1977 in science

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The year 1977 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

Astronomy and space exploration[edit]

Biology[edit]

Computer science[edit]

  • January – The Commodore PET is announced at Winter CES. The first units were delivered to customers in October; back-orders for the popular system lasted for months and in early 1978 Commodore discontinued the 4KB model. The PET was the launch computer for Commodore which would later gain prominence with the Commodore 64 in 1982, the single most produced home computer with over 17 million produced.[3]
  • June 5 – The first Apple II home computers (largely designed by Steve Wozniak) go on sale in the U.S., among the first successful mass-produced microcomputers.[4][5]
  • August 3 - The TRS-80 Model I is announced at a press conference in New York City. Radio Shack began sales in September, and despite a sales forecast of only 3,000 units per year, over 10,000 were sold in just one and a half months. Radio Shack would later develop an entire line of computers over the following 20 years.

Cryptography[edit]

History of science[edit]

  • Roy Porter publishes The Making of Geology: Earth Science in Britain 1660-1815.

Medicine[edit]

Oceanography[edit]

Technology[edit]

Awards[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sequencing technologies". The Human Genome. Wellcome Trust. Retrieved 2012-10-25. 
  2. ^ Woese, Carl R.; Fox, George E. (1977). "Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: The primary kingdoms". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (United States) 74 (11): 5088–90. Bibcode:1977PNAS...74.5088W. doi:10.1073/pnas.74.11.5088. PMC 432104. PMID 270744. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  3. ^ http://oldcomputers.net/c64.html
  4. ^ Long, Tony (June 5, 2007). "June 5, 1977: From a Little Apple a Mighty Industry Grows". Wired. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009. Retrieved June 2, 2009. 
  5. ^ Reimer, Jeremy (December 14, 2005). "Total share: 30 years of personal computer market share figures". Ars Technica. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  6. ^ Damadian, R.; Goldsmith, M.; Minkoff, L. (1977). "NMR in cancer: XVI. Fonar image of the live human body". Physiological Chemistry and Physics 9: 97–100. 
  7. ^ Hinshaw, D. S.; Bottomley, P. A.; Holland, G. N. (1977). "Radiographic thin-section image of the human wrist by nuclear magnetic resonance". Nature 270 (5639): 722–723. Bibcode:1977Natur.270..722H. doi:10.1038/270722a0. PMID 593393. 
  8. ^ "First MRI and ultrasound scanning". Benjamin S. Beck. Retrieved 4 December 2011. 
  9. ^ "The "Indomitable" MRI". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 4 December 2011. 
  10. ^ Waldman, Thomas A. (2003). "Immunotherapy: past, present and future" (PDF). Nature Medicine 9 (3): 269–277. doi:10.1038/nm0303-269. PMID 12612576. Retrieved 10 March 2005. 
  11. ^ "Biographical Sketch of Andreas Gruentzig (1939–1985)". Angioplasty.Org. Retrieved November 8, 2011. 
  12. ^ Meier, Bernhard; Bachmann, Dölf; Lüscher, Thomas F. (February 8, 2003). "25 years of coronary angioplasty: almost a fairy tale". The Lancet 361 (9356): 527. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12470-1. PMID 12583964. Retrieved November 8, 2011.