1979 Fastnet race
The 1979 Fastnet race was the twenty-eighth Fastnet race, a yachting race held generally every two years since 1925 on a 605 mile course from Cowes direct to the Fastnet Rock and then to Plymouth via south of the Scillies. In 1979, it was the climax of the five-race Admiral's Cup competition, as it had been since 1957.
A worse-than-expected storm on the third day of the race wreaked havoc on over 306 yachts taking part in the biennial race, resulting in 18 fatalities (15 yachtsmen and 3 rescuers). Emergency services, naval forces, and civilian vessels from around the west side of the English Channel were summoned to aid what became the largest ever rescue operation in peace-time. This involved some 4,000 people including the entire Irish Naval Service's fleet, lifeboats, commercial boats, and helicopters.
The 1979 race started on 11 August. BBC Radio shipping forecast, broadcast at 13:55 that day predicted "south-westerly winds, force four to five increasing to force six to seven for a time." By 13 August, winds were reported at Force 6, with gusts of Force 7. Forecasters were predicting winds of Force 8. The leading boat, Kialoa, trailed closely by Condor of Bermuda, was on course to break the Fastnet record set eight years earlier.
A large depression, known as "low Y," formed over the Atlantic Ocean during the weekend of 11–12 August. On 13 August it began to rapidly intensify and turn northeastwards, reaching about 200 nautical miles southwest of Ireland. By the 14th, the low was centred over Wexford. Land-based weather stations reported gale force winds, with the strongest winds out to sea over the race area. The Meteorological Office assessed the maximum winds as force 10 on the Beaufort scale; many race competitors believed the winds to have reached force 11. Lowest pressure was 979 hPa.
The disaster and rescue mission
Over 13–14 August, 25 of the 306 yachts taking part were sunk or disabled due to high winds and "mountainous seas". The Daily Telegraph (15 August 1979, p. 1) described the situation, where "Royal Navy ships, RAF Nimrod jets, helicopters, lifeboats, a Dutch warship and other craft picked up 125 yachtsmen whose boats had been caught in force 11 violent storm strength gusts midway between Land's End and Fastnet". The effort also included tugs, trawlers, and tankers. Rescue efforts began after 6:30 am on 14 August, once the winds had dropped to severe gale Force 9.
"15 sailors died, five boats sank, and at least 75 boats flipped upside down." In any event, adopting heaving to as a storm tactic proved to be a good preventive of capsize and turtling during the race. Not one of the hove to yachts were capsized or suffered any serious damage. This seminal disaster resulted in a major rethink of racing, risks and prevention.
The winner on elapsed time in the race was the 77-foot SV Condor of Bermuda skippered by Peter Blake, which gained around 90 minutes on the leader at the Fastnet rock, the SV Kialoa by chancing a spinnaker. Jim Kilroy of the Kialoa had broken his ribs and there was damage to the yacht's runners. SV Condor of Bermuda broke the Fastnet record by nearly eight hours (71h25m23s).
Vessels that did not finish
Of the 303 starters, only 86 finished. There were 194 retirements and 24 abandonments (five of which were "lost believed sunk").
Early press reports were often confused. The Daily Telegraph reported that 69 yachts did not finish, listed here.
Main source: Daily Telegraph, p. 3, 16 August 1979.
- SV Accanito of France, broken rudder. Towed.
- SV Allamader. Abandoned.
- SV Alpha II
- SV Amanda Kulu
- SV Andiano Robin
- SV Angustura
- SV Animal
- SV Ariadne. Abandoned. *
- SV Arkadina
- SV Asteries
- SV Battle Cry
- SV Billy Bones. Abandoned.
- SV Blue Dolphin
- SV Bonaventure of Britain. Abandoned.
- SV Cabadah Ocean Wave Option
- SV Callirhaex 3. Abandoned.
- SV Camargue of Britain. Abandoned.
- SV Casse Tete
- SV Charioteer of Britain. Sunk.
- SV Corker
- SV Crazy Horse
- SV Détente
- SV Double O Two
- SV Enia
- SV Fiestina Tertia. Abandoned. *
- SV Finndabar. Abandoned.
- SV Gan. Abandoned.
- SV Gekko
- SV Golden Apple of Ireland, disabled. Abandoned. Crew rescued by RAF Lynx helicopter.
- SV Golden Leigh
- SV Good Intentions
- SV Grimalkin. Abandoned and subsequently recovered. Read John Rousmaniere's 'Fastnet, Force 10' & Nick Ward's 'Left for Dead'.
- SV Gringo. Reported as 'believed sunk'.
- SV Hestral. Abandoned. Crew of 6 rescued by Royal Navy helicopter.
- SV Hoodlum
- SV Impetuous
- SV Innovation
- SV Jan Pott of Germany, Flensburg. Broken mast.
- SV Juggernaut
- SV Kestel. Abandoned.
- SV Korsar
- SV La Barbarelle
- SV Little Ella
- SV Magic of Britain. Sunk.
- SV Maligawa III. Abandoned.
- SV Marionette VII
- SV Mexxanini
- SV Morning Cloud of Britain, broken rudder.
- SV Morning Glory
- SV Mulligatawny
- SV Mutine
- SV Pachena
- SV Pegasus
- SV Ocean Wave
- SV Option2 of France, Granville
- SV Pepsi of England
- SV Pepsi of Holland
- SV Pinball Wizard
- SV Polar Bear of Britain. Sunk. Crew rescued.
- SV Regardless of Cork, broken rudder. Assisted by LÉ Deirdre (P20). Towed by RNLB Mary Stanford
- SV Samurai II
- SV Scaldis
- SV Scaramouche. Retired and made own way back to Plymouth."Although we hadn't the satisfaction of being one of the 88 which rounded "the rock" we were content in knowing that we had brought the boat and ourselves back in one piece"-Steve Cross.
- SV Schuttevaer of Holland
- SV Silver Apple of Howth: lost steering, assisted by LÉ Deirdre (P20), made a jury steering rig, retired to Courtmacsherry under own power.
- SV Sinndkabar
- SV Skat
- SV Sophia
- SV Tam O'Shanter
- SV Tarantula of France
- SV Trophy. Abandoned.
- SV Tiderace IV. Abandoned.
- SV Wild Goose of Singapore
- SV Yachtman of Spain
- SV Zap
- SV Mulligatawny (not competing)
Craft that assisted the rescue mission
Over 4000 people aided in the rescue efforts. The Royal Navy coordinated efforts to find around 80 vessels and rescue 136 crew members.
Key contributors to the rescue
- Royal Navy
- HMS Anglesey, Island class patrol vessel
- HMS Broadsword, frigate
- HMSTY Dasher, yacht
- One other unidentified Royal Navy vessel
- RMAS Rollicker A502, ocean-going salvage tug
- RFA Tidespring, fast fleet tanker of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary
- Eight Royal Navy helicopters from RNAS Culdrose and RNAS Prestwick, including Sea Kings, Lynx helicopters and Wessex helicopters
- Four Nimrods from RAF St Mawgan in Cornwall
- Dutch Navy
- HNLMS Overijssel, destroyer
- Irish Navy
- LÉ Deirdre (P20), Deirdre class offshore patrol vessel
- United States Navy
- USS Holland (AS-32), submarine tender, Holy Loch, Scotland
- RNLB Guy and Claire Hunter, St Mary's Lifeboat, Isles of Scilly
- Baltimore Lifeboat, County Cork
- RNLB Mary Stanford, Ballycotton, County Cork
- Courtmacsherry, County Cork
- Dunmore East, County Waterford
- Lifeboat Solomon Browne 
- Seven helicopters
- Irish Air Corps
- Beechcraft Kingair maritime patrol
- Alouette helicopter
- Paul Baldwin
- Robin Bowyer
- SLt Russell Brown
- David Crisp
- Peter Dorey
- Peter Everson
- Frank Ferris
- William Le Fevre
- John Puxley
- Robert Robie
- David Sheahan
- SLt Charles Stevenson
- Roger Watts
- Gerrit-Jan Williahey
- Gerald Winks
- Fairchild, Tony (14 August 1979) Kiaola heads for Fastnet record Daily Telegraph, p. 26
- Fairchild, Tony (15 August 1979) Killer wind gives Condor record Daily Telegraph, p. 29
- Fairchild, Tony (16 August 1979) Fastnet may be limited to fewer Yachts Daily Telegraph, p. 3.
- Rais, Guy and Bramwell, Christopher (15 August 1970) 10 die in yacht race havoc Daily Telegraph, p. 1 & 32.
- Rousmaniere, John (1980). Fastnet, Force 10: The Deadliest Storm in the History of Modern Sailing (Paperback ). New York: W. W. Norton & Company (April 17, 2000). p. 304. ISBN 978-0393308655.
- Roy, Amit (17 August 1979). "Last of the Fastnet race yachts found". Daily Telegraph. p. .
- Siggins, Lorna (2004). "4". Mayday! Mayday! Heroic Air-Sea Rescues in Irish Waters. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan. pp. 51–52. ISBN 0-7171-3529-2.
- Wettern, Desmond (20 August 1979) Fastnet race rescue operation involved 4,000 people Daily Telegraph, p. 2.
- Forbes, Sir Hugh; Laing, Sir Maurice; Myatt, Lt. Col. James. "1979 Fastnet Race Inquiry" (PDF). Royal Yachting Association, Royal Ocean Racing Club. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- Siggins, Lorna (2004). Mayday! Mayday! Heroic Air-Sea rescues in Irish Waters. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. p. 49. ISBN 0-7171-3529-2.
- "Exceptional Weather Events: The Fastnet Disaster". Met Éireann. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
- Knox, John A.; Frye, John D.; Durkee, Joshua D.; Fuhrmann, Christopher M (1 February 2011). "Non-Convective High Winds Associated with Extratropical Cyclones" (PDF). Geography Compass 5 (2): 63–89. doi:10.1111/j.1749-8198.2010.00395.x. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
- "Fastnet 79: The Disaster that Changed Sailing (Eye witness accounts)". Yachting World. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- Rousmaniere, John (January 2000). "Revisiting Lessons from the Fastnet". SailNet.com. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- Pardey, Lin (2008). Storm Tactics Handbook, 3rd Ed., Modern methods of heaving-to for survival in extreme conditions. Arcata, California: Pardey Books. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-92921-447-1.
- 1979 RORC Fastnet Race Inquiry report p7 table 1.2
- Siggins p50
- Corin, John; Farr, Grahame (1983). Penlee Lifeboat. Penzance: Penlee & Penzance Branch of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution. p. 120. ISBN 0-9508611-0-3.
- "1979: Freak storm hits yacht race". BBC News. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- Yachting World: Fastnet 1979
- Forbes, Sir Hugh; Laing, Sir Maurice; Myatt, Lt. Col. James (1979). "1979 Fastnet Race Inquiry" (PDF). Royal Yachting Association, Royal Ocean Racing Club. Retrieved 3 July 2012.]
- Photographs of the sea conditions