1975 in spaceflight

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1975 in spaceflight
Apollo-Soyuz-Test-Program-artist-rendering.jpg
Artist's impression of the ASTP docking
Orbital launches
First 10 January
Last 27 December
Total 132
Catalogued 125
National firsts
Satellite  India
Rockets
Maiden flights Atlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1AR
Delta 3000
Diamant-BP4
Long March 2C
N-I
Scout F-1
Titan III(34)B
Retirements Atlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1A
Delta 1000
Diamant-BP4
Saturn IB
Scout F-1
Manned flights
Orbital 4
Suborbital 1
Total travellers 9

In 1975 several notable events happened in spaceflight such as the launch to Mars of the Viking orbiter/landers missions, the joint Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, and the Venera 9 Venus mission.

  • Viking 1 was launched on 20 August 1975 and Viking 2 was launched 9 September 1975. This orbiter/lander mission was to photograph Mars in detail and to find water and life on the surface.
  • The Apollo-Soyuz saw an end to the space race with the USA and USSR. The mission was launched between 15 July 1975 and 17 July 1975.
  • The Venera 9 mission was launched 8 June 1975 was another successful orbiter/lander mission.



Launches[edit]

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Launch site LSP
Payload Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks
10 January
21:43:37
Soviet UnionSoyuz Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionSoyuz 17 Low Earth (Salyut 4) Salyut expedition 19 February
11:03
Successful
Manned flight with two cosmonauts, first mission to Salyut 4
5 April
11:04:54
Soviet UnionSoyuz Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionSoyuz 7K-T #39 Intended: Low Earth (Salyut 4) Salyut expedition 11:26 Launch failure
Manned flight with two cosmonauts, first and second core stages failed to separate, flight aborted and crew returned on suborbital trajectory
9 April
23:58:02
United States Delta 1410 United States Vandenberg SLC-2W United States NASA
United States GEOS-3 NASA Low Earth Geodesy In orbit Successful
19 April Soviet UnionKosmos-3M Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet Union Soviet Interkosmos programme
IndiaAryabhata ISRO Low Earth X-ray astronomy, aeronomics, and solar physics studies 11 February 1992 Partially successful (failed 4-5 days after launch)
First indian satellite
24 May
14:58:10
Soviet UnionSoyuz Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionSoyuz 18 Low Earth (Salyut 4) Salyut expedition 26 July
14:18
Successful
Manned flight with two cosmonauts, final mission to Salyut 4
15 July
14:58:10
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionSoyuz 19 Low Earth (Apollo) International docking 21 July
10:50
Successful
Manned flight with two cosmonauts, Soviet contribution to the Apollo Soyuz Test Project
15 July
19:50:01
United StatesSaturn IB United StatesKennedy LC-39B United StatesNASA
United StatesApollo NASA Low Earth (Soyuz 19) International docking 24 July
21:18
Successful
United StatesDM-2 NASA Low Earth (Apollo) Docking adaptor 2 August Successful
Manned flight with three astronauts, American contribution to the Apollo Soyuz Test Project, final flight of the Apollo programme and the Saturn rocket
20 August
21:22:00
United StatesTitan IIIE United StatesCape Canaveral LC-41 United States
United StatesViking 1 Orbiter NASA Areocentric Mars orbiter In orbit Successful
United StatesViking 1 Lander NASA Areocentric Mars lander 20 July 1976
11:53:06
Successful
Lander landed in Chryse Planitia, becoming the first US spacecraft to land on Mars. It operated until 11 November 1982 when communications were lost due to an erroneous command being sent to the spacecraft. Orbiter was deactivated on 17 August 1980.
9 September
18:39:00
United StatesTitan IIIE United StatesCape Canaveral LC-41 United States
United StatesViking 2 Orbiter NASA Areocentric Mars orbiter In orbit Successful
United StatesViking 2 Lander NASA Areocentric Mars lander 3 September 1976
22:58:20
Successful
Lander landed in Utopia Planitia and operated until its batteries failed on 11 April 1980. Orbiter was deactivated on 25 July 1978.

Deep Space Rendezvous[edit]

Date Spacecraft Event Remarks
16 March Mariner 10 3rd flyby of Mercury Closest approach: 327 kilometres (203 mi)
20 October Venera 9 Cytherocentric orbit insertion
22 October Venera 9 lander Venerian landing Landed at 05:13 UTC
23 October Venera 10 Cytherocentric orbit insertion
25 October Venera 10 lander Venerian landing Landed at 05:17 UTC

References[edit]

Generic references:

Footnotes[edit]