1978 Tour de France
|Dates||29 June–23 July 1978|
|Stages||22+Prologue, including two split stages|
|Distance||3,913.9 km (2,432 mi)|
|Winning time||112h 03' 02" (34.929 km/h or 21.704 mph)|
|Winner||Bernard Hinault (France)||(Renault)|
|Second||Joop Zoetemelk (Netherlands)||(Miko–Mercier)|
|Third||Joaquim Agostinho (Portugal)||(Velda)|
|Points||Freddy Maertens (Belgium)||(Velda)|
|Mountains||Mariano Martínez (France)||(Jobo)|
|Youth||Henk Lubberding (Netherlands)||(TI-Raleigh)|
|Sprints||Jacques Bossis (France)||(Renault)|
The 1978 Tour de France was the 65th Tour de France, taking place June 29 to July 23, 1978. The total race distance was 22 stages over 3908 km, with riders averaging 36.084 km/h. It was won by debutant Bernard Hinault, for the first of his five victories.
Lucien Van Impe, the winner of 1976, had broken his collarbone and was still recovering.
The main contenders were debutant Hinault, who had won the 1977 Vuelta a España, and Joop Zoetemelk, who had already finished in second place for three times. Pre-race analysis judged Hinault better in the time trials, and Zoetemelk better in the mountains. Bernard Thévenet, the winner of the 1977 Tour de France, was out of form, and not considered a favourite.
Race details 
During the prologue, held in the Netherlands, the weather was bad. The four top places were taken by Dutch cyclists, with Jan Raas the winner. The team directors then had a meeting, and all but the manager of Raas' team voted to request the Tour direction to not count the results from the prologue for the overall classification. The direction agreed, so the prologue results did not count. Jan Raas was still given the stage win, but he was not recognized as race leader, so he was not allowed to wear the yellow jersey during the first stage. The winner of the previous year, Bernard Thévenet, was allowed to wear the yellow jersey, but he refused.
In that first stage, Raas and his team were full of anger. Raas escaped close to the finish, and beat everybody by a second, thus becoming the race's leader after all. Raas lost the lead in the third stage.
The fourth stage was run as a time trial. The TI-Raleigh team was specialized in this, and they won the stage. Klaus-Peter Thaler of the TI-Raleigh team became the new leader, thanks to the bonification seconds.
The eleventh stage included the toughest mountains in the Pyrenées. On the last mountain, the Pla d'Adet, Pollentier and Zoetemelk attacked, and Martinez and Hinault soon followed. Martinez rode away to win the stage, and Hinault won some seconds on Zoetemelk. Bruyere stayed the leader, with Hinault in second place and Zoetemelk in third place. During that stage, Thevenet retired.
The next day, the twelfth stage was scheduled, split into two sections. This meant that after the transfer from the previous stage, the riders were not in bed before 12:00 PM, and had to wake up at 5:00 AM. In the early stage to Valence-d'Agen, the riders held a strike against the early start. They rode at a slow pace of 20 kilometres per hour (12 mph), arrived at the finish well behind schedule, and crossed the finish line walking. The Tour officials canceled the stage.
The fourteenth stage was an individual mountain time trial. Zoetemelk won the stage, beating Bruyere by 55 seconds and Hinault by 100 seconds. Hinault had lost some time because his lightweight bike, that he intended to use for the steepest part, broke when he hit a spectator while changing bikes.
In the sixteenth stage, that ended on top of Alpe d'Huez, Pollentier attacked. At the foot of the Alpe d'Huez, Pollentier had a margin of two minutes. He was chased by Hinault, Zoetemelk and Kuiper, who at 4 km before the finish had closed the gap to 50 seconds. Hinault then attacked, and Kuiper could follow but Zoetemelk had to let them go. Pollentier stayed away, won the stage and became the new leader of the general classification.
As stage winner and general classification leader, Pollentier had to go to the doping control. Pollentier first went to his hotel, and was only found two hours later. Another cyclist at the doping control, Antoine Guttierrez, was found with a fake urine sample, trying to use it to fake the doping control. This device did not work, and the race doctor discovered the fraud. He then checked the other cyclists, and Pollentier was using the same fraud. Pollentier was removed from the race, and Zoetemelk became the new leader. Pollentier later explained that he tried to evade the controls because he had taken amphetamines for breathing, and he did not know if it would give back a positive test.
In the seventeenth stage, Kuiper, third in the general classification, crashed, broke a clavicle, and had to leave the race.
Hinault was only 14 seconds behind Zoetemelk at the start of the time trial in stage 20. Hinault won that time trial by more than four minutes over Zoetemelk, and became the race leader.
The 1978 Tour de France started on 29 June, and had two rest days, in Biarritz and Alpe d'Huez.
|P||29 June||Leiden||Individual time trial||5 km (3.1 mi)||Jan Raas (NED)|
|1A||30 June||Leiden – St Willebrord||Plain stage||135 km (84 mi)||Jan Raas (NED)|
|1B||St Willebrord – Brussel||Plain stage||100 km (62 mi)||Walter Planckaert (BEL)|
|2||1 July||Brussel – St Amand les Eaux||Plain stage||199 km (124 mi)||Jacques Esclassan (FRA)|
|3||2 July||St Amand les Eaux – St Germain en Laye||Plain stage||244 km (152 mi)||Klaus-Peter Thaler (GER)|
|4||3 July||Evreux – Caen||Team time trial||153 km (95 mi)||TI-Raleigh|
|5||4 July||Caen – Maze Montgeoffroy||Plain stage||244 km (152 mi)||Freddy Maertens (BEL)|
|6||5 July||Maze Montgeoffroy – Poitiers||Plain stage||162 km (101 mi)||Sean Kelly (IRE)|
|7||6 July||Poitiers – Bordeaux||Plain stage||242 km (150 mi)||Freddy Maertens (BEL)|
|8||7 July||St Emilion – Ste Foy la Grande||Individual time trial||59 km (37 mi)||Bernard Hinault (FRA)|
|9||8 July||Bordeaux – Biarritz||Plain stage||233 km (145 mi)||Miguel Maria Lasa (ESP)|
|10||10 July||Biarritz – Pau||Hilly stage||192 km (119 mi)||Henk Lubberding (NED)|
|11||11 July||Pau – St Lary Soulan||Stage with mountain(s)||161 km (100 mi)||Mariano Martínez (FRA)|
|12A||12 July||Tarbes – Valence d'Agen||Plain stage||158 km (98 mi)||Cancelled|
|12B||Valence d'Agen – Toulouse||Plain stage||96 km (60 mi)||Jacques Esclassan (FRA)|
|13||13 July||Figeac – Super Besse||Hilly stage||221 km (137 mi)||Paul Wellens (BEL)|
|14||14 July||Besse en Chandesse – Puy de Dôme||Individual time trial||52 km (32 mi)||Joop Zoetemelk (NED)|
|15||15 July||St Dier d'Auvergne – St Etienne||Hilly stage||196 km (122 mi)||Bernard Hinault (FRA)|
|16||16 July||St Etienne – L'Alpe d'Huez||Stage with mountain(s)||241 km (150 mi)||Michel Pollentier (BEL)|
|16||16 July||St Etienne – L'Alpe d'Huez||Stage with mountain(s)||241 km (150 mi)||Hennie Kuiper (NED)|
|17||18 July||Grenoble – Morzine||Stage with mountain(s)||225 km (140 mi)||Christian Seznec (FRA)|
|18||19 July||Morzine – Lausanne||Plain stage||137 km (85 mi)||Gerrie Knetemann (NED)|
|19||20 July||Lausanne – Belfort||Plain stage||182 km (113 mi)||Marc Demeyer (BEL)|
|20||21 July||Metz – Nancy||Individual time trial||72 km (45 mi)||Bernard Hinault (FRA)|
|21||22 July||Epernay – Senlis||Plain stage||207 km (129 mi)||Jan Raas (NED)|
|22||23 July||St Germain en Laye – Paris (Champs-Élysées)||Plain stage||162 km (101 mi)||Gerrie Knetemann (NED)|
There were several classifications in the 1978 Tour de France, four of them awarding jerseys to their leaders. The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour.
Additionally, there was a points classification, were cyclists got points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a green jersey.
There was also a mountains classification. The organisation had categorized some climbs as either first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorized climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a polkadot jersey.
Another classification was the young rider classification. This was decided the same way as the general classification, but only neo-professionals were eligible, and the leader wore a white jersey.
The fifth individual classification was the intermediate sprints classification. This classification had similar rules as the points classification, but only points were awarded on intermediate sprints. In 1978, this classification had no associated jersey.
For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the leading team was the team with the lowest total time. The riders in the team that lead this classification wore yellow caps. There was also a team points classification. After each stage, the stage rankings of the best three cyclists per team were added, and the team with the least total lead this classification, and were identified by green caps.
General classification 
|1||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||Renault||107h 18' 00"|
|2||Joop Zoetemelk (NED)||Miko||+3' 56"|
|3||Joaquim Agostinho (POR)||Flandria-Velda||+6' 54"|
|4||Joseph Bruyere (BEL)||C&A||+9' 04"|
|5||Christian Seznec (FRA)||Miko||+12' 50"|
|6||Paul Wellens (BEL)||Raleigh||+14' 38"|
|7||Francisco Galdos (ESP)||KAS||+17' 08"|
|8||Henk Lubberding (NED)||Raleigh||+17' 26"|
|9||Lucien Van Impe (BEL)||C&A||+21' 01"|
|10||Mariano Martínez (FRA)||Jobo||+22' 58"|
|Final general classification (11–78)|
|11||Sven-Åke Nilsson (SWE)||Miko||+23' 00"|
|12||Raymond Martin (FRA)||Miko||+32' 58"|
|13||Freddy Maertens (BEL)||Flandria-Velda||+34' 26"|
|14||Michel Laurent (FRA)||Peugeot-Esso||+40' 00"|
|15||André Romero (FRA)||Jobo||+49' 34"|
|16||Edouard Janssens (BEL)||C&A||+51' 19"|
|17||Yves Hézard (FRA)||Peugeot-Esso||+53' 20"|
|18||Antonio Menendez (ESP)||Teka||+53' 28"|
|19||René Bittinger (FRA)||Flandria-Velda||+53' 47"|
|20||Jos Deschoenmaecker (BEL)||C&A||+54' 14"|
|21||Pierre Bazzo (FRA)||Lejeune||+55' 35"|
|22||José Martins (POR)||Teka||+57' 07"|
|23||Gilbert Lelay (FRA)||Fiat||+57' 40"|
|24||Jan Raas (NED)||Raleigh||+58' 43"|
|25||Fedor Iwan den Hertog (NED)||Lejeune||+1h 01' 46"|
|26||René Martens (BEL)||C&A||+1h 02' 29"|
|27||Maurice Le Guilloux (FRA)||Miko||+1h 02' 40"|
|28||Bernard Bourreau (FRA)||Peugeot-Esso||+1h 06' 34"|
|29||Patrick Perret (FRA)||Miko||+1h 06' 34"|
|30||Ferdinand Julien (FRA)||Jobo||+1h 06' 45"|
|31||Pierre-Raymond Villemiane (FRA)||Renault||+1h 07' 50"|
|32||Juan Pujol (ESP)||KAS||+1h 08' 20"|
|33||Charles Rouxel (FRA)||Miko||+1h 09' 19"|
|34||Sean Kelly (IRE)||Flandria-Velda||+1h 10' 18"|
|35||Klaus-Peter Thaler (GER)||Raleigh||+1h 10' 22"|
|36||André Mollet (FRA)||Miko||+1h 13' 38"|
|37||Gilbert Chaumaz (FRA)||Renault||+1h 15' 50"|
|38||Willy Teirlinck (BEL)||Renault||+1h 16' 30"|
|39||Andrés Oliva (ESP)||Teka||+1h 20' 06"|
|40||Pedro Vilardebó (ESP)||Teka||+1h 21' 27"|
|41||Miguel Maria Lasa (ESP)||Teka||+1h 21' 37"|
|42||Roger Legeay (FRA)||Lejeune||+1h 29' 39"|
|43||Gerrie Knetemann (NED)||Raleigh||+1h 30' 10"|
|44||Herman Beysens (BEL)||Flandria-Velda||+1h 31' 58"|
|45||Hubert Mathis (FRA)||Miko||+1h 34' 40"|
|46||Bernardo Alfonsel (ESP)||Teka||+1h 35' 51"|
|47||Wilfried Wesemael (BEL)||Raleigh||+1h 36' 16"|
|48||Alain De Carvalho (FRA)||Fiat||+1h 39' 48"|
|49||Marc Demeyer (BEL)||Flandria-Velda||+1h 40' 50"|
|50||Dominique Sanders (FRA)||Fiat||+1h 41' 26"|
|51||René Dillen (BEL)||C&A||+1h 41' 31"|
|52||Lucien Didier (LUX)||Renault||+1h 44' 44"|
|53||Christian Muselet (FRA)||Flandria-Velda||+1h 48' 10"|
|54||Alain Patritti (FRA)||Jobo||+1h 50' 07"|
|55||José De Cauwer (BEL)||Raleigh||+1h 50' 12"|
|56||Albert Van Vlierberghe (BEL)||Flandria-Velda||+1h 52' 03"|
|57||Aad van den Hoek (NED)||Raleigh||+1h 53' 13"|
|58||Bernard Quilfen (FRA)||Renault||+1h 53' 46"|
|59||Marcel Tinazzi (FRA)||Flandria-Velda||+1h 53' 46"|
|60||Marcel Laurens (BEL)||C&A||+1h 56' 53"|
|61||Jacques Esclassan (FRA)||Peugeot-Esso||+2h 00' 25"|
|62||Jacques Bossis (FRA)||Renault||+2h 02' 36"|
|63||André Chalmel (FRA)||Renault||+2h 03' 23"|
|64||Jean-Luc Vandenbroucke (BEL)||Peugeot-Esso||+2h 04' 07"|
|65||Barry Hoban (GBR)||Miko||+2h 06' 33"|
|66||Eugène Plet (FRA)||Lejeune||+2h 10' 16"|
|67||Serge Beucherie (FRA)||Fiat||+2h 16' 40"|
|68||Philippe Durel (FRA)||Jobo||+2h 17' 13"|
|69||Jean-Louis Gauthier (FRA)||Lejeune||+2h 17' 16"|
|70||Paul Sherwen (GBR)||Fiat||+2h 18' 54"|
|71||Alain Budet (FRA)||Fiat||+2h 20' 13"|
|72||Dino Bertolo (FRA)||Jobo||+2h 25' 50"|
|73||Jean-Jacques Fussien (FRA)||Fiat||+2h 27' 02"|
|74||Yvon Bertin (FRA)||Renault||+2h 36' 31"|
|75||Daniel Gisiger (SUI)||Lejeune||+2h 49' 16"|
|76||Regis Delepine (FRA)||Peugeot-Esso||+3h 02' 41"|
|77||Dante Coccolo (FRA)||Jobo||+3h 24' 18"|
|78||Philippe Tesniere (FRA)||Fiat||+3h 52' 26"|
Points classification 
|1||Freddy Maertens (BEL)||Flandria-Velda||242|
|2||Jacques Esclassan (FRA)||Peugeot-Esso||185|
|3||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||Renault||123|
|4||Jan Raas (NED)||Raleigh||109|
|5||Joseph Bruyere (BEL)||C&A||100|
|6||Klaus-Peter Thaler (GER)||Raleigh||91|
|7||Yvon Bertin (FRA)||Renault||79|
|8||Jacques Bossis (FRA)||Renault||74|
|9||Joop Zoetemelk (NED)||Miko||71|
|10||Joaquim Agostinho (POR)||Teka||70|
Mountains classification 
|1||Mariano Martínez (FRA)||Jobo||187|
|2||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||Renault||176|
|3||Joop Zoetemelk (NED)||Miko||155|
|4||Christian Seznec (FRA)||Miko||90|
|5||Joaquim Agostinho (POR)||Flandria-Velda||73|
|6||Sven-Åke Nilsson (SWE)||Miko||70|
|7||Paul Wellens (BEL)||Raleigh||68|
|8||René Bittinger (FRA)||Flandria-Velda||63|
|9||Gilbert Lelay (FRA)||Fiat||54|
|10||Lucien Van Impe (BEL)||C&A||53|
Team classification 
The Kas team finished with only two cyclists, so was not eligible for the team classifications.
|1||Mercier||562h 05' 52"|
|4||Flandria||+1h 15' 45"|
|5||Gitane||+1h 47' 46"|
|6||Peugeot||+4h 25' 36"|
|7||Lejeune||+4h 29' 18"|
|8||Teka||+4h 51' 32"|
|9||Jobo||+5h 02' 48"|
|10||Fiat||+7h 04' 37"|
Team points classification 
Young rider classification 
|1||Henk Lubberding (NED)||Raleigh|
|2||Sven-Åke Nilsson (SWE)||Miko|
|3||René Bittinger (FRA)||Flandria-Velda|
|4||Pierre Bazzo (FRA)||Lejeune|
|5||Gilbert Lelay (FRA)||Fiat|
Intermediate prints classification 
|1||Jacques Bossis (FRA)||Renault||95|
|2||Philippe Tesniere (FRA)||Fiat||60|
|3||Pierre-Raymond Villemiane (FRA)||Gitane||52|
|4||Freddy Maertens (BEL)||Flandria-Velda||44|
|5||Marcel Laurens (BEL)||C&A||21|
Other classifications 
In total, 110 doping tests were done. Three cyclists were penalized for doping offences, all tested after the sixteenth stage:
- Antoine Guttierrez, for attempt of fraud
- Michel Pollentier, for attempt of fraud
- José Nazabal
Nazabal had already anticipated the positive result, and had left the race before the eighteenth stage. Guttierrez and Pollentier were removed from the race and banned for two months; Nazabal was set back to the last place of the stage, received ten minutes penalty time in the general classification, a fine of 1000 Swiss Francs and one month provisional suspension.
- Thompson, Christopher S. (2008). The Tour de France: A Cultural History. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-25630-1. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- Augendre, Jacques (2009). "Guide Historique" (PDF) (in French). Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 2009-10-09. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- "65ème Tour de France 1978" (in French). Memoire du cyclisme. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- "Historique du Tour de France - Year 1978: The starters". Amaury Sport Organisation. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
- Thompson, p.215
- Boyce, Barry (2006). "1978: The Cannibal Retires, the Badger Shines". Cycling Revealed. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol (2008). The Story of the Tour De France: 1965-2007. Dog Ear Publishing. pp. 111–117. ISBN 1-59858-608-4. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- Thompson, p.102
- Augendre, Jacques (2009). "Guide Historique, Part 4" (PDF) (in French). Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
- Zwegers, Arian. "Tour de France GC Top Ten". CVCC. Archived from the original on 2009-06-10. Retrieved 15 Aug 2011.
- Christian, Sarah (2 July 2009). "Tour de France demystified - Evaluating success". RoadCycling.co.nz Ltd. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- "TDF guides: White jersey". TeamSky.com. BSkyB. 22 June 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- Mark, Eddy van der. "Tour Xtra: Intermediate Sprints Classification". Chippewa Valley Cycling Club. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- Chauner, David; Halstead, Michael (1990). The Tour de France Complete Book of Cycling. Villard. ISBN 0-679-72936-4. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- Mark, Eddy van der. "Tour Xtra: Other Classifications & Awards". Chippewa Valley Cycling Club. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- "Clasificaciones oficiales". El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 24 July 1978. p. 25. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- "Tombés au champs d'honneur" (in French) (79). Magazine Sport & Vie. July 2003. Retrieved 16 May 2011.