1970s in jazz

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Art Blakey, 1973

In the 1970s in jazz, jazz become increasingly influenced by Latin jazz, combining rhythms from African and Latin American countries, often played on instruments such as conga, timbale, güiro, and claves, with jazz and classical harmonies played on typical jazz instruments (piano, double bass, etc.). Artists such as Chick Corea, John McLaughlin and Al Di Meola increasingly influenced the genre with jazz fusion, a hybrid form of jazz-rock fusion which was developed by combining jazz improvisation with rock rhythms, electric instruments, and the highly amplified stage sound of rock musicians such as Jimi Hendrix. All Music Guide states that "..until around 1967, the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly completely separate." However, "...as rock became more creative and its musicianship improved, and as some in the jazz world became bored with hard bop and did not want to play strictly avant-garde music, the two different idioms began to trade ideas and occasionally combine forces."[1]

Carlos Santana, one of the pioneers of the Latin jazz-fusion genre

Miles Davis made the breakthrough into fusion in the 1970s with his album Bitches Brew. Musicians who worked with Davis formed the four most influential fusion groups: Weather Report and Mahavishnu Orchestra emerged in 1971 and were soon followed by Return to Forever and The Headhunters. Although jazz purists protested the blend of jazz and rock, some of jazz's significant innovators crossed over from the contemporary hard bop scene into fusion. Jazz fusion music often uses mixed meters, odd time signatures, syncopation, and complex chords and harmonies. In addition to using the electric instruments of rock, such as the electric guitar, electric bass, electric piano, and synthesizer keyboards, fusion also used the powerful amplification, "fuzz" pedals, wah-wah pedals, and other effects used by 1970s-era rock bands. Notable performers of jazz fusion included Miles Davis, keyboardists Joe Zawinul, Chick Corea, Herbie Hancock, vibraphonist Gary Burton, drummer Tony Williams, violinist Jean-Luc Ponty, guitarists Larry Coryell, Al Di Meola, John McLaughlin and Frank Zappa, saxophonist Wayne Shorter, and bassists Jaco Pastorius and Stanley Clarke. Jazz fusion was also popular in Japan where the band Casiopea released over thirty albums praising Jazz Fusion.

In the mid-1970s, jazz funk became popular, characterized by a strong back beat (groove), electrified sounds,[2] and often, the presence of the first electronic analog synthesizers. The integration of Funk, Soul, and R&B music and styles into jazz resulted in the creation of a genre whose spectrum is indeed quite wide and ranges from strong jazz improvisation to soul, funk or disco with jazz arrangements, jazz riffs, and jazz solos, and sometimes soul vocals.[3]

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Phil Woods, Ron Mathewson and Henri Texier, NDR Jazzworkshop, 1971

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Musicians of the Michael Gibbs Big band, NDR Jazzworkshop 1972

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McCoy Tyner in 1973

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Duke Ellington died on May 24, 1974

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Joe Pass, 1975

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  • Ray Nance (December 10, 1913 - January 28, 1976)

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Ben Riley Heath Brothers, 1977

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1979[edit]

Main article: 1979 in jazz

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Explore: Fusion". AllMusic. Retrieved November 28, 2010. 
  2. ^ "Free Jazz-Funk Music: Album, Track and Artist Charts". Rhapsody Online — Rhapsody.com. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved November 28, 2010. 
  3. ^ "allmusic". allmusic. Retrieved November 28, 2010. 
  4. ^ The New Real Book, Volume II, p. 339
  5. ^ The Real Book, Volume II, p. 244
  6. ^ The Real Book, Volume I, p. 338
  7. ^ The Real Book, Volume II, p. 79
  8. ^ The Real Book, Volume II, p. 268
  9. ^ Send in the Clowns at jazzstandards.com - retrieved on February 20 * 1974–2009 Archived 6 October 2011 at WebCite
  10. ^ The Real Book, Volume I, p. 41
  11. ^ The New Real Book, Volume II, p. 20
  12. ^ The Real Book, Volume II, p. 46
  13. ^ 8:30 review on Allmusic - retrieved on November 28, 2010