1979 Atlantic hurricane season
|Season summary map|
|First system formed||June 9, 1979|
|Last system dissipated||November 15, 1979|
|Strongest storm||David – 924 mbar (hPa) (27.3 inHg), 175 mph (280 km/h) (1-minute sustained)|
|Major hurricanes (Cat. 3+)||2|
|Total damage||$4.27 billion (1979 USD)|
|Atlantic hurricane seasons
1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981
The 1979 Atlantic hurricane season was the first Atlantic hurricane season to include both male and female names. The hurricane season began on June 1 and ended on November 30. Although the season had 27 tropical depressions, it was inactive due to only 9 named storms. The first tropical cyclone, an unnumbered tropical depression, developed on June 9 and dissipated a few days with no impact. Tropical Depression One, the next system, caused significant flooding in Jamaica. Later in June, Tropical Storm Ana caused minimally impact in the Lesser Antilles. Hurricane Bob, the first male named storm in the Atlantic, caused moderate damage in the Gulf Coast region of the United States. Tropical Storm Claudette dropped up to 45 inches (1,100 mm) of rain in Texas, causing moderate damage from flooding.
The most significant storm of the season was Hurricane David, a Category 5 hurricane that caused devastation in Dominican Republic, as well as significant impact in the Lesser Antilles and the Southeastern United States. David caused $1.54 billion (1979 USD) in damage and at least 2,068 fatalities. Another significant storm, Hurricane Frederic, resulted in extensive impact, especially in the United States, where it was the costliest tropical cyclone on record, at the time. Tropical Depression Eight, Tropical Storm Elena, Hurricane Henri, an unnumbered tropical depression in September, and Subtropical Storm One all caused minor effects on land. Several of the tropical cyclones also moved in close proximity to land, but impact is unknown. Collectively, the tropical cyclones of the season resulted in $4.27 in damage and at least 2,118 deaths.
- 1 Season summary
- 2 Storms
- 2.1 Tropical Depression One
- 2.2 Tropical Storm Ana
- 2.3 Hurricane Bob
- 2.4 Tropical Storm Claudette
- 2.5 Hurricane David
- 2.6 Tropical Depression Eight
- 2.7 Hurricane Frederic
- 2.8 Tropical Storm Elena
- 2.9 Hurricane Gloria
- 2.10 Hurricane Henri
- 2.11 Mid September Tropical Depression
- 2.12 Subtropical Storm One
- 2.13 Other storms
- 3 Storm names
- 4 Season effects
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1, 1979. Although 27 tropical cyclones developed, only nine of them became nameable storms, which is slightly below the 1950-2000 average of 9.6 named storms per season. Of the nine tropical storms, five of them strengthened into a hurricane, which is also slightly below average. Two of the five hurricane became major hurricanes, which is Category 3 or greater on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. Three tropical storms, one subtropical storm, and three hurricanes made landfall during the season and caused at least 2,118 fatalities and $4.27 billion (1979 USD). Despite its intensity, Tropical Depression One also resulted in notorious impact in Jamaica. The last storm of the season, an unnamed subtropical storm, dissipated on November 15, about 15 days before the official end of hurricane season on November 30.
The 1979 season was an average but destructive season with 27 depressions, with nine reaching tropical storm strength. The notable cyclones include Tropical Depression One which caused one of Jamaica's worst natural disasters. Tropical Storm Claudette became one of the most destructive tropical storms of all time and created a 24-hour rainfall record for the United States. Hurricane David peaked at Category 5 status becoming the first hurricane of such strength to make landfall directly in the Dominican Republic, killing over 2,000 people. Hurricane Frederic became a weak Category 4 hurricane with winds of 135 mph (217 km/h), causing over $4–8 billion in damage (2005 USD) to some of the same areas impacted by Hurricane David. Hurricane Henri formed in Mid-September in the Gulf of Mexico and never made landfall, which is a rare occurrence. Damage for the whole season totaled out to $4.27 billion (1979 USD).
The season's activity was reflected with an accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) rating of 93. ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so storms that last a long time, as well as particularly strong hurricanes, have high ACEs. ACE is only calculated for full advisories on tropical systems at or exceeding 34 knots (39 mph, 63 km/h) or tropical storm strength. Although officially, subtropical storms are not included in the ACE value, the figure above includes periods when storms were in a subtropical phase.
Tropical Depression One
|Tropical depression (SSHS)|
|Duration||June 11 – June 16|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 1005 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical depression formed west of Jamaica on June 11 produced heavy rainfalls with record floods in several parishes for two days with maximum sustained winds of 35 mph (56 km/h). The depression continued north, parallelling the Florida coast on June 15 and made landfall in South Carolina on June 16. Tropical Depression One dissipated over land. The town of Friendship recorded 32 in (810 mm) of rain with 15 in other parts of western Jamaica. Due to saturated mud from other rains, caused one of Jamaica's worst natural disaster in the 70s. Over 210,000 people were affected by floods on June 12 alone causing for major damage. Economic damages totalled out to $27 million (1979 USD-$75 million in 2006 USD) with forty people killed.
The flooding in western Jamaica from Tropical Depression One devastated the area and caused the government to establish a permanent disaster management organization.
Tropical Storm Ana
|Tropical storm (SSHS)|
|Duration||June 19 – June 24|
|Peak intensity||60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 1005 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave exited the west coast of Africa and entered the Atlantic on June 14. It headed westward and after satellite imagery indicated a closed circulation, the system was classified as a tropical depression on June 19, while located several hundred miles east-southeast of the Windward Islands. The system was the first tropical cyclone to developed east of the Lesser Antilles in the month of June since the 1933 Trinidad hurricane; more recently, Tropical Depression Two in 2000 and 2003 have formed in the eastern Atlantic. Initially, the depression tracked west-northwest at about 14 mph (23 km/h). Late on June 20, the depression curved northwestward at the same speed.
A United States Air Force Reconnaissance Aircraft noted that the depression was strengthening and by early on June 22, it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Ana. Thereafter, the storm began tracking almost due westward toward the Lesser Antilles. Ana peaked with winds of 60 mph (95 km/h), before wind shear began detaching deep convection from the center, resulting in weakening. Early on June 23, the storm struck St. Lucia, shortly before weakening to a tropical depression and entering the Caribbean Sea. Ana continued weakening and degenerated back into a tropical wave on June 24, while located between Puerto Rico and Venezuela. Despite directly crossing St. Lucia, only light rainfall occurred. In Dominica, rain fell for 15 hours and gusty winds were reported, though damage, if any, was minimal. Impact elsewhere is unknown.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||July 9 – July 16|
|Peak intensity||75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min) 986 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave emerged into the Atlantic from the west coast of Africa in late June and tracked westward across the Atlantic and Caribbean Sea. After crossing the Yucatan Peninsula on July 7, the wave entered into the Gulf of Mexico on the following day. Once in the Gulf, the system quickly organized and became a tropical depression on July 9. The depression gradually strengthened as it moved east-northeastward and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Bob on July 10. Intensification continued at a faster pace and by early on July 11, Bob reached hurricane status. It turned northward while approaching the Gulf Coast of the United States and at around 1800 UTC on July 11, Bob made landfall in Grand Isle, Louisiana. Although it quickly weakened to a tropical depression by early on July 12, Bob trekked for four days across several states, until re-emerging into the Atlantic from North Carolina on July 16. Later that day, Bob was absorbed by a low pressure system.
Tropical Storm Claudette
|Tropical storm (SSHS)|
|Duration||July 16 – July 29|
|Peak intensity||50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 997 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave spawned a tropical depression east of the Lesser Antilles on July 16. It gradually strengthened into Tropical Storm Claudette on July 17 and crossed the northern Leeward Islands later that day. As the storm approached Puerto Rico early on July 18, it weakened back to a tropical depression. Claudette degenerated back into a tropical wave after crossing Puerto Rico. Late on July 18, the remnants struck Dominican Republic and emerged into the Caribbean Sea on the following day. The system crossed western Cuba on July 21, shortly before reaching the Gulf of Mexico and regenerated into a tropical cyclone. By July 23, Claudette regained tropical storm intensity and turned northward. The storm made landfall near the Texas-Louisiana border late on July 23. It eventually dissipated over West Virginia on July 29.
In the Lesser Antilles, the storm brought heavy rainfall and gusty winds to several islands. Minor flooding occurred in Guadeloupe and Saint Croix. Rainfall exceeding 10 inches (250 mm) in some areas of Puerto Rico led to widespread agricultural damage, flooded homes and streets, and one fatality; losses were estimated at $750,000. Up to 42 inches (1,100 mm) of rain fell in one day in Alvin, Texas, which is the record 24 hour precipitation amount for any location in the United States. Within the state of Texas alone, hundreds of businesses and an estimated 15,000 homes sustained flood damage. Significant coastal flooding and up to 15 inches (380 mm) of rainfall was reported in Louisiana. Overall, Claudette was responsible for two deaths and $400 million in losses.
|Category 5 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||August 25 – September 6|
|Peak intensity||175 mph (280 km/h) (1-min) 924 mbar (hPa)|
David ranks as one of the strongest and deadliest Atlantic hurricanes on record. It formed from a tropical wave in the central Atlantic east of the Windward Islands. The storm headed west, steadily strengthening. By the time David reached the Leeward Islands, it was at Category 4 intensity. David continued strengthening and reached Category 5 status south of Puerto Rico. It spent nearly two days at Category 5 intensity, storming through Santo Domingo, the capital of the Dominican Republic. Crossing Hispaniola weakened the storm greatly however, and David exited the island as a weak Category 1. It strengthened into a Category 2 off the south Florida coast.
The western eyewall crossed the shoreline near Fort Lauderdale and continued up the entire length of the coast of eastern North America. After transitioning to an extratropical cyclone, David intensified once more as it crossed the far north Atlantic, clipping northwestern Iceland before moving eastward well north of the Faroe Islands on September 10. The beach erosion was severe. David killed over 2,000 people in Hispaniola, 56 people on the island of Dominica, and 12 people in the U.S. as well as causing $1.54 billion (1979 USD) in damage.
Tropical Depression Eight
|Tropical depression (SSHS)|
|Duration||August 25 – August 28|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 1006 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical disturbance developed over the Isthmus of Tehuantepec on August 24. It moved northward and entered the Bay of Campeche by the following day. By 1200 UTC on August 25, the system was organized enough to be classified as Tropical Depression Eight.
|Category 4 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||August 29 – September 14|
|Peak intensity||135 mph (215 km/h) (1-min) 943 mbar (hPa)|
Frederic was a long-lived Cape Verde-type hurricane. It first became a hurricane in the central Atlantic east of the Windward Islands but soon weakened back into a tropical storm. Frederic crossed Hispaniola and weakened into a tropical depression. Frederic then crossed Cuba and regained tropical storm strength before entering the Gulf of Mexico. It was then that Frederic started to strengthen rapidly. By the time it reached a point just east of the Mississippi River Delta, Frederic was a Category 4. It made landfall near the Alabama/Mississippi border, just to the west of Mobile, Alabama. Due to prior warning, the death toll was a minimal five people; however, damages soared to $2.3 billion (1979 dollars) in damage.
Tropical Storm Elena
|Tropical storm (SSHS)|
|Duration||August 30 – September 2|
|Peak intensity||40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min) 1004 mbar (hPa)|
A weak tropical wave formed over Florida on August 27, however on August 29, ship and buoy reports mentioned a low-level circulation forming. An Air Force reconnaissance flight confirmed the report and was upgraded into Tropical Depression Six on the same day. Slow development occurred causing the depression to gain strength slowly, however by the next day, it was able to strengthen into Tropical Storm Elena. Elena did not intensify, peaking with maximum sustained winds of 40 mph with a pressure of 1,004.0 millibars (29.65 inHg). Elena turned toward the Texas coast near Matagorda Bay, spawning watches and warnings and made landfall on September 1 as a weak tropical storm. Elena weakened below tropical depression criteria by the next day. Elena caused less than $10 million (1979 USD) ($28 million 2005 USD) in damage but managed to kill two people in floods.
|Category 2 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||September 4 – September 15|
|Peak intensity||100 mph (155 km/h) (1-min) 975 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave emerged into the Atlantic from the west coast of Africa and rapidly developed into a tropical depression on September 4. Under the influence of a trough in the westerlies, the depression headed and passed just northeast of Cape Verde on September 5. At 1200 UTC on the following day, the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Gloria. Around that time, the storm was moving west-northwestward at about 17 mph (27 km/h). After curving abruptly north-northwestward, Gloria became a hurricane early on September 7. A higher latitude frontal system and a high pressure area caused Gloria to decelerate and caused a westward motion to begin on September 9.
Gloria briefly weakened to a tropical storm late on September 10, but re-strengthened into a hurricane on the following day. Eventually, the hurricane turned northeastward and began to accelerate. At 1800 UTC on September 12, Gloria attained its peak intensity with winds of 100 mph (155 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 975 mbar (28.8 inHg). The storm then began weakening and fell to Category 1 hurricane intensity on September 13. During that time, Gloria slowly began merging with a low pressure area that was located north of the Azores and lost tropical characteristics by September 15. The storm was centered well north of Flores Island in the Azores, at the time.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||September 15 – September 24|
|Peak intensity||85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min) 983 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave developed into a tropical depression near the Yucatan Peninsula on September 15. It quickly entered the Gulf of Mexico and turned westward. As the depression was curving southwestward on September 16, it strengthened and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Henri. Thereafter, Henri decelerated and continued to intensify, becoming a hurricane on September 17. Later that day, as it was turning northwestward, the hurricane peaked with winds of 85 mph (140 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 983 mbar (29.0 inHg). A nearby low pressure area caused Henri to move erratically. Henri began weakening due to land interaction with Mexico and it was downgraded back to a tropical storm on September 18. By the following day, Henri doubled-back southeastward while weakening to a tropical depression.
The depression lost much of its convection and curved northeastward on September 20 ahead of a cold front. Henri turned east-northeastward on September 23 and was absorbed by a frontal low pressure trough in the east-central Gulf of Mexico on the following day. This was a rare example of a storm entering the Gulf of Mexico and dissipating without making landfall. Henri disrupted cleanup efforts from the Ixtoc I oil spill by damaging a cap designed to stop oil from flowing into the Gulf of Mexico. Although it remained offshore, the storm brought heavy rainfall to Mexico, peaking at 19.59 inches (498 mm), forcing at least 2,000 people from their homes in Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche.
Mid September Tropical Depression
|Tropical depression (SSHS)|
|Duration||September 19 – September 21|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 1000 mbar (hPa)|
This system formed as a non-tropical low within a pre-existing area of heavy thunderstorms along a stationary front during the evening of September 19 off the coast of Brownsville, Texas. The low appeared to the northwest of Tropical Storm Henri in the Gulf of Mexico and to the east of a cold-core low over Arizona and New Mexico. The low became a non-tropical gale center on the morning of September 20, as it moved into southeast Texas. The cyclone continued northeastward and dissipating as it entered Tennessee. The depression left 10 inches (250 mm) to 15 inches (380 mm) of rainfall throughout the area from Corpus Christi, Texas to southwestern Louisiana. Heavy rainfall spread northeast towards the Mississippi, Ohio, and Tennessee river valleys.
Subtropical Storm One
|Subtropical storm (SSHS)|
|Duration||October 23 – October 25|
|Peak intensity||75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min) 980 mbar (hPa)|
Subtropical Storm One formed south of Bermuda on October 23 and headed north. The subtropical depression grazed Bermuda and became a subtropical storm. This unnamed storm continued north and continued to strengthen. The storm briefly reached hurricane strength (though it was not a hurricane at the time because it was not tropical) before weakening. The storm made landfall on Newfoundland on October 25 and dissipated later that day. No damage was reported. Rainfall spread across Atlantic Canada, peaking at 2.91 in (74 mm) on northeastern Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia.
The first tropical depression of the season developed north of Puerto Rico on June 9. It headed northward without intensifying and dissipated near Bermuda on the following day. The notable Tropical Depression One also existed in June from June 11 to June 16. Another tropical depression developed north of Hispaniola on July 8. It headed northward and then curved northeastward, bypass during the process. By July 13, the depression dissipated while located well south of Newfoundland. A day after the previous tropical depression developed, another depression formed near 10th parallel in the eastern Atlantic on July 9. It headed due westward and dissipated on July 11. A tropical depression formed offshore of Georgia July 10. The system moved north of due east with slight intensification on July 11. It turned east, passing south of Bermuda early on the morning of July 13 while accelerating eastward, with the depression dissipating that afternoon. A tropical depression formed offshore western Africa on July 20. The system moved westward through Cape Verde as a weak system on July 22. The system turned west-northwest and by late on July 25, the depression began to weaken as it turned more to the north, and the system dissipated well to the east-southeast of Bermuda on July 26. Tropical Depression Six developed east of the Lesser Antilles on July 28. The depression moved to the northwest and bypassed Bermuda on August 4. The depression made landfall on the southeastern tip of Newfoundland on August 5 after passing southeast of Nova Scotia earlier that day. Tropical Depression Six became an extratropical cyclone while southeast of Labrador on August 6.
Tropical Depression Eight formed in the Bay of Campeche on August 25. Moving generally northwest, the depression moved into Mexico just south of the international boarder with the United States late on August 27. Early on the following day, it dissipated inland. In Brownsville, Texas, rainfall accumulations totaled to 2.83 inches (72 mm) on August 27, which was a record amount of precipitation for that date. The last tropical depression in August developed offshore the of The Carolinas on August 29. The system quickly moved east-northeast between the East coast North America and Bermuda over the next couple days. The depression became a frontal wave southeast of Newfoundland on September 1, and dissipated soon afterward. Early in September, a tropical depression formed northeast of Cape Verde on September 1. The depression moved west-northwest before recurving sharply while located near the 40th meridian west on September 4. Steadily weakening thereafter over cool waters, the depression dissipated southeast of the Azores on September 6. A tropical depression formed near Cape Verde on September 16 and initially movied northwestward. Once it passed the 50th meridian west, the system turned northward and passed between Bermuda and the Azores. Turning northeast on September 20, the system became an extratropical cyclone, passing northwest of the Azores before dissipating on September 21. A tropical depression formed in the tropical north Atlantic east of the Lesser Antilles on September 21. The system moved northwest over the next few days, staying well east of the Leeward Islands, before dissipating on September 24.
Tropical Depression Fourteen formed on October 12 near Honduras and slowly moved to the northeast towards Cuba. The depression remained south of Cuba and turned back towards the Yucatan Peninsula. The depression made landfall in the Yucatan Peninsula on October 20 and dissipated shortly thereafter. Impact from the depression in this region is unknown. Toward the end of October, a tropical depression formed in the eastern tropical Atlantic on October 22. It moved northwest over the next six days, dissipating on October 28 to the southwest of the Azores. The last tropical depression in October developed near Panama on October 24. The depression initially moved northward toward Cuba, but eventually veered southwestward. By October 29, the depression made landfall in Nicaragua and dissipated several hours later. Impact from this system in Central America is unknown. A subtropical depression formed from an old weather front, or baroclinic zone, on November 6 near Puerto Rico. The depression moved northeastward but appeared to have made contact with the westerlies, as it turned off to the east-northeast. Ships that passed through the system recorded winds of 35-40 mph (55–65 km/h). Early on November 10, the system degenerated to a low pressure area, which soon dissipated. The final tropical depression of the season formed northeast of the Greater Antilles along a frontal zone on November 13. The depression completed a quick recurvature over the next couple days without significant changes in intensity. By November 15, the depression dissipated as a tropical cyclone.
The following names were used for named storms that formed in the north Atlantic in 1979. This season marked the debut of the current set of six lists containing both male and female names, replacing the ten-year set of female name lists introduced in 1971; this was due to protests from women's rights groups. Unisex names were considered, though prior to the start of the season the World Meteorological Organization approved of the current list alternating between male and female names of English, Spanish, and French origin. Initially, male names were scheduled to be introduced in the 1981 season. Storms were named Ana, Bob, Claudette, David, Frederic and Henri for the first time in 1979. The name Elena was previously used in the 1965 season, and the name Gloria was used in 1976. The names not retired from this list were used again in the 1985 season. The World Meteorological Organization retired two names in the spring of 1980: David and Frederic. They were replaced in the 1985 season by Danny and Fabian. Names that were not assigned are marked in gray.
This is a table of the storms in 1979 and their landfall(s), if any. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but are still storm-related. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical or a wave or low.
|Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale|
|Dates active||Storm category
at peak intensity
|Early June TD||Unknown||Tropical depression||35||Unknown||none||none||0|
|One||June 11 – June 16||Tropical depression||35||1006||Jamaica||June 11||30||27||40|
|South Carolina||June 15||35|
|Ana||June 19 – June 24||Tropical storm||60||1005||Leeward Islands (Direct hit, no landfall)||June 23||60||none||0|
|Early July TD||July 8 – July 13||Tropical depression||30||1004||none||none||0|
|Bob||July 9 – July 16||Category 1 hurricane||75||986||Dulac, Louisiana||July 11||75||20||1|
|Mid July TD||Unknown||Tropical depression||35||none||none||0|
|Four||July 10 – July 13||Tropical depression||35||1009||none|
|Claudette||July 15 – July 29||Tropical storm||50||997||Leeward Islands (Direct hit, no landfall)||July 16||50||400||2|
|Puerto Rico||July 17||35|
|Dominican Republic||July 17||30|
|Isle of Youth, Cuba||July 20||30|
|Port Arthur, Texas||July 24||60|
|Late July TD||July 23 – July 26||Tropical depression||35||1009||none||none||0|
|Six||July 31 – August 6||Tropical depression||35||1007||Bermuda||August 4||35||none||0|
|David||August 25 – September 6||Category 5 hurricane||175||924||Dominica||August 29||140||1,540||2,068|
|Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic||August 31||175|
|The Bahamas||September 3||100|
|West Palm Beach, Florida||September 3||100|
|Savannah, Georgia||September 5||75|
|Eight||August 25 – August 28||Tropical depression||35||1006||northeast Mexico||August 28||35||none||0|
|Late August TD||August 29 – September 1||Tropical depression||35||none||none||0|
|Elena||August 30 – September 2||Tropical storm||40||1004||Matagorda Bay, Texas||September 1||40||10||2|
|Frederic||August 29 – September 14||Category 4 hurricane||135||943||Leeward Islands (Direct hit, no landfall)||September 4||60||2,300||5 (9)|
|Puerto Rico||September 5||60|
|Dominican Republic||September 5||60|
|Eastern Cuba||September 6||35|
|Western Cuba||September 10||70|
|Dauphin Island, Alabama||September 13||125|
|Alabama/Mississippi border||September 13||125|
|Early September TD||September 1 – September 6||Tropical depression||35||1008||none||none||0|
|Gloria||September 4 – September 15||Category 2 hurricane||100||975||none||none||0|
|Henri||September 15 – September 24||Category 1 hurricane||85||983||none||Minimal||0|
|Mid September TD||September 19 – September 21||Tropical depression||35||Unknown||none||none||0|
|Thirteen||September 16 – September 21||Tropical depression||35||1008||Texas||September 21||35||none||0|
|Late September TD||September 21 – September 24||Tropical depression||35||Unknown||none||none||0|
|Fourteen||October 12 – October 20||Tropical depression||35||1003||Yucatan Peninsula||October 20||35||none||0|
|Late October Atlantic TD||October 22 – October 28||Tropical depression||35||Unknown||none||none||0|
|ST One||October 23 – October 25||Subtropical storm||75||980||Newfoundland||October 25||45||none||0|
|Late October Caribbean TD||October 24 – October 29||Tropical depression||35||1006||Nicaragua||October 29||35||none||0|
|Fifteen||November 7 – November 10||Tropical depression||35||998||none||none||0|
|Mid November TD||November 13 – November 15||Tropical depression||35||Unknown||none||none||0|
|27 cyclones||June 11 – November 15||175||924||29 landfalls||~4,000||2,118|
- List of Atlantic hurricanes
- List of Atlantic hurricane seasons
- 1979 Pacific hurricane season
- 1979 Pacific typhoon season
- 1979 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
- Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone seasons: 1978–79, 1979–80
- Neil L. Frank and Gilbert Clark (July 1980). "Atlantic Tropical Systems of 1979". Monthly Weather Review (American Meteorological Society) 108 (7): 966–972. Bibcode:1980MWRv..108..966F. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1980)108<0966:ATSO>2.0.CO;2. Archived from the original on 4 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- Hurricane Research Division (March 2011). "Atlantic basin Comparison of Original and Revised HURDAT". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2011-07-23.
- David Levinson (2008-08-20). "2005 Atlantic Ocean Tropical Cyclones". National Climatic Data Center. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-23.
- EM-DAT's Jamaica Page
- Ronald Jackson (2005-01-25). "Managing Natural Hazards in Jamaica". Internet Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management (2008-07-23). "Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management". Internet Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 2008-07-23. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- Joseph Pelissier (1979). "Tropical Storm Ana Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- Miles Lawrence (July 1, 2000). "Tropical Depression Two Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- James Franklin (August 6, 2003). "Tropical Depression Two Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- "Weakened Ana Enters The Caribbean, Heads West". The Palm Beach Post. June 24, 1979. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- David M. Roth (2011). "CLIQR Database". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- Hurricane David Preliminary Report
- Tropical Storm Elena Preliminary Report
- Gilbert Clark (1979). "Hurricane Gloria Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- Holbrook Mohr (May 31, 2010). "Oil complicates forecasts on hurricane season eve". Associated Press.
- David Roth (April 24, 2008). "Hurricane Henri - September 12-22, 1979". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- "New hurricane whirls in Gulf". The Post-Standard. United Press International. September 17, 1979.
- Lance F. Bosart (June 1984). "The Texas Coastal Rainstorm of 17–21 September 1979: An Example of Synoptic-Mesoscale Interaction". Monthly Weather Review 112 (6): 1111–1128. Bibcode:1984MWRv..112.1108B. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1984)112<1108:TTCROS>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1520-0493. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
- Canadian Hurricane Centre (2010-09-14). "1979-Subtrop 1". Retrieved 2010-11-01.
- "History for Brownsville, TX". Weather Underground. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- National Geographic News Service (1979-07-24). "His and hur-ricane season comes East for first time". Retrieved 2007-12-01.
- Associated Press (1978-05-31). "Hedge Bets on Hurricanes". Retrieved 2007-12-01.
- Satellite loop of David, Elena, Frederic, and Gloria
- Monthly Weather Review
- HPC rainfall pages for 1979 tropical cyclones impacting North America