1974 Anti-Ahmadiyya riots
|1974 Anti-Ahmadiyya riots|
|Part of Persecution of Ahmadis|
|Date||29 May 1974-October 1974|
|Goals||Mass Massacres and Persecution of Ahmadis|
25 mosques sealed by authorities.
1974 Anti-Ahmadiyya riots was the single largest killing and looting of Ahmadi Muslims in Pakistan's history. The Islamist parties and some mainstream parties sided together to persecute the Ahmadis. Mosques were destroyed.
Background and Reasons
One of the major controversial differences between Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and mainstream Sunni and Shia Muslims is their different interpretations of Khatam an-Nabiyyin. Sunni and Shia Muslims are awaiting the second coming of Mahdi and Second Coming of Jesus rejected the claims of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad who Ahmadis believe to be the Promised Messiah and Mahdi. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community was very vocal proponent of the Pakistan and were actively in the Muslim league and had strong relations with many prominent Muslim Leaguers and were opposite to Congress backed Jamaat-e-Islami and Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947 Ahmadis prospered and reached many high ranking Government and Military positions in Pakistan. Ahmadis organization held up stay as an important political force in Pakistan, but by 1970 religious parties made large headway due to radicalization of Pakistan and Saudi Cash flow and were a large political force in Pakistan. These parties continuously demanded a constitutional amendment to declare Ahmadis as non Muslims but to no avail, and had usually turned to violent protests and hate filled Jalsas, the most famous 1953 Lahore riots. In 1974, the students of Nishtar Medical College had altercation with the Ahmadis in the Rabwah Railway Station. This event turned into a massive and violent anti-Ahmadiyya movement resulting in many casualties of Ahmadis and destruction to Ahmadiyya property.
Timeline of events
The riots were started by the Ahmadis attack on the students of the Nishtar Medical College in Rabwah Railway Station. At least 170 students of the Nishtar Medical College, passed through Rabwah to Peshawar, the sacred and central city of the Ahmadiyya, on 22nd May 1974. The Ahmadis alleged that these students raised unbearable slogans on Rabwah Railway Station. When the same students returned on 29th May 1974 from Peshawar, the compartment of the Chenab Express carrying them was attacked at Rabwah railway station. Allegedly the Ahmadis detached the compartment from the train, the student passengers were taken out and were mercilessly beaten by armed hooligans, wounding many of them seriously and depriving them of their valuables. This caused great anti-Ahmadi unrest throughout the country. Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto pleaded to end the violence and promised to discuss the issue in the Parliament.
This incident triggered year long country-wide attacks on Ahmadis leading to loss of many lives and property.
- May 29 Mr. Basheer Ahmad Tahir martyred in Kundiaro district Nawabshah.
- May 30 222 shops and 5 houses belonging to Ahmadis were ransacked in Chiniot. Ahmadiyya Mosques were damaged in Gojra, Shorkot and Rawalpindi.
- May 31 26 Shops belonging to Ahmadis in Faisalabad, 7 shops in Bhera, 3 in Bahawalnagar, 7 in Rahim Yar Khan and 6 in Gujranwala were ransacked and burnt.
- Jun 01 Seven Ahmadis Mohammad Afzal Khokhar, Mohammad Ashraf Khokhar, Saeed Ahmad Khan, Manzoor Ahmad Khan, Mahmood Ahmad Khan, Sajjad Pervaiz and Ahmad Ali were martyred in Gujranwala.
- Jun 01 Chaudhry Shaukat Hayat martyred in Hafizabad.
- Jun 02 Six Ahmadis Basheer Ahmad, Muneer Ahmad, Mohammad Ramzan, Mohammad Iqbal, Inayatullah and Ghulam Qadir martyred in Gujranwala.
- Jun 02 Ahmadiyya Mosque occupied by opponents in Lala Musa.
- Jun 03 Two Ahmadis martyred in Gujranwala.
- Jun 03 12 shops belonging to Ahmadis ransacked in Jhang.
- Jun 04 Mohammad Ilyas Arif martyred in Wah Cantt.
- Jun 04 Ahmadiyya Library burnt to ashes in Mardan.
- Jun 05 Supply of Milk was stopped to residents of Rabwah.
- Jun 05 12 Ahmadis were severally tortured in Islamabad. One Ahmadi's mouth was filled with cow dung.
- Jun 06 Factories and Houses belonging to two Ahmadis were burnt in Sargodha.
- Jun 07 Opponents offered Friday Prayers in Ahmadiyya Mosque, Kohat after forcibly occupying it. House belonging to an Ahmadi ransacked in Haripur, Hazara.
- Jun 08 Naqab Shah Mehmund martyred in Peshawar.
- Jun 09 Syed Moulood Ahmad martyred in Quetta.
- Jun 09 Two Ahmadis Ghulam Sarwar and Israar Ahmad martyred in Topi (Khyber Pakhtunkwa). Israar Ahmad’s dead body was sprayed with bullets and mutilated.
- Jun 10 7 shops belonging to Ahmadis were ransacked and burnt in Mardan.
- Jun 11 Mohammad Fakhruddin Bhatti martyred in Abbotabad. His corpse was also set on fire.
- Jun 11 Two Ahmadis (father and son) Mohammad Zaman Khan and Mubarak Ahmad martyred in Balakot.
Jun 12 All Ahmadis were arrested in Dera Ismail Khan.
- Jun 13 Wheat crop and agricultural machinery of an Ahmadi’s farm was looted in Shah Nagar.
- Jun 14 Shop of an Ahmadi was burnt to ashes in Mailsi.
- Jun 15 House belonging to President of Jamaat Ahmadiyya, Sadhoki Gujranwala, was set on fire.
- Jun 17 Crops belonging to Ahmadis were destroyed in Chak 39DB Sargodha.
- Jun 18 12 Ahmadis were arrested in Pakpattan.
- Jun 19 Social Boycott of Ahmadis in Muridke.
- Jun 20 Ahmadiyya Mosque set on fire in Tulwandi, Khajoorwali.
- Jun 21 All Ahmadiyya population of Rahim Yar Khan confined to their homes.
- Jun 22 An Ahmadi’s dead body was disinterred in Khushab.
- Jun 24 All Ahmadi shops in Sargodha were picketed.
- Jun 29 An Ahmadi father and son were tortured by Police in Chak 303GB, Toba Tek Singh.
- Jul 01 Faces of Ahmadis were blackened and they were forcibly moved through streetof Bhera.
- Jul 02 Sethi Maqbool Ahmad martyred in Jehlum.
- Jul 05 Ahmadiyya Mosque occupied by opponents in PakPattan.
- Jul 07 An Ahmadi’s dead body was disinterred in Khushab.
- Jul 12 Ahmadi families in Bhera started starving due to severe boycott.
- Jul 14 Doors of Ahmadiyya houses in Meeruk district Sahiwal were barricaded.
- Jul 14 All Ahmadi men were arrested in district Sargodha.
- Jul 16 Ahmadiyya delegation who went to meet detainees of Sargodha were fired upon at Sargodha Railway Station.
- Jul 18 Flour Mills refused to grind the wheat for Ahmadis.
- Jul 19 Ahmadiyya Mosque attacked and occupied in Takht Hazara district Sargodha.
- Jul 21 Ahmadiyya Mosque attacked and occupied in Moghulpura, Lahore.
- Jul 22 Ahmadiyya Mosque attacked and occupied in Lala Musa.
- Jul 23 Supply of milk was denied to Ahmadis in Bahawalnagar.
- Jul 24 Shops of Ahmadis were forced to shut down in Sheikhupura.
- Jul 26 Ahmadiyya Mosque ransacked and destroyed in Uch Shareef, Bahawalpur. All record and valuable things were burnt to ashes.
- Jul 27 Shops belonging to two Ahmadis were burnt to ashes in Okara.
- Jul 28 Punjab Chief Minister refused to meet with Ahmadiyya delegation.
- Jul 28 Ahmadiyya Mosque demolished in Bhoyanwala, Gujrat.
- Jul 29 Ahmadiyya Mosque sealed in Samburial, Sialkot.
- Jul 29 Ahmadis forbidden to take water from common well in Dolian Juttan.
- Jul 30 All Ahmadi residents of Burewala were expelled.
- Jul 30 Water supply and sanitation facilities were refused to Ahmadi residents of Haroonabad, Bahawalnagar
- Jul 31 Shops of Ahmadis were forced to shut down in Duska.
- Aug 01 Severe social boycott of Ahmadis in Hafizabad. Purchased goods were forcibly taken back.
- Aug 02 An Ahmadi was tied to tree and severally beaten in Mundi Bahauddin.
- Aug 04 A barber’s face was painted black for providing hair cut to Ahmadis.
- Aug 06 Three shops belonging to Ahmadis were set on fire.
- Aug 09 Ahmadis were barred to enter their Mosque in Gujranwala.
- Aug 09 In Gujranwala 14 Ahmadis were dismissed from their jobs only because of their faith.
- Aug 13 Ahmadiyya Mosque demolished in Da’ata district Hazara.
- Aug 18 Burial of an Ahmadi woman was not allowed in Campbellpur. Other old graves were also dug out.
- Aug 18 Mr. Mohammad Akbar, an Ahmadi, was tied up in a jungle for three days in Barali, Azad Kashmir.
- Aug 24 Stone pelting and destruction of Ahmadiyya Mosque in Kot Momin, Sargodha.
- Aug 24 Ahmadi students were beaten up in Multan.
- Aug 27 An Ahmadi youngster, kidnapped from Gurmoola Virkan, Gujranwala, was released after 17 days of confinement. He lost his conscious due to severe torture.
- Sep 02 Professor Abbas bin Abdul Qadir was martyred in Hyderabad.
Sep 03 Stone pelting on Ahmadiyya houses in Chak 32 South, Sargodha.
It was a worse in the day of history of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community that despite having a debate with opponents with in the Parliament of Pakistan. The following members appeared before the Parliament of Pakistan.
- Mirza Nasir Ahmad, the Khalifatul Masih of the time
- Mirza Tahir Ahmad, 4th Khalifatul Masih
- Maulana Abul ‘Ata Jallundhari, a renowned scholar.
- Sheikh Muhammad Ahmad Mazhar, Former Amir, Jama‘at Ahmadiyya, District Faisalabad
- Maulana Dost Muhammad Shahid, Historian of the community.
From the pressure of Islamists, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and other members declared Ahmadis as Non Muslims.
After the day Oct 05 Despite the presence of Punjab Chief Minister in city, opponents played havoc with lives and property of Ahmadis in Sargodha. Ahmadiyya Mosque was demolished. Some 38 houses and shops belonging to Ahmadis were set on fire after looting valuables. Five Ahmadis sustained severe injuries. On Oct 07.Mr. Basharat Ahmad martyred in Tahal district Gujrat. All meetings/conventions of auxiliary Ahmadiyya organizations were cancelled for not getting permission from Government.
Ahmadiyya Muslim Community
It was a great loss and worst year for the community. Many important members of the community were killed. There was a great loss to the buildings. Mirza Tahir Ahmad after implementation of Ordinance XX left Pakistan to migrate for UK in 1984. The recording of debate on the Ahmadi issue was not released. Later, Ahmad prove the declaration of non-Muslims as a truth of the community. ref
- Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan: An Analysis Under International Law and International Relations Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol 16, September 2003
- Punjab University:Establishing Constitutional Status of Ahmadis: A Study of Parliamentary Debates, 1974
- "Events of 1974". Review of Religions. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
- "Persecution of Ahmadis". Persecution.org. Retrieved 24 August 2012.