1979 in paleontology

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Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because mankind has encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred in the year 1979.

Archosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named dinosaurs[edit]

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list.[2]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images
Dravidosaurus[3] Valid taxon
  • Yadagiri
  • Ayyasami

Coniacian

Trichinopoly Group

 India

Either a stegosaur or a plesiosaur.

"Gadolosaurus"[4] Nomen nudum.
  • Saito
Gilmoreosaurus[5] Valid taxon

late Campanian-early Maastrichtian

Iren Dabasu Formation

 China

A hadrosauroid.

Gravitholus[6] Junior synonym of Stegoceras.
  • Wall

Judithian

Dinosaur Park Formation

 Canada

A pachycephalosaur.

Maiasaura[7] Valid taxon
  • Makela

Judithian

Upper Two Medicine Formation

 United States

The announcement of Maiasaura attracted renewed scientific interest to the Two Medicine Formation and many new kinds of dinosaurs have been discovered as a result of the increased research.[8]

Majungatholus[9] Junior synonym of Majungasaurus.

Maastrichtian

Maevarano Formation

 Madagascar

Formerly considered a pachycephalosaur, actually an abelisaurid.

Microhadrosaurus[10] Nomen dubium.

Campanian

Yuanpu Formation

 China

A hadrosaurid.

Mussaurus[11] Valid taxon
  • Vince

Norian

Laguna Colorada Formation

 Argentina

An anchisaurian more closely related to sauropods.

Nanshiungosaurus[12] Valid taxon

Campanian

Yuanpu Formation

 China

A therizinosaur.

Patagosaurus[13] Valid taxon

Callovian

Canadon Asfalto Formation

 Argentina

A sauropod.

Piatnitzkysaurus[13] Valid taxon

Callovian

Canadon Asfalto Formation

 Argentina

A piatnitzkysaurid.

Secernosaurus[14] Valid taxon

late Campanian-early Maastrichtian

Upper Bajo Barreal Formation
Los Alamitos Formation

 Argentina

A saurolophine hadrosaurid.

Segnosaurus[15] Valid taxon

Cenomanian-Turonian

Bayan Shireh Formation

 Mongolia

A therizinosaur.

Torvosaurus[16] Valid taxon

late Kimmeridgian-Tithonian

Morrison Formation

 United States

A megalosaurid.

Unquillosaurus[17] Valid taxon

Campanian

Los Blanquitos Formation

 Argentina

A paravian.

Volkheimeria[13] Valid taxon

Callovian

Canadon Asfalto Formation

 Argentina

A sauropod.

Yandusaurus[18] Valid taxon
  • He

Oxfordian

Shangshaximiao Formation

 China

An ornithopod.

Newly named birds[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Amplibuteo hibbardi [19]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

An Accipitridae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Anas albae [20]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Dénes Jánossy

Late Pliocene

MN 15-16-17

 Hungary

An Anatidae.

Anas amotape [19]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

An Anatidae.

Anas sanctaehelenae [19]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Early Pleistocene;

Late Pleistocene

La Carolina

 Ecuador

An Anatidae.

Anas talarae [19]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Early Pleistocene;

Late Pleistocene

Argentina: Centinale del Mar;

Talara Tar Seeps

 Argentina;

 Peru

An Anatidae, transferred to the genus Callonetta Delacour, 1936 by Agnolin, 2006.[21]

Ardea bennuides [22]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Ella Hoch

Subrecent

5000 YBP

 Abu Dhabi

A giant Ardeidae, not formely described but a photo is published which keeps it from being a Nomen Nudum.

Argillipes magnus [23]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Early Middle Oligocene

MP 21-23

 UK:

 England

Described in the Catharthidae, tranfered to Aves Incertae Sedis.

Barawertornis tedfordi [24]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Patricia Vickers Rich

Late Oligocene/Early Miocene

Carl Creek Limestone

 Australia:

 Queensland

A Dromornithidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Belonopterus edmundi [19]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

A Charadriidae.

Bubo longaevus [25]

Sp. nov.

Valid

A. S. Umanskaya

Late Miocene

MN 11-13

 Ukraine

A Strigidae, transferred to the genus Asio Brisson, 1760 by Mlíkovský, 1998.[26]

Bullockornis planei [24]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Patricia Vickers Rich

Middle-Late Miocene

Camfield Beds

 Australia:

 Northern Territory

A Dromornithidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Caprimulgus piurensis [19]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

A Caprimulgidae.

Cayaoa bruneti [27]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Eduardo P. Tonni

Late Oligocene-Miocene

 Argentina

An Anatidae.

Corvus simionescui [28]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Jenö Kessler

Early Pliocene

MN 15

 Romania

A Corvidae, possibly a synonym of Corvus corone Linnaeus, 1758.

Cuculus csarnotanus [20]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Dénes Jánossy

Early Pliocene

MN 15

 Hungary

A Cuculidae.

Dege hendeyi [29]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

George G. Simpson

Late Miocene-Early Pliocene

Varswater Formation

 South Africa

A Spheniscidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Dromornis stirtoni [24]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Patricia Vickers Rich

Late Miocene-Early Pliocene

Alcoota Homestead

 Australia:

 Northern Territory

A Dromornithidae.

Eudocimus peruvianus [19]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

A Threskiornithidae.

Gallinago veterior [20]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Dénes Jánossy

Early Pliocene

MN 15

 Hungary

A Scolopacidae.

Geronogyps reliquus [19]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

A Cathartidae.

Glareola neogena [30]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Peter Ballmann

Middle Miocene

MN 6

 Germany:

 Bavaria

An Glareolidae.

Gymnogyps howardae [19]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

A Cathartidae.

Ilbandornis? lawsoni [24]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Patricia Vickers Rich

Late Miocene-Early Pliocene

Alcoota Homestead

 Australia:

 Northern Territory

A Dromornithidae, not certainly an Ilbandornis Rich, 1979.

Ilbandornis woodburnei [24]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Patricia Vickers Rich

Late Miocene-Early Pliocene

Alcoota Homestead

 Australia:

 Northern Territory

A Dromornithidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Latipons gardneri [31]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Middle Eocene

MP 11-13

 UK:

 England

A Rallidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Latipons robinsoni [31]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Middle Eocene

MP 11-13

 UK:

 England

A Rallidae.

Litoripes medius [31]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Middle Eocene

MP 11-13

 UK:

 England

Described in the Phasianidae, but transferred by Mlíkovský, 2002.[32] to Aves Incertae Sedis, this is the type species of the new genus.

Micropalama chapmani [19]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

A Scolopacidae.

Milvago brodkorbi [19]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

A Falconidae.

Milvoides kempi [31]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Middle Eocene

MP 11-13

 UK:

 England

Described as an Accipitridae,known omly from a damaged distal end of a right tarsometatarsus, making it not possible to identify it, better treated as Aves Incertae Sedis, this is the type species of the new genus.

Mioglareola gregaria [30]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Peter Ballmann

Early Miocene Czech Republic;

Middle Miocene Germany

MN 4b;

MN 6

 Czech Republic;

 Germany:

 Bavaria

An Glareolidae, it is the type species of the new genus.

Miootis compactus [33]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

A. S. Umanskaya

Late Miocene

MN 13

 Ukraine

An Otididae, it is the type species of the new genus.

Miraquila terrestris [19]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

An Accipitridae, transferred to the genus Buteogallus Lesson, 1830 by Suárez et Olson, 2009,[34] this is the type species of the new genus.

Nannonetta invisitata [19]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

An Anatidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Nucleornis insolitus [35]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

George G. Simpson

Miocene

Duinefontein

 South Africa

A Spheniscidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Nuntius solitarius [19]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

A Scolopacidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Oligocathartes olsoni [23]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Early Middle Oligocene

MP 21-23

 UK:

 England

Described in the Catharthidae, but the holotype is too fragmentary for indentification so best treated as Aves Incertae Sedis.

Palaeopapia hamsteadiensis [23]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Early Middle Oligocene

MP 21-23

 UK:

 England

An Anseriformes Incertae Sedis.

Paracathartes howardae [36]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Early Eocene

Greybullian, Middle Wasatchian, Willwood Formation

 USA:

 Wyoming

Described as a Cathartidae, Houde 1988 placed it in the Lithornithiformes, Houde, 1988, Lithornithidae Houde, 1988,[37] it is the type species of the new genus.

Paracygnopterus scotti [23]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid ?

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Early Middle Oligocene

MP 21-23

 UK:

 England

An Anatidae, it is the type species of the new genus.

Parvirallus gracilis [31]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Middle Eocene

MP 11-13

 UK:

 England

A Rallidae.

Percolinus proudlocki [31]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Middle Eocene

MP 11-13

 UK:

 England

Described as a Phasianidae, transferred to the genus Talantatos Reichenbach, 1852 and placed in the Cariamidae door Mlíkovský, 2002.[32]

Phalacrocorax tanzaniae [38]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Early-Middle Pleistocene

Kamasian

 Tanzania

A Phalacrocoracidae.

Porzana estramosi [20]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Dénes Jánossy

Middle Miocene

MN 6-8

 Hungary

A Rallidae.

Proanser major [33]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

A. S. Umanskaya

Late Miocene

MN 11

 Ukraine

An Anatidae, it is the type species of the new genus.

Proardeola walkeri [39]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Early Miocene

MN 2a

 France

An Ardeidae, it is the type species of the new genus.

Proceriavis martini [23]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid ?

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Early Middle Oligocene

MP 21-23

 UK:

 England

Described as an Eleutherornithidae, based on a fragment of a cervical vertebra, best treated as Aves Incertae Sedis, it is the type species of the new genus.

Sarcoramphus? fisheri [19]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

A Cathartidae, not certain to be a Sarcoramphus Duméril, 1806.

Scolopax baranensis [20]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Dénes Jánossy

Early Pliocene

MN 15

 Hungary

A Scolopacidae.

Steganopus graui [19]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

A Phalaropodidae.

Syrigma sanctimartini [19]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

An Ardeidae.

Theristicus wetmorei [19]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

A Threskiornithidae.

Thinocorus koepckeae [19]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

A Thinocoridae.

Tringa ameghini [19]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

A Scolopacidae.

Turdoides borealis [20]

Sp. nov.

Valid ?

Dénes Jánossy

Early Pliocene

MN 15

 Hungary

The holotype is a heavely eroded proximal part of a left humerus, best placed in Passeriformes Incertae Sedis.

Valenticarbo praetermissus [40]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid ?

Colin J. O. Harrison

Late Pliocene

Siwalik complex

 India

A Phalacrocoracidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Viator picis [19]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Late Pleistocene

Talara Tar Seeps

 Peru

A Charadriidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Plesiosaurs[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Status Authors Notes

Dravidosaurus

Valid

Yadagiri Ayyasami

Valid

Synapsids[edit]

Non-mammalian[edit]

Name Status Authors Discovery year Age Unit Location Notes Images

'

Valid

'

Valid

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716. 
  2. ^ Olshevsky, George. "Dinogeorge's Dinosaur Genera List". Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  3. ^ Yadagiri, P. and K. Ayyasami. 1979. A new Stegosaurian dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous sediments of South India. J. Geol. Soc. India 20 (2): pp. 521-530.
  4. ^ Saito, T. 1979. Wonder of the World's Dinosaurs. Kodansha Publishers, Tokyo (Plate 71).
  5. ^ Brett-Surman, M.K. 1979. Phylogeny and paleobiogeography of hadrosaurian dinosaurs. Nature 277: pp. 560-562.
  6. ^ Wall, W P. and P.M. Galton. 1979. Notes on pachycephalosaurid dinosaurs (Reptilla: Ornithischia) from North America, with comments on their status as ornithopods. Can. J. Earth Sci. 16: pp. 1176-1186.
  7. ^ Horner, J.R. and R. Makela. 1979. Nest of juveniles provides evidence of family structure among dinosaurs. Nature. 282: pp. 296-298.
  8. ^ "Introduction," Trexler (2001); pages 299-300.
  9. ^ Sues, H.-D. and P. Taquet. 1979. A pachycephalosaurid dinosaur from Madagascar and a Laurasia-Gondwanaland connection in the Cretaceous. Nature 279: pp. 633-635.
  10. ^ Dong, Z. 1979. Cretaceous Dinosaurs of Hunan, in Mesozoic-Cenozoic Redbeds of Hunan. Palaeontologica Sinica: pp.346-347.
  11. ^ Bonaparte J.F. and M. Vince. 1979. El hallazgo del primer nido de dinosaurios triasicos, (Saurischia, Prosauropoda), Triásico superior de Patagonia, Argentina. Ameghiniana Revista de la Asociación Paleontológica Argentina 16 (1-2): pp. 173-182.
  12. ^ Dong, Z. 1979. The Cretaceous dinosaur fossils in southern China. In: Mesozoic and Cenozoic Red Beds in Southern China. Inst. Vert. Paleontol. Paleoanthropol. Nanjing Geol. Paleontol. Inst. Sci.. Press, Beijing: pp.342-350.
  13. ^ a b c Bonaparte, J.F. 1979. Dinosaurs: A Jurassic assembalge from Patagonia. Science 205: pp. 1377-1379.
  14. ^ Brett-Surman, M. K. 1979. Phylogeny and paleobiogeography of hadrosaurian dinosaurs. Nature 277: pp. 560-562.
  15. ^ Perle A. 1979. Segnosauridae - A new family of theropods from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. Sovm. Soviet-Mongolean Paleontol. Eksped. Trudy 8: pp. 45-55.
  16. ^ Galton, P.M. and J.A. Jensen. 1979. A new large theropod dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic of Colorado. Brigham Young University Geology Studies. 26 (2): pp. 1-12.
  17. ^ Powell, J.E. 1979. Sobre una asociacion de dinosaurios y otras evidencias de vertebrados del Cretacico superior de la region de La Candelaria, Prov. de Salta, Argentina. Ameghiniana 16: pp. 191-204.
  18. ^ He X. 1979. A newly discovered ornithopod dinosaur Yandusaurus from Zigong. Sichuan. In: Contribution to International Exchange of Geology. Part 2. Stratigraphy and paleontology. Geol. publishing House, Beijing: pp. 116-123.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr. (1979). "The Non-Passerine Pleistocene Avifauna of the Talara Tar Seeps, Northwestern Peru". Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sciences Contribution 118: 1–203. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f Dénes Jánossy (1979). "Plio-Pleistocene Bird Remains from the Carpathian Basin. IV. Anseriformes, Gruiformes, Charadriiformes, Passeriformes". Aquila 85: 11–39. 
  21. ^ Federico L. Agnolin (2006). "Dos Nuevos Anatidae (Aves, Anseriformes) del Pleistoceno Inferior-medio de Argentina". Stvdia Geologica Salmanticensia 42: 81–95. 
  22. ^ Ella Hoch (1979). "Reflections on prehistoric life at Umm an-Nar (Trucial Oman) based on faunal remains from the third millennium". in M. Taddei (ed.) South Asian Archaeology 1977, vol. I and II. Naples: 589–638. 
  23. ^ a b c d e Colin J. O. Harrison & Cyril A. Walker (1979). "Birds of the British Lower Oligocene". Tertiary Research Special Papers 5: 29–43. 
  24. ^ a b c d e Patricia Vickers Rich (1979). "The Dromornithidae: An Extinct Family of Large Ground Birds Endemic to Australia". Department of National Development Bureau of National Resources, Geology and Geophysics Bulletin 184: 1–196. 
  25. ^ A. S. Umanskaya (1979). "Novyj vid filina (Bubo longaevus) iz pozdneneogenovych otloženij severnogo Pričernomor'ja USSR [New species of a horned owl (Bubo longaevus) from the late Neogene deposits of northern Pričernomor'e in the Ukrainian SSR.]". Dopovidi Akademiji Nauk Ukrajins'koji RSR (B) 1979: 779–782. 
  26. ^ Jíří Mlíkovský (1998). "Two New Owls (Aves: Strigidae) from the Early Miocene of the Czech Republic, with Comments on the Fossil History of the Subfamily Striginae". Buteo 10: 5–21. 
  27. ^ Eduardo P. Tonni (1979). "Un Nuevo Anseriforme de Sedimentos Marinos Terciarios de Chubut, Argentina". Hornero 12 (1): 11–15. 
  28. ^ Jenö Kessler (1979). "Noi Date Paleornitologice din Pliocenul României". Nymphaea, Folia Naturae Bihariae 7: 135–138. 
  29. ^ George G. Simpson (1979). "A New Genus of Late Tertiary Penguin from Langebaanweg, South Africa". Annals of the South African Museum 78 (1): 1–9. 
  30. ^ a b Peter Ballmann (1979). "Fossile Glareolidae aus dem Miozän des Nördlinger Ries (Southern Germany) (Aves: Charadriifores)". Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 30: 52–101. 
  31. ^ a b c d e f Colin J. O. Harrison & Cyril A. Walker (1979). "Birds of the British Middle Eocene". Tertiary Research Special Papers 50: 19–26. 
  32. ^ a b Jíří Mlíkovský (2002). "Cenozoic Birds of the World Part 1: Europe". Praha Ninox Press 13: 1–407. 
  33. ^ a b A. S. Umanskaya (1979). "Miotsenovyye Ptitsy Zapadnogo Prichernomor'ya USSR. Soobshcheniye I. [The Miocene Birds from the Western Black Sea Littoral of the UkrSSR. Communication I.]". Vestnik Zoologii, Nauchnyy Zhurnal Instituta Zoologii Imeni I. I. Shmal'gauzena Akademii Nauk Ukrainskoy SSR 13: 40–45. 
  34. ^ William Suárez Duque & Storrs L. Olson (2009). "The Generic Position of Miraquila terrestris Campbell: Another Addition to the Buteogalline Radiation from the Pleistocene of Peru". Journal of Raptor Research 43 (3): 249–253. 
  35. ^ George G. Simpson (1979). "Tertiary Penguins from the Duinefontein Site, Cape Province, South Africa". Annals of the South African Museum 79 (1): 1–7. 
  36. ^ Colin J. O. Harrison (1979). "A New Cathartid Vulture from the Lower Eocene of Wyoming". Tertiary Research Special Papers 5: 7–10. 
  37. ^ Peter W. Houde (1988). "Paleognathous Birds from the Early Tertiary of the Northern Hemisphere". Publication of the Nuttall Ornithological Club 22: 1–148. 
  38. ^ Colin J. O. Harrison & Cyril A. Walker (1979). "A Recent and an Extinct Cormorant Species from the Middle Pleistocene of Tanzania". Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology 50: 182–183. 
  39. ^ Colin J. O. Harrison (1979). "The Herons (Ardeidae) of the Old World Lower Tertiary". Tertiary Research Special Papers 5: 11–17. 
  40. ^ Colin J. O. Harrison (1979). "The Pliocene Siwalik Cormorant". Tertiary Research 2 (2): 57–58. 

References[edit]

  • Trexler, D., 2001, Two Medicine Formation, Montana: geology and fauna: In: Mesozoic Vertebrate Life, edited by Tanke, D. H., and Carpenter, K., Indiana University Press, pp. 298–309.