1975–80 Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone seasons

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The 1975–80 Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone seasons ran year-round from July 1 to June 30 during each year between 1975 and 1980. Tropical cyclone activity in the Southern Hemisphere reaches its peak from mid-February to early March.

Contents

1975–1976 Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone season[edit]

Tropical Storm 01P[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration July 31 – August 4
Peak intensity 85 km/h (50 mph) (1-min) 

Tropical Cyclone Ray[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration November 17 – November 25
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  973 mbar (hPa)

Moderate Tropical Storm Audrey[edit]

Moderate tropical storm (MFR)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration November 17 – November 29
Peak intensity 65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min) 

Tropical Depression Charlotte[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Duration November 18 – November 19
Peak intensity 30 km/h (15 mph) (1-min)  1007 mbar (hPa)

Severe Tropical Cyclone Joan[edit]

Category 5 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration November 30 – December 10
Peak intensity 230 km/h (145 mph) (10-min)  915 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Cyclone Joan

On the morning of November 30, 1975 satellite imagery showed a large cloud mass in the Timor Sea. The satellite photograph received on the morning of December 1 showed that significant organization had occurred in the cloud mass during the previous 24 hours. It was deemed at 0115 UTC that the system be named the developing cyclone Joan, located about 310 km west-northwest of Darwin. Joan's movement in the following 48 hours was towards the southwest at an average 5 km/h. The first evidence of the increasing strength of Joan came as the cyclone moved west-southwest past the northernmost areas of Western Australia on December 3. The cyclone's generally west-southwesterly track after December 2 took it away from the coast until 0900 6 December when it was about 420 km north of Port Hedland and the system turned southward. At about 2200 UTC December 7, 1975 the eye of tropical cyclone Joan crossed the coast about 50 km west of Port Hedland. The cyclone was travelling south-southwest at about 14 km/h and crossed over or adjacent to the homesteads on the pastoral properties Mundabullangana, Mallina, Coolawanyah, Hamersley, and Mount Brockman. As cyclone Joan crossed the coastal plain and the Chichester Range only a slow moderation of its intensity seems to have occurred, but as the cyclone crossed the Hamersley Range the available evidence suggests that a rapid weakening took place.

Tropical cyclone Joan was the most destructive cyclone to affect the Port Hedland area in more than 30 years. The city was subjected to sustained winds exceeding 90 km/h for about 10 hours with winds in excess of 120 km/h for three hours. The maximum measured wind gust of 208 km/h on December 8, 1975 is the fourth highest on record in Australia. Severe property damage occurred at Port Hedland and at other settlements close to the cyclone's path. Subsequent flooding damaged roads and sections of the iron ore railways, particularly that of Hamersley Iron Pty Ltd. Sheep losses were heavy but, remarkably, no loss of human life or serious injury was reported. The estimated damage to private property and public facilities is believed to have exceeded $25 million. [1]

Tropical Cyclone Kim[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration December 1 – December 10
Peak intensity 80 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  990 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Cyclone Barbara[edit]

Tropical cyclone (MFR)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration December 3 – December 19
Peak intensity 120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min) 

Tropical Cyclone Sue[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration December 12 – December 16
Peak intensity 75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  994 mbar (hPa)

Moderate Tropical Storm Clotilde[edit]

Moderate tropical storm (MFR)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration January 7 – January 21
Peak intensity 65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min) 

Intense Tropical Cyclone Terry-Danae[edit]

Intense tropical cyclone (MFR)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration January 10 – January 29
Peak intensity 175 km/h (110 mph) (10-min)  964 mbar (hPa)

Cyclone Danae struck Madagascar and then hit the east coast of Mozambique and South Africa in late January 1976. 50 people were killed in the flooding that resulted from the heavy rainfall of Cyclone Danae. WeatherSA Home: Johannesburg

Severe Tropical Cyclone David[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration January 11 – January 22
Peak intensity 150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  961 mbar (hPa)

Severe Tropical Cyclone Vanessa[edit]

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration January 15 – January 28
Peak intensity 175 km/h (110 mph) (10-min)  950 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Cyclone Elsa[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration January 20 – January 26
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  980 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Cyclone Alan[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration January 30 – February 9
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  989 mbar (hPa)

Severe Tropical Cyclone Frances[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration February 2 – February 10
Peak intensity 130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min)  965 mbar (hPa)

Severe Tropical Cyclone Beth[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration February 13 – February 22
Peak intensity 130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min)  972 mbar (hPa)

Severe Tropical Cyclone Wally[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration February 22 – February 27
Peak intensity 130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min)  973 mbar (hPa)

Severe Tropical Cyclone Colin[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration February 25 – March 7
Peak intensity 155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  954 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Cyclone Alice[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration March 2 – March 13
Peak intensity 85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  988 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Cyclone Dawn[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration March 3 – March 6
Peak intensity 75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  988 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression George[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Duration March 9 – March 13
Peak intensity 30 km/h (15 mph) (10-min)  1006 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Cyclone Hope[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration March 9 – March 19
Peak intensity 75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  990 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression Ella[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Duration March 9 – March 12
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (1-min) 

Tropical Low Linda[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration March 14 – March 17
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  995 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Disturbance Frederique[edit]

Tropical disturbance (MFR)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Duration March 25 – March 26
Peak intensity 45 km/h (30 mph) (10-min) 

Cyclone Gladys[edit]

Cyclone Bert-Heliotrope[edit]

Cyclone Jan[edit]

Cyclone Watorea[edit]

Cyclone Carol[edit]

1976–1977 Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone season[edit]

Cyclone Agathe[edit]

Cyclone Brigitta[edit]

Tropical Cyclone Harry[edit]

Severe tropical storm (MFR)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration December 15 – December 21
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  985 mbar (hPa)

Harry formed on December 15 near the Sunda Strait, and moved west-southwest through its existence. Its maximum intensity was reached as the cyclone passed north of the Cocos-Keeling Islands. The system then weakened and dissipated well east of Madagascar.[2]

Cyclone Ted[edit]

Ted made landfall in Queensland on January 1, 1977. The storm killed 2 people and left $49 million in damage.[3]

Cyclone Clarence[edit]

Cyclone Irene[edit]

Cyclone Marion[edit]

Cyclone June[edit]

Cyclone Domitile[edit]

Cyclone Emilie[edit]

Cyclone Emilie struck the east coast of Mozambique and northeastern South Africa in February 1977. Heavy flooding in the Limpopo Valley killed at least 300 people. [1] [2]

Cyclone Fifi[edit]

Cyclone Keith[edit]

Cyclone Gilda[edit]

Cyclone Jack-Io[edit]

Cyclone Lily[edit]

Cyclone Miles[edit]

Cyclone Hervea[edit]

Cyclone Nancy[edit]

Cyclone Karen[edit]

Cyclone Otto[edit]

Otto made landfall near Bowen, Queensland in March 1977. The storm caused minimal wind damage but caused extensive beach erosion.[4]

Cyclone Norman[edit]

Cyclone Pat[edit]

Cyclone Leo[edit]

Leo affected Port Hedland around March 1977.

Cyclone Robert[edit]

Cyclone Verna[edit]

1977–1978 Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone season[edit]

Cyclone Tom[edit]

Cyclone Aurore[edit]

Cyclone Steve[edit]

Cyclone Babette[edit]

Cyclone Tessa[edit]

Cyclone Sam-Celimene[edit]

Cyclone 07P[edit]

Cyclone Anne[edit]

Cyclone Dulcinee[edit]

Cyclone Esther[edit]

Cyclone Bob[edit]

Cyclone Trudy[edit]

Cyclone Fleur[edit]

Cyclone Huberte[edit]

Cyclone Georgia[edit]

Cyclone Vern[edit]

Cyclone 17P[edit]

Cyclone Irena[edit]

Cyclone Jacqueline[edit]

Cyclone Charles[edit]

Cyclone Ernie[edit]

Cyclone Diana[edit]

Cyclone Gwen[edit]

Cyclone Kiki[edit]

Cyclone Lucie[edit]

Cyclone 26S[edit]

Cyclone 27S[edit]

Cyclone 28S[edit]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Alby[edit]

Category 5 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration March 27 – April 5
Peak intensity 205 km/h (125 mph) (10-min)  930 mbar (hPa)

On March 27 a tropical depression developed in the eastern Indian Ocean between Indonesia and Australia. It drifted to the southwest, and slowly strengthened into a tropical storm on the 29th. Alby continued slowly southwestward, and attained cyclone status on March 30. The rate of intensification, which was slower earlier in its life, became more steady towards strengthening, and reached the equivalent of Category 3 status on April 1. Tropical Cyclone Alby turned more to the south, and quickly reached a peak of 135 mph later on April 1. After maintaining its strength for 30 hours, Alby weakened as it turned to the southeast. Its forward momentum increased over the southeast Indian Ocean, and Alby was only an 85 mph cyclone as it passed off the southwest coast of Australia on April 4. It continued rapidly to the southeast, and became extratropical on April 5 while south of the continent.

On the April 4, Tropical Cyclone Alby passed close to the southwest corner of Western Australia, killing five people and causing widespread but mostly minor damage to the southwest. The damage bill was estimated to be $39 million (2003 dollars). A man was blown from the roof of a shed and a woman was killed by a falling pine tree. Another man was killed when a tree fell on the bulldozer he was operating and two men drowned when their dinghy overturned at Albany. Storm surge and destructive waves caused coastal inundation and erosion from Perth to Busselton, damaging the Busselton Jetty and Fremantle Harbour. Fires fanned by the strong winds burned an estimated 1,140 km² of forest and farming land.

Cyclone 31S[edit]

Cyclone 32P[edit]

1978–1979 Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone season[edit]

Cyclone 01S[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration November 19 – November 23
Peak intensity 75 km/h (45 mph) (1-min) 

Tropical Cyclone Angele[edit]

Tropical cyclone (MFR)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration December 13 – December 29
Peak intensity 150 km/h (95 mph) (10-min)  941 mbar (hPa)

Cyclone 03S[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration December 20 – December 26
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (1-min) 

Tropical Cyclone Fay[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration December 24 – December 31
Peak intensity 90 km/h (55 mph) (10-min)  980 mbar (hPa)

Severe Tropical Cyclone Peter[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration December 29 – January 4
Peak intensity 120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min)  980 mbar (hPa)

Peter caused extensive damage in the Gulf of Carpentaria between January 1 and January 2, 1979.[5] Peter hovered offshore, causing a 24 hour rainfall of 1140mm/44.88" at Mount Bellenden Ker on January 5.[6]

Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Australia
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 1947 76.65 Peter 1979 Mt. Bellenden Ker [7]
2 1870 73.62 Rona-Frank 1999 Mt. Bellenden Ker [7]
3 1411 55.55 Mackay Cyclone 1918 Mackay [citation needed]
4 1318 51.89 Wanda 1974 Mt. Glorious [8]
5 1256.8 49.48 Fletcher 2014 Kowanyama [9][10]
6 1082 42.60 Aivu 1989 Dalrymple Heights [11]
7 1065 41.93 May 1998 Burketown [12]
8 ≥1000 ≥39.00 Justin 1997 Willis Island [13]
Ellie 2009 [14]
Oswald 2013 Tully [15]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Gordon[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration January 2 – January 12
Peak intensity 130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min)  965 mbar (hPa)

Cyclone Henry[edit]

Cyclone Celine[edit]

Cyclone 11P[edit]

Cyclone Dora[edit]

Cyclone Kerry[edit]

Tropical Cyclone Kerry has the distinction of being the longest lived cyclone in the Australian region. It formed on February 13, 1979 and caused severe damage in the Solomon Islands. It then tracked across the Coral Sea making landfall near Mackay, Queensland on March 1 and dissipated on March 6. Its lowest pressure was 955hPa.[16]

Cyclone Estelle[edit]

Cyclone Fatou[edit]

Cyclone Rosa[edit]

Cyclone Leslie[edit]

Cyclone Gelie[edit]

Cyclone Hazel[edit]

Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Clockwise vortex
Duration March 6 – March 14
Peak intensity 185 km/h (115 mph) (1-min)  935 mbar (hPa)

Hazel grazed the Western Australia coast on March 13, 1979. Fifteen crewmen drowned when their fishing boat sank during the storm.[17]

Cyclone Ivan[edit]

Cyclone Helios[edit]

Cyclone Meli[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration March 23 – March 31
Peak intensity 155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  945 mbar (hPa)

Cyclone Meli struck eastern Fiji on March 25. The island of Nayau suffered a direct hit and passed close to the islands of Lakeba and Cicia. Fiji suffered tremendous crop losses and 50 people were killed[18][19] On March 27, 1979, Cyclone Meli brushed Fiji at peak intensity, causing substantial damage to the island. At least 50 people were killed by the storm.[20]

Cyclone Meli had previously passed through Tuvalu damaging Funafuti atoll.

Cyclone 23P[edit]

Cyclone Stan[edit]

Cyclone Idylle[edit]

Cyclone Jane[edit]

Cyclone Kevin[edit]

1979–1980 Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone season[edit]

Tropical Cyclone Tony[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Duration August 26 – August 31
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  990 mbar (hPa)

On August 26, TCWC Perth reported that a tropical low had developed on a shear line about 1300 km (810 mi) to the northwest of Cocos Island.[21] Over the next couple of days the depression gradually developed further before at 1800 UTC on August 27, TCWC Perth estimated that it had become a tropical cyclone and named it Tony.[21] During the next couple of days, the system moved towards the west-southwest before on August 29 it reached its peak intensity of 95 km/h (60 mph) and a peak pressure of 990 hPa (29.23 inHg) as it approached the edge of TCWC Perth's area of responsibility.[21] During the next day, Tony moved into the South West Indian Ocean and weakened gradually before dissipating on August 31.[21]

Intense Tropical Cyclone Albine[edit]

Intense tropical cyclone (MFR)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration 25 November – 6 December
Peak intensity 195 km/h (120 mph) (10-min) 

Intense Tropical Cyclone Viola-Claudette[edit]

Intense tropical cyclone (MFR)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration 10 December – 28 December
Peak intensity 205 km/h (125 mph) (10-min)  930 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Cyclone Ofa[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Duration 9 December – 15 December
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  980 mbar (hPa)

Severe Tropical Storm Berenice[edit]

Severe tropical storm (MFR)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration 15 December – 21 December
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min) 

Severe Tropical Cyclone Wilf-Danitza[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration 23 December – 3 January
Peak intensity 130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min)  973 mbar (hPa)

Severe Tropical Cyclone Peni[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Clockwise vortex
Duration 1 January – 6 January
Peak intensity 120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min)  970 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Cyclone Paul[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration 2 January – 12 January
Peak intensity 110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  980 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Disturbance Eglantine[edit]

Tropical disturbance (MFR)
Duration 5 January – 6 January
Peak intensity 45 km/h (30 mph) (10-min)  1005 mbar (hPa)

Severe Tropical Cyclone Amy[edit]

Category 5 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration 4 January – 12 January
Peak intensity 205 km/h (125 mph) (10-min)  915 mbar (hPa)

Cyclone Amy struck Western Australia as a Category 5 cyclone on January 10, 1980. Amy left $2.7 million ($12 million 2005 AUD) in damage, and injured 5 people.[22]

Tropical Disturbance Flore[edit]

Tropical disturbance (MFR)
Clockwise vortex
Duration 8 January – 9 January
Peak intensity 35 km/h (25 mph) (10-min)  1005 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Cyclone Hyacinthe[edit]

Tropical cyclone (MFR)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration January 15 – January 31
Peak intensity 135 km/h (85 mph) (10-min)  955 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Cyclone Hyacinthe

Tropical Cyclone Hyacinthe set several worldwide tropical cyclone rainfall records in Réunion in the Southwestern Indian Ocean, including a peak total of 5678 mm (223.5 inches).[23]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Brian[edit]

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Clockwise vortex
Duration 18 January – 29 January
Peak intensity 185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  930 mbar (hPa)
  • Brian, 18 to 29 January 1980, near Western Australia

Tropical Cyclone Clara[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Clockwise vortex
Duration 21 January – 29 January
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  980 mbar (hPa)
  • Clara, 21 to 29 January 1980, Indian Ocean

Severe Tropical Cyclone Dean[edit]

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Clockwise vortex
Duration 26 January – 4 February
Peak intensity 185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  930 mbar (hPa)

Dean struck Western Australia a month after Cyclone Amy. Dean left $11 million (2005 AUD) in damage. It lasted from January 26 to February 4, 1980.[22]

Cyclone Jacinthe[edit]

Cyclone Rae[edit]

Cyclone Ruth[edit]

Cyclone Enid[edit]

Enid lasted from February 12 to 18, 1980 and made landfall between Port Hedland and Broome, Western Australia (near Shay Gap) and caused flooding.

Cyclone Fred[edit]

Cyclone Simon[edit]

Cyclone Kolia[edit]

Cyclone Laure[edit]

Cyclone Sina[edit]

Cyclone Doris-Gloria[edit]

Cyclone 22S[edit]

Cyclone Tia[edit]

Cyclone 24S[edit]

Cyclone 25S[edit]

Cyclone Val[edit]

Cyclone 27P[edit]

Tropical Cyclone Wally[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Clockwise vortex
Duration 1 April – 8 April
Peak intensity 65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  995 mbar (hPa)

Wally lasted in the southern Pacific from April 1 to April 7 and was a category one cyclone on the Australian tropical cyclone intensity scale with a peak pressure of 990 HpA/mbar. During its lifetime it made landfall on the second biggest island of Fiji – Viti Levu.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ CYCLONE JOAN DECEMBER 1975 – BOM REPORT
  2. ^ Dick DeAngelis (March 1977). "Hurricane Alley". Mariners Weather Log (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) 21 (2): 92. 
  3. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20071015185237/www.ema.gov.au/ema/emadisasters.nsf/54273a46a9c753b3ca256d0900180220/6f607788bb439cbfca256d3300057bbc?OpenDocument
  4. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20080916112005/http://www.ema.gov.au/ema/emadisasters.nsf/54273a46a9c753b3ca256d0900180220/d77e2c313a5f5ba0ca256d33000580cf?OpenDocument
  5. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20071028085031/http://www.ema.gov.au/ema/emadisasters.nsf/54273a46a9c753b3ca256d0900180220/dc55889c6a538e4dca256d3300057c69?OpenDocument
  6. ^ Weather Rainfall Cyclones
  7. ^ a b "Climate Education: Flood". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 2010. Retrieved January 18, 2011. 
  8. ^ Bureau of Meteorology. Tropical Cyclones in Queensland. Retrieved on 2 January 2008.
  9. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Fletcher Impacts". Bureau of Meteorology (Government of Australia). 2014. http://www.bom.gov.au/announcements/sevwx/qld/qldtc20140203.shtml. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  10. ^ "Kowanyama, Queensland February 2014 Daily Weather Observations" (PDF). Bureau of Meteorology (Government of Australia). 2014. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. http://www.webcitation.org/6NsDuwZXf. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  11. ^ Rainfall (PDF). "Report on Severe Tropical Cyclone Aivu". Bureau of Meteorology. Government of Australia. 6 June 1990. p. 17–18. Retrieved 13 March 2014. 
  12. ^ "Tropical Cyclone May". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  13. ^ Queensland Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre (2014). "Tropical Cyclone Justin" (PDF). Australian Bureau of Meteorology (Government of Australia). http://www.bom.gov.au/cyclone/history/pdf/justin.pdf. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  14. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Ellie". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 2009. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  15. ^ Brian Williams and Peter Michael (24 January 2013). "Ex-cyclone Oswald heads south with heavy rain tipped for long weekend". Australian Associated Press. The Courier Mail. Retrieved 24 January 2013. 
  16. ^ Bureau of Meteorology (1992). Climate of Queensland, Commonwealth of Australia ISBN 978-0-644-24331-5
  17. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20071021112331/http://www.ema.gov.au/ema/emadisasters.nsf/54273a46a9c753b3ca256d0900180220/c96854d69c2d0932ca256d3300057bc8?OpenDocument
  18. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20100605010519/http://gns.cri.nz/services/hazardsplanning/downloads/SR2006-038trad_mitigation_pacific.pdf
  19. ^ http://www.basedn.freeserve.co.uk/cyclone.htm Archived August 28, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ Staff Writer (May 26, 2000). "The British Association for Immediate Care: Cyclone". The British Association for Immediate Care. Archived from the original on August 28, 2008. Retrieved April 15, 2009. 
  21. ^ a b c d "Tropical Cyclone Tony 1979-80". Bureau of Meteorology. 2010. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  22. ^ a b http://www.idro.com.au/disaster_list/default.asp[dead link]
  23. ^ Météo-France (2007). "Avec GAMEDE et 27 ans après HYACINTHE, La Réunion bat ses propres records mondiaux de précipitations sur les durées de 3 à 9 jours" (in French). Retrieved April 12, 2008.