1974 Cypriot coup d'état

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The 1974 Cypriot coup d'état was a military coup d'état by the Cypriot National Guard and the Greek military junta of 1967–1974. On 15 July 1974 the coup plotters ousted President Makarios III and replaced him with pro-Enosis nationalist Nikos Sampson as dictator.[1][2][3] The aim of the coup was the annexation of the island by Greece[4][5][6] and the coupists proclaimed the establishment of the "Hellenic Republic of Cyprus".[7][8]

President Makarios III fled to the United Kingdom.[1] On 19 July, he attended a United Nations Security Council meeting in New York and made a speech, in which he stated that Cyprus was invaded by Greece.[9]

In response to the coup, on 20 July 1974 Turkey invaded the island claiming that the action was compliant with the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee,[10][11] taking control of the north and dividing Cyprus along what became known as the Green Line, cutting off about a third of the total territory. Sampson resigned, the military regime that had appointed him collapsed, and Makarios returned. The Turkish Cypriots established an independent government for what they called the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus (TFSC), with Rauf Denktaş as president. In 1983 they would proclaim the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus on the northern part of the island, which remains a de facto state to the present day.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Mallinson, William (June 30, 2005). Cyprus: A Modern History. I. B. Tauris. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-85043-580-8. 
  2. ^ "CYPRUS: Big Troubles over a Small Island". TIME. July 29, 1974. 
  3. ^ Cook, Chris; Diccon Bewes (1997). What Happened Where: A Guide to Places and Events in Twentieth-century History. Routledge. p. 65. ISBN 1-85728-533-6. 
  4. ^ Papadakis, Yiannis (2003). "Nation, narrative and commemoration: political ritual in divided Cyprus". History and Anthropology (Routledge) 14 (3): 253–270. doi:10.1080/0275720032000136642. [...] culminating in the 1974 coup aimed at the annexation of Cyprus to Greece 
  5. ^ Atkin, Nicholas; Biddiss, Michael; Tallett, Frank. The Wiley-Blackwell Dictionary of Modern European History Since 1789. p. 184. ISBN 9781444390728. 
  6. ^ Journal of international law and practice, Volume 5. Detroit College of Law at Michigan State University. 1996. p. 204. 
  7. ^ Strategic review, Volume 5 (1977), United States Strategic Institute, p. 48.
  8. ^ Allcock, John B. Border and territorial disputes (1992), Longman Group, p. 55.
  9. ^ UN The Official Record of United Nations Security Council 1780th Meeting (19.07.1974)
  10. ^ Farid Mirbagheri (2010). Historical Dictionary of Cyprus. Scarecrow Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-8108-5526-7. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  11. ^ Richard C. Frucht (31 December 2004). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 880. ISBN 978-1-57607-800-6. Retrieved 27 July 2012. The process reached a critical threshold in 1974 when a botched nationalist coup instigated by the Greek junta against the Cypriot government was used as a pretext by Turkey to invade and occupy the northern part of the island. Greece and ...