1974 in paleontology

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Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because mankind has encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 1974.

Archosauromorphs[edit]

Dinosaurs[edit]

  • Massospondylus gastroliths are documented.[2]

Newly named dinosaurs[edit]

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list.[3]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images
Chubutisaurus[4]

gen et sp nov

Valid

del Corro

Albian

Cerro Barcino Formation

 Argentina

Homalocephale[5]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Maryańska & Osmólska

late Cretaceous

 Mongolia

Labocania[6]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Molnar

Campanian

La Bocana Roja Formation

 Mexico

possible tyrannosauroid

Prenocephale[5]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Maryańska & Osmólska

late Cretaceous

 Mongolia

Stokesosaurus[7]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Madsen

Late Jurassic

Morrison Formation, Utah

 USA

Tylocephale[5]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Maryańska & Osmólska

late Cretaceous

 Mongolia

Newly named birds[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Chunga incerta [8]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Eduardo P. Tonni

Late Pliocene

Monte Hermoso Formation

 Argentina

A Cariamidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Cryptociconia indica [9]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Pliocene

Siwalik Series

 India

A Ciconiidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Dendrocopos praemedius [10]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Dénes Jánossy

Late Pliocene

MN 17

 Austria

A Picidae.

Francolinus minor [11]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Dénes Jánossy

Late Pleistocene

Villafranchian

 Poland

A Phasianidae.

Francolinus villanyiensis [11]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Dénes Jánossy

Late Pliocene

MN 16

 Poland

A Phasianidae.

Francolinus wenzensis [11]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Dénes Jánossy

Early Pliocene

MN 15

 Poland

A Phasianidae.

Gobipteryx minuta [12]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Andrzej Elzanowski

Late Cretaceous

?Campanian,

Barun Goyot Formation

 Mongolia

Described in the Palaeognathae, but transferred to the Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, this is the type species of the new genus.

Leptoptilos richae [9]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Late Miocene

Belgia Formation

 Tunisia

A Ciconiidae.

Leptoptilos siwalikensis [9]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Pliocene

Siwalik Series

 India

A Ciconiidae.

Neophrontops slaughteri [13]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Alan Feduccia

Late Pliocene

Glenns Ferry Formatie,

Hagerman Local Fauna

 USA:

 Idaho

An Accipitridae.

Nesotrochis steganinos [14]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Quaternary

Cave deposits

 Haiti

A flightless Rallidae.

Pachydyptes simpsoni [15]

Sp. nov.

Valid

R. J. F Jenkins

Late Eocene

Blanche Point Marls,

Aldingan Stage

 Australia:

 South Australia

A Spheniscidae.

Tetrao conjugens [11]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Dénes Jánossy

Late Pliocene

?Campanian,

Węże 1

 Poland

A Phasianidae.

Tetrastes praebonasia [10]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Dénes Jánossy

Early Pleistocene

Tarkö - lagen 11, 12;

Hundsheim;

Montoussé

 Hungary;

 Austria;

 France

A Phasianidae,transferred to the genus Bonasa Stephen, 1819 by Zygmunt Bocheński, 1991.[16]

Newly named pterosaurs[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Gallodactylus

gen et sp nov

subjective synonym

Fabre

Late Jurassic

 France

subjective synonym of Cycnorhamphus

Herbstosaurus

gen et sp nov

Valid

Casamiquela

Tithonian

Vaca Muerta Formation

 Argentina

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716. 
  2. ^ Raath (1974). Sanders, Manley, and Carpenter (2001), "Table 12.1" page 167.
  3. ^ Olshevsky, George. "Dinogeorge's Dinosaur Genera List". Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  4. ^ Corro, G. del. 1974. Un nuevo megalosaurio (Carnosaurio) del Cretacico de Chubut (Argentina). Communicaciones Mus. Argent. Ciencias Nat. "Bernardino Rivadavia" Paleontol. 1:pp. 37-44.
  5. ^ a b c Maryanska, T. and H. Osmólska. 1974. Pachycephalosauria, a new suborder of ornithischian dinosaurs. Paleontol. Polinica 30: pp. 45-102.
  6. ^ Molnar, R.E. 1974. A distinctive theropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Baja California (Mexico). Journal of Paleontology 48 (5): pp. 1009-1017.
  7. ^ Madsen, J. H., Jr. 1974. A new theropod dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic of Utah. J. Paleontol. 48: pp. 27-31.
  8. ^ Eduardo P. Tonni (1974). "Un Nuevo Cariámido (Aves, Gruiformes) del Plioceno Superior de la Provincia de Buenos Aires". Ameghiniana 11: 366–372. 
  9. ^ a b c Colin J. O. Harrison (1974). "A Re-examination of Material of the Extinct Marabou Stork, Leptoptilos falconeri, with Description of Some New Species". Bulletin British Ornithologist’s Club 94: 42–49. 
  10. ^ a b Dénes Jánossy (1974). "Die Mittelpleistozäne Vogelfauna von Hundsheim (Niederösterreich)". Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch- Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Abteilung I 182: 211–257. 
  11. ^ a b c d Dénes Jánossy (1974). "Upper Pliocene and Lower Pleistocene Bird Remains from Poland". Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 19 (21): 531–563. 
  12. ^ Andrzej Elzanowski (1974). "Results of the Polish-Mongolian Paleontological Expeditions-Part V: Preliminary Note on the Palaeognathous Bird from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia". Paleontologica Polonica 30: 103–100. 
  13. ^ Alan Feduccia (1974). "Another Old World Vulture from the New World". Wilson Bulletin 86 (3): 251–255. 
  14. ^ Storrs L. Olson (1974). "A New Species of Nesotrochis from Hispaniola, with Notes on Other Fossil Rails from the West Indies (Aves: Rallidae)". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 87 (38): 439–450. 
  15. ^ R. J. F Jenkins (1974). "A New Giant Penguin from the Eocene of Australia". Palaeontology 17 (2): 291–310. 
  16. ^ Zygmunt Bocheński (1991). "Pliocene Grouse of Genus Lagopus from Poland". Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 34 (2): 563–577. 
  • Raath, M.A. (1974). Fossil vertebrate studies in Rhodesia: further evidence of gastroliths in Prosauropod dinosaurs. Arnoldia Rhodesia. 7 (5): 1-7.
  • Sanders F, Manley K, Carpenter K. Gastroliths from the Lower Cretaceous sauropod Cedarosaurus weiskopfae. In: Tanke D.H, Carpenter K, editors. Mesozoic vertebrate life: new research inspired by the paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Indiana University Press; Bloomington, IN: 2001. pp. 166–180.