1974 Cypriot coup d'état
The 1974 Cypriot coup d'état was a military coup d'état by the Greek Cypriot EOKA-B paramilitary organization, backed by the Cypriot National Guard and the Greek military junta of 1967–1974. On 15 July 1974 the coup plotters ousted President Makarios III (who fled to the United Kingdom) and replaced him with pro-Enosis (union with Greece) nationalist Nikos Sampson as dictator.
In response to the coup, on 20 July 1974 Turkey invaded the island in a "peacekeeping operation" claiming that the action was compliant with the 1960 treaty of Guarantee, taking control of the north and dividing Cyprus along what became known as the Green Line, cutting off about a third of the total territory. Sampson resigned, the military regime that had appointed him collapsed, and Makarios returned. The Turkish Cypriots established an independent government for what they called the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus (TFSC), with Rauf Denktaş as president. In 1983 they would proclaim the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus on the northern part of the island, which remains a de facto state to the present day.
- Cyprus dispute
- Cypriot intercommunal violence
- Treaty of Guarantee (1960)
- Turkish invasion of Cyprus
- United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus
- Rodger P. Davies
- Republic of Cyprus
- Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
- Mallinson, William (June 30, 2005). Cyprus: A Modern History. I. B. Tauris. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-85043-580-8.
- "CYPRUS: Big Troubles over a Small Island". TIME. July 29, 1974.
- Cook, Chris; Diccon Bewes (1997). What Happened Where: A Guide to Places and Events in Twentieth-century History. Routledge. p. 65. ISBN 1-85728-533-6.
- Farid Mirbagheri (2010). Historical Dictionary of Cyprus. Scarecrow Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-8108-5526-7. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- Richard C. Frucht (31 December 2004). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 880. ISBN 978-1-57607-800-6. Retrieved 27 July 2012. "The process reached a critical threshold in 1974 when a botched nationalist coup instigated by the Greek junta against the Cypriot government was used as a pretext by Turkey to invade and occupy the northern part of the island. Greece and ..."