1971 in spaceflight

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1971 in spaceflight
USSR stamp Memories of cosmonauts 1971 4k.jpg
Salyut 1, the first space station and Soyuz 11, the first mission to successfully dock with it, were launched in 1971. The crew were killed during reentry when their spacecraft depressurised
Orbital launches
First 12 January
Last 29 December
Total 133
Successes 118
Failures 15
Catalogued 120
National firsts
Orbital launch  United Kingdom
Rockets
Maiden flights Soyuz-M
Delta M6
Thor LV-2F Burner IIA
Titan III(24)B
Titan III(33)B
Titan IIID
Retirements Black Arrow
Delta E1
Delta M
Delta M6
Delta N6
Europa
Long March 1
R-36OM
Soyuz-L
Thor LV-2F Burner II
Thorad SLV-2G Agena-D
Titan III(23)B
Manned flights
Orbital 4
Total travellers 12

1971 saw the last three known deaths of cosmonauts of the Soviet space program and the only deaths in space. Their mission was to man humanity's first space station. The experimental bay door failed to separate so the first crew failed to dock and second crew were killed on re-entry. 1971 also saw the launch of the first and only British satellite on top of a British rocket after that success the program was cancelled.

Launches[edit]

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Launch site LSP
Payload Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January[edit]

12 January
09:30[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Baikonur 31/6 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 390 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging 25 January[3] Successful
13 January
20:10
Canada Black Brant II Canada Fort Churchill Canada NRCC
Canada NRCC Suborbital Aeronomy 13 January Successful
14 January
12:00:00[4]
Soviet Union Kosmos-2I Soviet Union Plesetsk 133/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 391 (DS-P1-I No.10) Low Earth Radar target 21 February 1972[3] Successful
20 January
11:24:00[1]
Soviet Union Vostok-2M Soviet Union Plesetsk 41/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Meteor 1-07 (Meteor-M)[5][6] Sun-synchronous Weather 14 July 2005[3] Successful
21 January
02:32
Canada Black Brant VB Canada Fort Churchill Canada NRCC
Canada NRCC Suborbital Auroral/Ionospheric 21 January Successful
21 January
08:40[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Baikonur 31/6 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 392 (Zenit-2M)[7] Low Earth Optical imaging 2 February[3] Successful
21 January
18:20
United States Titan III(23)B United States Vandenberg SLC-4W United States US Air Force
United States OPS 7776 (Gambit-3 4330) NRO Low Earth Optical imaging 9 February Successful
United States OPS 7776 SRV-1 NRO Low Earth Film return January Successful
United States OPS 7776 SRV-2 NRO Low Earth Film return February Successful
22 January
04:44
Canada Black Brant VB Canada Fort Churchill Canada NRCC
Canada NRCC Suborbital Auroral/Ionospheric 22 January Successful
26 January
00:36:03
United States Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D United States Cape Kennedy LC-36A United States
United Nations Intelsat IV F-2 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
26 January
12:44:33[4]
Soviet Union Kosmos-2I Soviet Union Plesetsk 133/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 393 (DS-P1-Yu No.34) Low Earth Calibration 16 June[3] Successful
26 January
17:23
Canada Black Brant VB Canada Fort Churchill Canada NRCC
Canada NRCC Suborbital Solar/Ionospheric 26 January Successful
31 January
21:03
United States Saturn V United States Kennedy LC-39A United States NASA
United States Apollo 14 CSM NASA Selenocentric Lunar orbiter 9 February
21:05
Successful
United States Apollo 14 LM NASA Selenocentric Lunar lander 5 February
09:17
Successful
Manned flight with three astronauts, third manned Lunar landing

February[edit]

3 February
01:41:40
United States Delta M United States Cape Kennedy LC-17A United States
NATO NATO-2B NATO Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
Final flight of Delta M
5 February
22:46
Canada Black Brant IVB Canada Fort Churchill Canada NRCC
Canada NRCC Suborbital Auroral/Ionospheric 5 February Successful
9 February
18:48:48[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 394 (DS-P1-M No.2) Low Earth ASAT target 25 February
(destroyed)
Successful
Destroyed by Kosmos 397, debris still in orbit
16 February
04:00:00
Japan Mu-3S Japan Kagoshima LA-M Japan ISAS
Japan Tansei 1 ISAS Low Earth Technology In orbit Successful
17 February
03:52:05
United States Thor LV-2F Burner II United States Vandenberg SLC-10W United States US Air Force
United States OPS 5268 (DAPP-5A F-3) US Air Force Low Earth Weather In orbit Successful
United States Calsphere 3 (NRL PL-170A) NRL Low Earth Calibration 17 October 1989 Successful
United States Calsphere 4 (NRL PL-170B) NRL Low Earth Calibration 20 September 1989 Successful
United States Calsphere 5 (NRL PL-170C) NRL Low Earth Calibration 7 January 1990 Successful
17 February
20:04:30
United States Thorad SLV-2H Agena-D United States Vandenberg SLC-3W United States US Air Force
United States KH-4B No.1113 NRO Intended: Low Earth Optical imaging +18 seconds Launch failure
Engine failure due to chain of malfunctions caused by fuel additive loading error
17 February
21:09[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 395 (Tselina-OM) Low Earth ELINT 6 April 1980 Successful
18 February
13:59[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/3 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 396 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging 3 March[3] Successful
20 February
03:33
Canada Black Brant IVA Canada Fort Churchill Canada NRCC
Canada NRCC Suborbital Auroral/Ionospheric 20 February Successful
25 February
01:13
Canada Black Brant VB United States Wallops Island United States NASA
United States NASA Suborbital Aeronomy 25 February Successful
25 February
11:11[9]
Soviet Union Tsyklon-2 Soviet Union Baikonur 90/19 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 397 (IS-A) Initial: Low Earth
Final: Medium Earth
ASAT test In orbit Successful
Intercepted and destroyed Kosmos 394
26 February
05:06[1]
Soviet Union Soyuz-L Soviet Union Baikonur 31/6 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 398 (LK T2K No.2) Deployed: Low Earth
Final: Medium Earth
Test flight 10 December 1995[3] Successful
28 February
20:10
Canada Black Brant III Canada Fort Churchill Canada NRCC
Canada NRCC Suborbital Aeronomy 28 February Successful

March[edit]

3 March
06:52
Canada Black Brant IVA Canada Fort Churchill Canada NRCC
Canada NRCC Suborbital Auroral 3 March Successful
3 March
09:30[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Baikonur 31/6 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 399 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging 17 March[3] Successful
3 March
12:15[6]
China Long March 1 China Jiuquan LA-2A China
China Shijian I Low Earth Technology 17 June 1979 Successful
5 March
08:15:02[4]
Soviet Union Kosmos-2I Soviet Union Kapustin Yar 86/4 Soviet Union
Soviet Union DS-P1-Yu No.39 Intended: Low Earth Calibration +133 seconds Launch failure
Second stage malfunction, failed to orbit[10]
5 March [1] Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/4 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Zenit-2M[7] Intended: Low Earth Optical imaging 5 March[3] Launch failure
Soviet Union Nauka 2KS No.3[6] Intended: Low Earth
13 March
16:15:00
United States Delta M6 United States Cape Kennedy LC-17A United States
United States Explorer 43 (IMP-6) NASA Highly elliptical Gamma-ray astronomy 2 October 1974 Successful
Only flight of Delta M6
18 March
21:45:00[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 400 (DS-P1-M No.3) Low Earth ASAT target 4 April
(destroyed)
Successful
Destroyed by Kosmos 402, debris still in orbit
20 March
03:24
Canada Black Brant II Canada Fort Churchill Canada NRCC
Canada NRCC Suborbital Test flight
Auroral/Ionospheric
20 March Successful
21 March
03:45
United States Titan III(33)B United States Vandenberg SLC-4W United States US Air Force
United States OPS 4788 (Jumpseat) NRO Molniya ELINT In orbit Successful
Maiden flight of Titan III(33)B, first Jumpseat satellite
24 March
20:10
Canada Black Brant VC Canada Fort Churchill Canada AFCRL
Canada AFCRL Suborbital Auroral/Aeronomy 24 March Successful
24 March
21:05
United States Thorad SLV-2H Agena-D United States Vandenberg SLC-3W United States US Air Force
United States OPS 5300 (KH-4B No.1115) NRO Low Earth Optical imaging 12 April
27 March
10:59[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/3 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 401 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging 9 April[3] Successful

April[edit]

1 April
02:57:07
United States Delta E1 United States Vandenberg SLC-2E United States
CanadaUnited States ISIS 2 CSA/NASA Low Earth Ionospheric In orbit Successful
Final flight of Delta E1
1 April
11:29[9]
Soviet Union Tsyklon-2 Soviet Union Baikonur 90/20 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 402 (US-A) Low Earth Ocean surveillance 6 May Successful
2 April
08:20[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/3 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 403 (Zenit-2M)[7] Low Earth Optical imaging 14 April[3] Successful
4 April
14:27[9]
Soviet Union Tsyklon-2 Soviet Union Baikonur 90/19 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 404 (IS-A) Low Earth ASAT test 4 April Successful
Intercepted and destroyed Kosmos 400
5 April United States Atlas E/F United States Vandenberg ABRES A-1 United States US Air Force
United States LAR-1 US Air Force Suborbital REV test 5 April Successful
7 April
07:10[1]
Soviet Union Vostok-2M Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/4 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 405 (Tselina-D)[11] Low Earth ELINT In orbit Successful
14 April
08:00[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/4 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 406 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging 24 April[3] Successful
15 April
09:19
France Diamant B France Kourou ALD France CNES
France Tournesol CNES Low Earth Ionospheric 28 January 1980 Successful
17 April
11:44:58[1]
Soviet Union Vostok-2M Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/4 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Meteor 1-08 (Meteor-M)[5][6] Sun-synchronous Weather 10 January 1991[3] Successful
19 April
01:40:00[12]
Soviet Union Proton-K Soviet Union Baikonur 81/24 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Salyut 1 Low Earth Space station 11 October[3] Successful
First space station, visited by two crews. First crew failed to dock, second killed after departure
22 April
15:30
United States Titan III(23)B United States Vandenberg SLC-4W United States US Air Force
United States OPS 7899 (Gambit-3 4331) NRO Low Earth Optical imaging 13 May Successful
United States OPS 7899 SRV-1 NRO Low Earth Film return April/May Successful
United States OPS 7899 SRV-2 NRO Low Earth Film return May Successful
Final flight of Titan III(23)B
22 April
23:54:06[1]
Soviet Union Soyuz Soviet Union Baikonur 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Soyuz 10 Low Earth (Salyut 1) Manned 24 April
23:40:00[13]
Spacecraft failure
Manned flight with three cosmonauts. First mission to dock with a space station, aborted after spacecraft failed to achieve hard dock with Salyut 1
23 April
11:30[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 407 (Strela-2M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
24 April
07:32:29
United States Scout B Kenya San Marco Italy CRS
ItalyUnited States San Marco 3 CRS/NASA Low Earth Atmospheric 29 November Successful
24 April
11:15:02[4]
Soviet Union Kosmos-2I Soviet Union Plesetsk 133/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 408 (DS-P1-Yu No.37) Low Earth Calibration 29 December[3] Successful
28 April
14:35[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 409 (Sfera) Low Earth Geodesy In orbit Successful

May[edit]

5 May
07:43:01
United States Titan III(23)C United States Cape Kennedy LC-40 United States US Air Force
United States OPS 3811 (DSP SVN-3/IMEWS-2) US Air Force Geosynchronous Missile defence In orbit Successful
6 May
06:20[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Baikonur 31/6 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 410 (Zenit-2M)[7] Low Earth Optical imaging 18 May[3] Successful
Soviet Union Nauka 8KS No.1[6] Low Earth 25 May[3] Successful
7 May
14:20[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 411 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 412 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 413 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 414 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 415 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 416 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 417 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 418 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
9 May
01:11:02
United States Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D United States Cape Kennedy LC-36A United States
United States Mariner 8 NASA Intended: Areocentric Mars orbiter 9 May Launch failure
Upper stage thrust vectoring failed due to gyroscope malfunction, failed to orbit
10 May
16:58:42[12]
Soviet Union Proton-K/D Soviet Union Baikonur 81/23 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 419 (Mars 3MS No.170) Intended: Areocentric
Achieved: Low Earth
Mars orbiter 12 May[3] Launch failure
Blok D failed to ignite due to programming error; coast phase incorrectly entered in years instead of hours[14]
18 May
08:00[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Baikonur 31/6 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 420 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging 29 May[3] Successful
19 May
10:20:00[4]
Soviet Union Kosmos-2I Soviet Union Plesetsk 133/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 421 (DS-P1-Yu No.48) Low Earth Calibration 8 November[3] Successful
19 May
16:22:44[12]
Soviet Union Proton-K/D Soviet Union Baikonur 81/24 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Mars 2 orbiter Areocentric Mars orbiter In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Mars 2 lander Heliocentric Mars lander 27 November Spacecraft failure
Lander failed to achieve soft landing, instead impacting the planet[14]
22 May
00:51[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 422 (Tsyklon) Low Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
27 May
11:59:55[4]
Soviet Union Kosmos-2I Soviet Union Plesetsk 133/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 423 (DS-P1-Yu No.47) Low Earth Calibration 26 November[3] Successful
28 May
10:30[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/4 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 424 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging 10 June[3] Successful
28 May
15:26:30[12]
Soviet Union Proton-K/D Soviet Union Baikonur 81/23 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Mars 3 orbiter Areocentric Mars orbiter In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Mars 3 lander Heliocentric Mars lander 2 December Spacecraft failure
Lander failed 20 seconds after landing[14]
29 May
03:49[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 425 (Tselina-OM) Low Earth ELINT 15 January 1980 Successful
30 May
22:23:04
United States Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D United States Cape Kennedy LC-36B United States
United States Mariner 9 NASA Areocentric Mars orbiter In orbit Successful
First spacecraft to orbit Mars upon orbital insertion on 14 November. Deactivated on 27 October 1972

June[edit]

4 June
18:10:00[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/2 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 426 (DS-U2-K No.1) Low Earth Magnetospheric 11 May 2002[3] Successful
Ceased operations on 12 January 1972
6 June
04:55:09[1]
Soviet Union Soyuz Soviet Union Baikonur 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Soyuz 11 Low Earth (Salyut 1) Manned 29 June
23:16:52[15]
Spacecraft failure
Manned flight with three cosmonauts. First mission to occupy a space station, and only mission to occupy Salyut 1. Crew killed by depressurisation of spacecraft during reentry
7 June
05:26
Canada Black Brant IVA Canada Fort Churchill Canada AFCRL
Canada AFCRL Suborbital Ionospheric 7 June Successful
8 June
14:00:05
United States Thor LV-2F Burner II United States Vandenberg SLC-10W United States US Air Force
United States SESP-1 (P70-1) US Air Force/STP Low Earth Technology 31 January 1982 Successful
Final flight of Thor LV-2F Burner II
11 June
10:00[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/4 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 427 (Zenit-4MK)[16] Low Earth Optical imaging 23 June[3] Successful
15 June
18:41
United States Titan III(23)D United States Vandenberg SLC-4E United States US Air Force
United States OPS 8709 (Hexagon 1201) NRO Low Earth Optical imaging 6 August Successful
United States OPS 8709 SRV-1 NRO Low Earth Film return 20 June[17] Partial spacecraft failure
United States OPS 8709 SRV-2 NRO Low Earth Film return 26 June[18] Successful
United States OPS 8709 SRV-3 NRO Low Earth Film return 10 July[18] Spacecraft failure
United States OPS 8709 SRV-4 NRO Low Earth Film return 15 July[18] Successful
Maiden flight of Titan IIID, first Hexagon satellite. SRV-1 recovered from water, SRV-3 lost due to parachute failure
20 June
22:45
United States LGM-25C Titan II United States Vandenberg LC-395C United States US Air Force
United States SSTTP M1-17 US Air Force Suborbital Target 20 June Successful
24 June
07:59[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Baikonur 31/6 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 428 (Zenit-2M)[7] Low Earth Optical imaging 6 July[3] Successful
Soviet Union Nauka 1KS No.4[6] Low Earth 13 July[3] Successful
25 June Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/3 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Zenit-4M[2] Intended: Low Earth Optical imaging 25 June[3] Launch failure
26 June
23:15:08[6]
Soviet Union N1 Soviet Union Baikonur 110/37 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Soyuz 7K-LOK mockup Intended: Highly elliptical Test flight +51 seconds Launch failure
Soviet Union LK mockup Intended: Highly elliptical Test flight
Loss of roll control, vehicle disintegrated at max Q
29 June
10:12
United States Atlas E/F-Trident United States Vandenberg ABRES A-3 United States US Air Force
United States RVTO-2A-3 US Air Force Suborbital REV test 29 June Successful

July[edit]

8 July
22:58:00
United States Scout B United States Wallops LA-3A United States NASA
United States Explorer 44 (Solrad 10) NASA Low Earth Solar 15 December 1979 Successful
16 July
01:41:36[1]
Soviet Union Vostok-2M Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/4 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Meteor 1-09 (Meteor-M)[5][6] Sun-synchronous Weather 27 August 1991[3] Successful
16 July
10:50
United States Thorad SLV-2H Agena-D United States Vandenberg SLC-1W United States US Air Force
United States OPS 8373 ("Heavy Ferret") NRO Low Earth ELINT 31 August 1978 Successful
20 July
10:00[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Baikonur 31/6 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 429 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging 2 August[3] Successful
21 July
16:00
Canada Black Brant VC United States Wallops Island United States NASA
United States NASA Suborbital Test flight 21 July Launch failure
22 July Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/2 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Tselina-OM Intended: Low Earth ELINT 22 July Launch failure
Failed to orbit
23 July
11:00[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/3 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 430 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging 5 August[3] Successful
26 July
13:34
United States Saturn V United States Kennedy LC-39A United States NASA
United States Apollo 15 CSM NASA Selenocentric Lunar orbiter 7 August
20:45:53
Successful
United States Apollo 15 LM NASA Selenocentric Lunar lander 30 July
22:16:29
Successful
United States PFS-1 NASA Selenocentric Magnetospheric 1974 Successful
Manned flight with three astronauts, fourth manned lunar landing and first use of Lunar Roving Vehicle, subsatellite deployed on 4 August at 20:13 UTC
28 July
03:29[1]
Soviet Union Molniya-M/ML Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/4 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Molniya 1-18[19] Molniya Communications 19 July 1977[3] Successful
30 July
08:29[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Baikonur 31/6 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 431 (Zenit-2M)[7] Low Earth Optical imaging 11 August[3] Successful

August[edit]

3 August
11:00:00[4]
Soviet Union Kosmos-2I Soviet Union Plesetsk 133/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union DS-P1-Yu No.33 Intended: Low Earth Calibration +204 seconds Launch failure
Second stage malfunction, failed to orbit[10]
5 August
10:00[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Baikonur 31/6 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 432 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging 18 August[3] Successful
7 August
00:11
United States Atlas E/F-OV1-PM United States Vandenberg BMRS-A2 United States US Air Force
United States OV1-20 US Air Force Low Earth Ionospheric 29 August Successful
United States OV1-21 US Air Force Low Earth Ionospheric 29 August Successful
United States LOADS-2 US Air Force Low Earth Air density 31 January 1972 Successful
United States RTDS US Air Force Low Earth Air density 19 September Successful
United States LCS-4 US Air Force Low Earth Air density In orbit Operational
United States Gridsphere 1 (P70-2/AVL-802) US Air Force Low Earth Technology 2 November 1979 Successful
United States Gridsphere 2 (P70-2/AVL-802) US Air Force Low Earth Technology 18 March 1979 Successful
United States Gridsphere B (P70-2/AVL-802) US Air Force Low Earth Technology 11 June 1972 Successful
United States Rigidsphere (P70-2/AVL-802) US Air Force Low Earth Air density 1 September 1981 Successful
Two OV1 satellites deployed by independent upper stages, LOADS-2 shared upper stage with OV1-20, other payloads shared with OV1-21. All payloads passive other than OV1s.
8 August
23:45[9]
Soviet Union R-36OM Soviet Union Baikonur 191/66 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 433 (OGCh) Low Earth FOBS test 9 August Successful
Final flight of R-36OM, and FOBS programme
12 August
05:30[1]
Soviet Union Soyuz-L Soviet Union Baikonur 31/6 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 434 (LK T2K No.3) Deployed: Low Earth
Final: Medium Earth
Test flight 23 August 1981[3] Successful
Final flight of Soyuz-L
12 August
15:30
United States Titan III(24)B United States Vandenberg SLC-4W United States US Air Force
United States OPS 8607 (Gambit-3 4332) NRO Low Earth Optical imaging 3 September Successful
United States OPS 8607 SRV-1 NRO Low Earth Film return August Successful
United States OPS 8607 SRV-2 NRO Low Earth Film return September Successful
Maiden flight of Titan III(24)B
16 August
18:39:00
United States Scout B-1 United States Wallops LA-3A United States NASA
France Eole CNES Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
Maiden flight of Scout B-1
19 August Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Baikonur 31/6 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Zenit-4M[2] Intended: Low Earth Optical imaging 19 August Launch failure
Failed to achieve orbit
27 August
10:54:56[4]
Soviet Union Kosmos-2I Soviet Union Plesetsk 133/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 435 (DS-P1-Yu No.41) Low Earth Calibration 28 January 1972[3] Successful
28 August
02:22
United States LGM-25C Titan II United States Vandenberg LC-395C United States US Air Force
United States SSTTP M2-1 US Air Force Suborbital Target 28 August Successful

September[edit]

1 September United States Atlas E/F United States Vandenberg BMRS A-1 United States US Air Force
United States LAR-2 US Air Force Suborbital REV test 1 September Successful
2 September
13:40:40[12]
Soviet Union Proton-K/D Soviet Union Baikonur 81/24 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Luna 18 Highly eliptical Lunar sample return 11 September Spacecraft failure
Failed to achieve soft landing, instead impacting the moon[20]
4 September
13:52
Canada Black Brant IIIB United States Resolute Bay United States NASA
United States NASA Suborbital Plasma physics 4 September Successful
5 September
13:44
Canada Black Brant IIIB United States Resolute Bay United States NASA
United States NASA Suborbital Plasma physics 5 September Successful
7 September
01:15[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/2 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 436 (Tselina-OM) Low Earth ELINT 4 January 1980 Successful
10 September
03:37[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/2 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 437 (Tselina-OM) Low Earth ELINT 29 March 1980 Successful
10 September
21:33
United States Thorad SLV-2H Agena-D United States Vandenberg SLC-3W United States US Air Force
United States OPS 5454 (KH-4B No.1115) NRO Low Earth Optical imaging 5 October
United States OPS 7681 (EHH-B) NRO Low Earth ELINT 3 February 1976
10 September China Dongfeng 5 China Jiuquan LA-2B China
China Suborbital Test flight 10 September Successful
Maiden flight of Dongfeng 5
14 September
13:00[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/4 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 438 (Zenit-4MK)[16] Low Earth Optical imaging 23 June[3] Successful
21 September
12:00[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/3 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 439 (Zenit-2M)[7] Low Earth Optical imaging 2 October[3] Successful
24 September
10:30:00[4]
Soviet Union Kosmos-2I Soviet Union Plesetsk 133/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 440 (DS-P1-I No.11) Low Earth Radar target 29 October 1972[3] Successful
28 September
04:00:00
Japan Mu-3S Japan Kagoshima LA-M Japan ISAS
Japan Shinsei ISAS Low Earth Solar
Ionospheric
In orbit Successful
28 September
07:40[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Baikonur 31/6 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 441 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging 10 October[3] Successful
28 September
10:00:22[12]
Soviet Union Proton-K/D Soviet Union Baikonur 81/24 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Luna 19 Selenocentric Lunar orbiter In orbit Successful
29 September
09:45:00
United States Delta N United States Cape Kennedy LC-17A United States
United States OSO-7 NASA Low Earth Solar 9 July 1974 Successful
United States TETR-4 NASA Low Earth Tracking target 19 September 1978 Successful
29 September
11:30[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/3 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 442 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging 12 October[3] Successful

October[edit]

7 October
12:30[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/3 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 443 (Zenit-2M)[7] Low Earth Optical imaging 19 October[3] Successful
Soviet Union Nauka 8KS No.2[6] Low Earth 30 October Successful
13 October
13:41[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/2 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 444 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 445 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 446 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 447 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 448 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 449 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 450 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 451 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
14 October
07:51:17
United States Thor LV-2F Burner IIA United States Vandenberg SLC-10W United States US Air Force
United States OPS 4311 (DAPP-5B F-1) US Air Force Low Earth Weather In orbit Successful
Maiden flight of Thor LV-2F Burner IIA
14 October
09:00[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Baikonur 31/6 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 452 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging 27 October[3] Successful
17 October
13:36
United States Thorad SLV-2G Agena-D United States Vandenberg SLC-1W United States US Air Force
United States ASTEX (P71-2) STP Low Earth Technology In orbit Successful
19 October
12:40:01[4]
Soviet Union Kosmos-2I Soviet Union Plesetsk 133/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 453 (DS-P1-Yu No.44) Low Earth Calibration 19 March 1972[3] Successful
21 October
11:32:00
United States Delta N6 United States Vandenberg SLC-2E United States
United States ITOS-B NOAA Intended: Low Earth Weather 21 October Launch failure
Final flight of Delta N6, oxidiser leak led to premature second stage cutoff. Debris reached orbit, however payload did not
23 October
17:01
United States Titan III(24)B United States Vandenberg SLC-4W United States US Air Force
United States OPS 7616 (Gambit-3 4333) NRO Low Earth Optical imaging 17 November Successful
United States OPS 7616 SRV-1 NRO Low Earth Film return October/November Successful
United States OPS 7616 SRV-2 NRO Low Earth Film return November Successful
28 October
04:09:29
United Kingdom Black Arrow Australia Woomera LA-5B United Kingdom RAE
United Kingdom Prospero (X-3) RAE Low Earth Technology In orbit Successful
First and only successful British orbital launch, final flight of Black Arrow and last orbital launch from Woomera

November[edit]

2 November
14:25[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk 41/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 454 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging 16 November[3] Successful
3 November
03:09:06
United States Titan III(23)C United States Cape Kennedy LC-40 United States US Air Force
United States OPS 3431 (DSCS II A1) US Air Force Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
United States OPS 9432 (DSCS II A2) US Air Force Geosynchronous Communications In orbit  
5 November
13:00
Europe Europa II France Kourou CECLES Europe ELDO
Europe STV-4 ELDO Intended: Geosynchronous transfer Technology 5 November Launch failure
Third stage structural failure. Only flight of Europa II, and final flight of Europa family. Final launch conducted by ELDO, first launch from CECLES (later ELA-1)
15 November
05:52:00
United States Scout B Kenya San Marco Italy CRS
United States Explorer 45 (SSS-1) NASA Medium Earth Magnetospheric 3 May 1987 Successful
Final flight of Scout B
17 November
11:09:48[4]
Soviet Union Kosmos-2I Soviet Union Plesetsk 133/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 455 (DS-P1-Yu No.54) Low Earth Calibration 9 April 1972[3] Successful
19 November
12:00[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/3 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 456 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging 2 December[3] Successful
20 November
18:00[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/2 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 457 (Sfera) Low Earth Geodesy In orbit Successful
24 November
09:30[1]
Soviet Union Molniya-M/ML Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/4 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Molniya 2-01[21] Molniya Communications 10 May 1976[3] Successful
29 November
10:09:56[4]
Soviet Union Kosmos-2I Soviet Union Plesetsk 133/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 458 (DS-P1-Yu No.53) Low Earth Calibration 20 April 1972[3] Successful
29 November
17:30:00[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 459 (DS-P1-M No.5) Low Earth ASAT target 3 December
(destroyed)
Successful
Destroyed by Kosmos 462
30 November
16:39[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/2 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 460 (Tselina-OM) Low Earth ELINT 5 March 1980 Successful

December[edit]

2 December
08:25:14[4]
Soviet Union Kosmos-2I Soviet Union Kapustin Yar 86/4 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Interkosmos 5 (DS-U2-IK No.2) Low Earth 7 April 1972[3] Successful
2 December
17:30:01[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 461 (DS-U2-MT No.1) Low Earth Micrometeoroid detection
gamma-ray astronomy
21 February 1979[3] Successful
Ceased operations on 14 December 1972
3 December
13:19[9]
Soviet Union Tsyklon-2 Soviet Union Baikonur 90/19 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 462 (IS-A) Low Earth ASAT test 4 April 1975 Successful
Intercepted and destroyed Kosmos 459
3 December Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/4 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Zenit-2M[7] Intended: Low Earth Optical imaging 3 December[3] Launch failure
Soviet Union Nauka 5KS No.2[6] Intended: Low Earth
4 December
22:33
United States Atlas SLV-3A Agena-D United States Cape Kennedy LC-13 United States US Air Force
United States Canyon US Air Force Intended: Geosynchronous ELINT 4 December Launch failure
First stage malfunctioned, failed to orbit
5 December
16:20
France Diamant B France Kourou ALD France CNES
France Polaire CNES Intended: Low Earth Ionospheric 5 December Launch failure
Second stage malfunction, failed to orbit
6 December
09:50[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Baikonur 31/6 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 463 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging 11 December[3] Successful
10 December
11:00[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/3 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 464 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging 16 December[3] Successful
11 December
20:47:01
United States Scout B-1 United States Vandenberg SLC-5 United States NASA
United Kingdom Ariel 4 SRC Low Earth Ionospheric 12 December 1978 Successful
14 December
12:13
United States Thorad SLV-2G Agena-D United States Vandenberg SLC-1W United States US Air Force
United States OPS 7898 Payload 1 (Poppy) NRO Low Earth ELINT In orbit Successful
United States OPS 7898 Payload 2 NRO Low Earth ELINT In orbit Successful
United States OPS 7898 Payload 3 NRO Low Earth ELINT In orbit Successful
United States OPS 7898 Payload 4 NRO Low Earth ELINT In orbit Successful
Final flight of Thorad SLV-2G Agena-D
15 December
04:31[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/2 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 465 (Tsyklon) Low Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
16 December
09:39[1]
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Baikonur 31/6 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 466 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging 18 August[3] Successful
17 December
10:39:58[4]
Soviet Union Kosmos-2I Soviet Union Plesetsk 133/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 467 (DS-P1-Yu No.45) Low Earth Calibration 18 April 1972[3] Successful
17 December
13:00[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/2 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 468 (Strela-2M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
19 December
22:50[1]
Soviet Union Molniya-M/ML Soviet Union Plesetsk 41/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Molniya 1-19[19] Molniya Communications 13 April 1977[3] Successful
20 December
01:10:04
United States Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D United States Cape Kennedy LC-36A United States
United Nations Intelsat IV F-3 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
25 December
11:30[9]
Soviet Union Tsyklon-2 Soviet Union Baikonur 90/20 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 469 (US-A) Low Earth Ocean surveillance 9 February 1972 Successful
BES-5 nuclear reactor ejected, and remains in orbit
27 December
14:04[1]
Soviet Union Soyuz-M Soviet Union Plesetsk 43/4 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Kosmos 470 (Zenit-4MT) Low Earth Optical imaging 6 January 1972[3] Successful
Maiden flight of Soyuz-M
27 December
19:00:00[8]
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk 132/2 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionFrance Oreol 1 (DS-U2-GKA No.1) OKB-586/CNES Medium Earth Magnetospheric In orbit Successful
29 December
10:50:01[1]
Soviet Union Vostok-2M Soviet Union Plesetsk 41/1 Soviet Union
Soviet Union Meteor 1-10 (Meteor-MV)[5][6] Sun-synchronous Weather In orbit Successful

Off-world launches[edit]

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Launch site LSP
Payload Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks
6 February
18:48
United States Lunar Module Ascent Stage Fra Mauro (Luna) United States NASA
United States Apollo 14 LM NASA Selenocentric (CSM) Manned 7 February
00:46
Successful
Carrying two astronauts back to CSM after lunar landing
2 August
17:11
United States Lunar Module Ascent Stage Hadley-Apennine (Luna) United States NASA
United States Apollo 15 LM NASA Selenocentric (CSM) Manned 3 August
03:04
Successful
Carrying two astronauts back to CSM after lunar landing

Deep space rendezvous in 1971[edit]

Date (UTC) Spacecraft Event Remarks
4 February Apollo 14 Entered selenocentric orbit
5 February
09:18:11
Apollo 14 LM Landing on the Moon Landed in Fra Mauro region, returned 43 kg of rocks
29 July Apollo 15 Entered selenocentric orbit
30 July
22:16:29
Apollo 15 LM Landing on the Moon Landed in Hadley Rille region, returned 77 kg of rocks
11 September Luna 18 Impacted the Moon In Mare Fecunditatis, failed lander
3 October Luna 19 Entered selenocentric orbit
14 November Mariner 9 Entered areocentric orbit
27 November Mars 2 orbiter Entered areocentric orbit
Mars 2 lander Impacted Mars Failed lander
27 November Mars 3 orbiter Entered areocentric orbit
Mars 3 lander Landing on Mars

Orbital launch summary[edit]

By country[edit]

1971 Launches.svg
  China (PRC)
  Europe
  France
  Japan
  Soviet Union
  United Kingdom
  United States
Orbital launch attempts by country in 1971
Country Launches Successes Failures Partial
failures
Remarks
 Europe 1 0 1 0
 France 2 1 1 0
 Japan 2 2 0 0
 People's Republic of China 1 1 0 0
 Soviet Union 91 82 9 0
 United Kingdom 1 1 0 0 Last and only successful launch
 United States 35 31 4 0


By rocket[edit]

By family[edit]

Family Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Atlas  United States 6 4 2 0
Black Arrow  United Kingdom 1 1 0 0 Final flight
Diamant  France 2 1 1 0
Europa  Europe 1 0 1 0 Final flight
Kosmos (R-12/14)  Soviet Union 34 31 3 0
Long March  People's Republic of China 1 1 0 0
Mu  Japan 2 2 0 0
N  Soviet Union 1 0 1 0
R-07R-7  Soviet Union 44 40 4 0
R-36R-36  Soviet Union 6 6 0 0
Saturn  United States 2 2 0 0
Titan  United States 8 8 0 0
Thor  United States 14 12 2 0
Scout  United States 5 5 0 0
Universal Rocket  Soviet Union 6 5 1 0

By type[edit]

Rocket Country Family Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Atlas E/F  United States Atlas 1 1 0 0
Atlas-Agena  United States Atlas 1 0 1 0
Atlas-Centaur  United States Atlas 4 3 1 0
Black Arrow  United Kingdom Black Arrow 1 1 0 0 Final flight
Diamant B  France Diamant 2 1 1 0
Delta  United States Delta 5 4 1 0
Europa  Europe Europa 1 0 1 0 Final flight
Kosmos-2  Soviet Union Kosmos 14 12 2 0
Kosmos-3  Soviet Union Kosmos 20 19 1 0
Long March 1  People's Republic of China Long March 1 1 0 0
Molniya  Soviet Union R-7 3 3 0 0
Mu-3  Japan Mu 2 2 0 0
N1  Soviet Union N 1 0 1 0
Proton  Soviet Union Universal Rocket 3 3 0 0
R-36OM  Soviet Union R-36 1 1 0 0 Final flight
Saturn V  United States Saturn 2 2 0 0
Scout B  United States Scout 5 5 0 0
Soyuz  Soviet Union R-7 5 5 0 0
Thor-Burner  United States Thor 3 3 0 0
Thorad-Agena  United States Thor 6 5 1 0
Titan IIIB  United States Titan 5 5 0 0
Titan IIIC  United States Titan 2 2 0 0
Titan IIID  United States Titan 1 1 0 0 Maiden flight
Tsyklon  Soviet Union R-36 5 5 0 0
Voskhod  Soviet Union R-7 31 27 4 0
Vostok  Soviet Union R-7 5 5 0 0

By configuration[edit]

Rocket Country Type Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Atlas E/F-OV1-PM  United States Atlas E/F 1 1 0 0
Atlas SLV-3A Agena-D  United States Atlas-Agena 1 0 1 0
Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D  United States Atlas-Centaur 4 3 1 0
Black Arrow  United Kingdom Black Arrow 1 1 0 0 Final flight
Diamant B  France Diamant B 2 1 1 0
Delta E1  United States Delta 1 1 0 0 Final flight
Delta M  United States Delta 1 1 0 0 Final flight
Delta M6  United States Delta 1 1 0 0 Only flight
Delta N  United States Delta 1 1 0 0
Delta N6  United States Delta 1 0 1 0 Final flight
Europa II  Europe Europa 1 0 1 0 Only flight
Kosmos-2I  Soviet Union Kosmos-2 14 12 2 0
Kosmos-3M  Soviet Union Kosmos-3 20 19 1 0
Long March 1  People's Republic of China Long March 1 1 0 0 Final flight
Molniya-M/ML  Soviet Union Molniya 3 3 0 0
Mu-3S  Japan Mu-3 2 2 0 0
N1  Soviet Union N1 1 0 1 0
Proton-K  Soviet Union Proton 1 1 0 0
Proton-K/D  Soviet Union Proton 5 4 1 0
R-36OM  Soviet Union R-36O 1 1 0 0 Final flight
Saturn V  United States Saturn V 2 2 0 0
Scout B  United States Scout B 3 3 0 0
Scout B-1  United States Scout B 2 2 0 0
Soyuz  Soviet Union Soyuz 2 2 0 0
Soyuz-L  Soviet Union Soyuz 2 2 0 0 Final flight
Soyuz-M  Soviet Union Soyuz 1 1 0 0 Maiden flight
Thor LV-2F Burner II  United States Thor-Burner 2 2 0 0 Final flight
Thor LV-2F Burner IIA  United States Thor-Burner 1 1 0 0 Maiden flight
Thorad SLV-2G Agena-D  United States Thorad-Agena 2 2 0 0 Final flight
Thorad SLV-2H Agena-D  United States Thorad-Agena 4 3 1 0
Titan III(23)B  United States Titan III 2 2 0 0 Final flight
Titan III(24)B  United States Titan III 2 2 0 0 Maiden flight
Titan III(33)B  United States Titan III 1 1 0 0 Maiden flight
Titan III(23)C  United States Titan III 2 2 0 0
Titan III(23)D  United States Titan III 1 1 0 0 Maiden flight
Tsyklon-2  Soviet Union Tsyklon 5 5 0 0
Voskhod  Soviet Union Voskhod 31 27 4 0
Vostok-2M  Soviet Union Vostok 5 5 0 0

By launch site[edit]

Site Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Cape Kennedy  United States 10 5 2 0
Baikonur  Soviet Union 31 28 3 0
Jiuquan  People's Republic of China 1 1 0 0
Kapustin Yar  Soviet Union 2 1 1 0
Kennedy  United States 2 2 0 0
Kagoshima  Japan 2 2 0 0
Kourou  France 3 1 2 0
Plesetsk  Soviet Union 58 53 5 0
San Marco  Kenya 2 2 0 0 Operated by Italy
Vandenberg  United States 19 17 2 0
Wallops  United States 2 2 0 0
Woomera  Australia 1 1 0 0 Final orbital launch

By orbit[edit]

Orbital regime Launches Achieved Not Achieved Accidentally
achieved
Remarks
Failed to orbit 0 N/A 0 N/A 0 N/A 12
Low Earth 109 100 9 1 Two to Salyut 1
Medium Earth 2 2 0 0
Geosynchronous/transfer 7 5 2
High Earth 10 9 1 0 Including highly elliptical and Molniya orbits and trans-lunar trajectories.
Heliocentric 5 3 2 0

References[edit]

Generic references:

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao McDowell, Jonathan. "R-7". Orbital and Suborbital Launch Database. Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Krebs, Gunter. "Zenit-4M (Rotor, 11F691)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n McDowell, Jonathan. "R-12". Orbital and Suborbital Launch Database. Retrieved 3 June 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c d Krebs, Gunter. "Meteor-1". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Krebs, Gunter. "Zenit-2M (Gektor, 11F690)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s McDowell, Jonathan. "R-14". Orbital and Suborbital Launch Database. Retrieved 3 June 2012. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f McDowell, Jonathan. "R-36". Orbital and Suborbital Launch Database. Retrieved 18 June 2012. 
  10. ^ a b Wade, Mark. "Kosmos 11K63". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  11. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "Tselina-D (11F619, Ikar)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f McDowell, Jonathan. "Proton". Orbital and Suborbital Launch Database. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  13. ^ Anikeev, Alexander. "Spacecraft "Soyuz-10"". Manned Astronautics: Figures and Facts. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  14. ^ a b c Wade, Mark. "Mars M-71". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  15. ^ Anikeev, Alexander. "Spacecraft "Soyuz-11"". Manned Astronautics: Figures and Facts. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  16. ^ a b Krebs, Gunter. "Voskhod (11A57)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  17. ^ The Hexagon Story, US National Reconnaissance Office, retrieved 4 June 2012 
  18. ^ a b c Perry, Robert (November 1973), A History of Satellite Reconnaissance IIIB, US National Reconnaissance Office, retrieved 4 June 2012 
  19. ^ a b Wade, Mark. "Molniya-1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  20. ^ Wade, Mark. "Luna Ye-8-5". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  21. ^ Wade, Mark. "Molniya-2". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 29 May 2012.