noted on July 27 as it moved over Nova Scotia.[31] TIROS VII depicted two tropical depressions, one on July 15 and the other on September 19 at 20°N 25°W / 20°N 25°W / 20; -25 and 15°N 27°W / 15°N 27°W / 15; -27, respectively. Due to the sparsity of data in the region and lack of complete satellite coverage, no further information on these systems is available.[32]

Storm names[edit]

The following names were used for named storms that formed in the North Atlantic in 1964. This is the same list used in the 1960 season with the exception of Dora, which replaced Donna.[33] A storm was named Isbell for the first time in 1964. The names Cleo, Dora, and Hilda were later retired and replaced with Candy, Dolly, and Hannah, respectively, in the 1968 season.[34][35] Names that were not assigned are marked in gray.

  • Hilda
  • Isbell
  • Janet (unused)
  • Katy (unused)
  • Lila (unused)
  • Molly (unused)
  • Nita (unused)
  • Odette (unused)
  • Paula (unused)
  • Roxie (unused)
  • Stella (unused)
  • Trudy (unused)
  • Vesta (unused)
  • Winny (unused)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ United Press International. U.S. Tries to Keep Satellites Alive for Hurricane Season. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.
  2. ^ "Hurricane Season Begins Again Tuesday". San Antonio Express and News. 1964-06-14. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "Unnamed Tropical Storm – July 28–August 3, 1964". United States Weather Bureau (National Hurricane Center; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration): 1. 1964. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1964/ts02/prenhc/prelim01.gif. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division (April 1, 2014). "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 23, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c "Preliminary Report On Tropical Storm "Abby"". United States Weather Bureau (National Hurricane Center; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration): 1. 1964. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1964/abby/prenhc/prelim01.gif. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
  6. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (November 16, 2012). "Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima". Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved December 7, 2012. 
  7. ^ "No Report Of Damage In Area". The Victoria Advocate (National Hurricane Center; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). August 8, 1964. Retrieved June 11, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Abby Fizzles Out". Galveston Tribune. August 10, 1964. Retrieved June 11, 2013. 
  9. ^ "Final Report Tropical Storm Abby, August 7, 1964". United States Weather Bureau (National Hurricane Center; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). September 9, 1964. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1964/abby/preloc/aus0909a.gif. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
  10. ^ a b c d "Tropical Storm Brenda – August 4–10, 1964". United States Weather Bureau (National Hurricane Center; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration): 1. 1964. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1964/brenda/prenhc/prelim01.gif. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Gordon E. Dunn (March 1965). "The Hurricane Season of 1964" (PDF). United States Weather Bureau (Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/general/lib/lib1/nhclib/mwreviews/1964.pdf. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
  12. ^ a b "Tropical Storm Brenda – August 4–10, 1964". United States Weather Bureau (National Hurricane Center; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration): 2. 1964. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1964/brenda/prenhc/prelim02.gif. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  13. ^ George Cry (1964). "Hurricane Dora, August 28 – September 16, 1964". United States Weather Bureau (Silver Spring, Maryland: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). http://docs.lib.noaa.gov/rescue/hurricanes/Qc9452d673h81964.pdf. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  14. ^ (PDF) emeRgency PRePaReDness guiDe Duval County Emergency Management 2014-2015 (Report). Jacksonville, Florida: Duval County Emergency Management. 2014. http://news.jacksonville.com/specials/pdfs/2014_2015EmergencyPreparednessGuide.pdf. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
  15. ^ a b c "Hurricane Ethel, September 4–6, 1964". United States Weather Bureau (National Hurricane Center; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration): 2. 1964. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1964/ethel/prenhc/prelim02.gif. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  16. ^ Harry M. Hoose (September 21, 1964). "Report on Hurricane Gladys, September 13–14, 1964". Weather Bureau Office San Juan, Puerto Rico (National Hurricane Center). http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1964/gladys/preloc/sju0921.gif. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  17. ^ a b Albert Hardy (1964). Page Two – Hurricane Gladys in North Carolina (Report). National Hurricane Center. p. 2. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1964/gladys/prenhc/prelim02.gif. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  18. ^ Sasche (September 23, 1964). "Preliminary Report on Hurricane Gladys". Weather Bureau Office Norfolk, Virginia (National Hurricane Center). http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1964/gladys/preloc/pshorf.gif. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  19. ^ "Gladys Hovers Off N.C.". Spokane Daily Chronicle. Associated Press. September 22, 1964. p. 29. Retrieved June 10, 2013. 
  20. ^ "East Coast Sparred as Hurricane Veers". Oshkosh Daily Northwestern. Associated Press. 1964. 
  21. ^ "Fickle Gladys heads away into open sea". The Greeley Daily Tribune. Associated Press. 1964. 
  22. ^ "Ocean Ordeal: I Thought I Was Going to Die". Independent News. 1964. 
  23. ^ 1964-Gladys (Report). Environment Canada. November 6, 2009. http://www.ec.gc.ca/Hurricane/default.asp?lang=En&n=6B702CE6-1. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  24. ^ "Preliminary Report On Hurricane "Hilda": September 28 to October 5, 1964". United States Weather Bureau (National Hurricane Center; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration): 1. 1964. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1964/hilda/prenhc/prelim01.gif. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
  25. ^ Diane Austin, Bob Carriker, Tom McGuire, Joseph Pratt, Tyler Priest, Allan G. Pulsipher (July 2004). "History of the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in Southern Louisiana" (PDF). Louisiana State University (United States Department of the Interior): 20. Archived from the original on March 25, 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090325075242/http://www.gomr.mms.gov/homepg/regulate/environ/studies/2004/2004-049.pdf. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
  26. ^ Luther H. Hodges (1964). "Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena: October 1964" (PDF). National Climatic Data Center (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration): 107-108. http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/orders/IPS-BF06C12D-CF70-4A0B-84CB-A8660ED6A908.pdf. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
  27. ^ a b "Isbell Takes Dead Aim on North Carolina Coast". The Daily Times News. Associated Press. October 15, 1964. 
  28. ^ a b ""El Mundo", Havana, October 14, 1964 (Isbell)". National Hurricane Center; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 1964-10-14. 
  29. ^ a b "Preliminary Report – Hurricane Isbell: October 8–17, 1964". United States Weather Bureau (National Hurricane Center; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration): 5. 1964. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1964/isbell/prenhc/prelim05.gif. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
  30. ^ "Hurricane Isbell: Oct. 13–17, 1964 (DR-070)". United States Weather Bureau (National Hurricane Center; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1964/isbell/preloc/damage1.gif. Retrieved 2006-09-27.
  31. ^ United States Weather Bureau (September 1964). May–July 1964. "Rough Log, North Atlantic Weather". Mariner's Weather Log 8 (5): 170. 
  32. ^ Neil L. Frank and H. M. Johnson (February 1969). "Vortical Cloud Systems Over the Tropical Atlantic During the 1967 Atlantic Hurricane Season" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review 97 (2): 125. Retrieved June 9, 2014. 
  33. ^ "Roll of Hurricanes Starts with Abby". Reading Eagle. Associated Press. June 24, 1964. Retrieved June 10, 2013. 
  34. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Naming History and Retired Names". National Hurricane Center (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). April 13, 2012. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/aboutnames_history.shtml. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  35. ^ "Brenda Follows Abby (Hope Not)". Spartanburg Herald-Journal. June 11, 1968. Retrieved June 10, 2013. 

External links[edit]