1982 Indianapolis 500

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
66th Indianapolis 500
Indy500winningcar1982.JPG
Indianapolis Motor Speedway
Indianapolis 500
Sanctioning body USAC
Season 1981-82 USAC season
1982 CART season
Date May 30, 1982
Winner Gordon Johncock
Winning team Patrick Racing
Average speed 162.029 mph (260.760 km/h)
Pole position Rick Mears
Pole speed 207.004 mph (333.141 km/h)
Fastest qualifier Mears
Rookie of the Year Jim Hickman
Most laps led Rick Mears (77)
Pre-race ceremonies
National anthem Louis Sudler
"Back Home Again in Indiana" Louis Sudler
Starting Command Mary F. Hulman
Pace car Chevrolet Camaro Z28 coupé
Pace car driver Jim Rathmann
Attendance 250,000 (estimated)
TV in the United States
Network ABC
Announcers Jim McKay and Sam Posey
Nielsen Ratings 12.3 / 25
Chronology
Previous Next
1981 1983

The 66th Indianapolis 500 was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Sunday, May 30, 1982. Gordon Johncock, who had previously won the rain-shortened 1973 race, was the winner. Rick Mears finished second by a margin of 0.16 seconds, the closest finish in Indy 500 history to that point.

In racing circles, the 1982 race is largely considered one of the best 500s in history, although it was marred by the fatal crash of Gordon Smiley during time trials. Johncock and Mears dueled over most of the final 40 laps, with Johncock holding off Mears on the final lap in a historic victory. The race is also remembered for a controversial crash at the start triggered by Kevin Cogan, which took out Mario Andretti, damaged the car of A. J. Foyt, and caused the crash of two other cars.

Officially the race was part of the 1981-82 USAC season, however, most of the entrants took part in the 1982 CART/PPG Indy Car World Series. Championship points for the 1982 Indy 500 were not awarded towards the CART title.

For the first and only time in Indy history, a trio of brothers qualified for the same race. Don, Bill, and Dale Whittington all made the field, however Dale crashed out before the start, and never completed a single lap in his career. Four-time winner A. J. Foyt started on the front row, celebrating his record 25th career Indy 500 start.

Race schedule[edit]

Race schedule — April 1982
Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat
4
 
5
 
6
 
7
ROP
8
ROP
9
ROP
10
ROP
Race schedule — May 1982
            1
 
2
 
3
 
4
 
5
 
6
 
7
 
8
Practice
9
Practice
10
Practice
11
Practice
12
Practice
13
Practice
14
Practice
15
Pole Day
16
Time Trials
17
Practice
18
Practice
19
Practice
20
Practice
21
Practice
22
Time Trials
23
Bump Day
24
 
25
 
26
 
27
Carb Day
28
Mini-Marathon
29
Parade
30
Indy 500
31
Memorial Day
         
Color Notes
Green Practice
Dark Blue Time trials
Silver Race day
Red Rained out
Blank No track activity

* Includes days where track activity
was significantly limited due to rain

ROP — denotes Rookie Orientation Program

Time trials[edit]

Among many stories going into the 1982 month of May was the return of A. J. Foyt to the cockpit. In July 1981, Foyt had been involved in a serious crash at the Michigan 500, suffering a compound fracture to his right arm, and a puncture wound to his leg.[1] Foyt was sidelined for several months for recovery.

One major rule change regarding time trials was implemented for 1982. All cars would be allowed only two warm up laps for qualifying, down from three, which had been the rule since 1946.[2]

Pole day — Death of Gordon Smiley[edit]

On pole day, Saturday May 15, Kevin Cogan, driving for Penske Racing set a new one-lap track record of 204.638 mph (329.333 km/h), and a record four-lap average of 204.082 mph (328.438 km/h). A few minutes later, he was beaten by his Penske teammate Rick Mears. Mears secured the pole position with a four-lap average of 207.004 mph (333.141 km/h).

About an hour later, the time trials were marred by the horrific fatal accident of Gordon Smiley. At 12:15 p.m., Smiley left the pits to start his qualifying run. On his second (of two) warm up laps, he approached turn three. The back-end became loose, and Smiley overcorrected. The front wheels suddenly gained traction, the car turned and crashed head-on into the concrete wall at about 200 mph (320 km/h). The fuel tank exploded with a large fireflash, the car disintegrated into thousands of pieces and three large sections, and most of the shattered car went airborne for at least 50 feet (15 m). Smiley's exposed body tumbled amongst the scattered debris for hundreds of feet through the short-chute connecting turns 3 and 4. The appalling violence of the accident meant that Smiley died instantly from massive trauma inflicted by the severe impact, and the impact of Smiley's accident was so violent and so extreme, that the crash looked like that of an aircraft crash- there were pieces of the car strewn all over the track on the short straight between Turns 3 and 4. The poor impact resistance of the material the car used meant that Smiley simply had no chance of survival- nearly every bone in his body had been shattered. His helmet was pulled from his head during the impact, and the top of his skull was scalped by the debris fence and asphalt. His death was the first at Indy since 1973, and to date, the last during a qualification attempt.[3]

About 33 minutes after the wreck; at precisely 12:48 PM, the track's announcer for the fans Tom Carnegie learned of Smiley's fate for the first time. He immediately informed the fans watching from the grandstands: "Ladies and gentlemen... it is with our deepest regrets that we announce the passing of Gordon Smiley."

The track remained closed for over two hours after the crash. The catch fencing needed repair, debris littered the track, and a patch of asphalt was required to repair a gash in the racing surface. After over two hours, a couple cars were dispatched by the officials to test the pavement, and they deemed it suitable for qualifying to resume. Several cars went out over the next two hours, but none challenged the speed records set earlier in the morning. In a solemn mood, qualifying came to a halt around 4:55 p.m., with just over an hour left in the session.

At the close of pole day, the field was filled to 20 cars.

Second day[edit]

After the tragic circumstances of the previous day, few drivers took to the track on Sunday May 16. A very uneventful day saw only a handful of cars even take practice laps. Only a few cars made qualifying attempts and only two were run to completion. Rain ended the session a few minutes early, and the field was filled to 22 cars.

Third day[edit]

The second week of practice saw increased track activity. The third day of time trials was scheduled for Saturday May 22. A busy day of qualifying saw the field filled to 31 cars. Mike Chandler was fastest of the day at 198.042 mph (318.718 km/h).

Bump day[edit]

On Sunday May 23, the field was left with two empty positions at the start of the day. Several drivers intended to make attempts but few actually took to the track. Josele Garza and Pete Halsmer went out and quickly filled the field. Only two cars were bumped all day, and despite the track being open until 6 p.m., no drivers went out after 4:03 p.m. With two hours left in the day, Desiré Wilson announced she would not make an attempt, and thus would not have a chance to become the second female to qualify at Indy.

Kevin Cogan crash[edit]

Car of Kevin Cogan (designated car #4 for the 1982 Indianapolis 500; designated car #1 when driven in other races by Rick Mears)

On race day, Kevin Cogan started from the middle of the front row, next to pole-sitter Mears, and A.J. Foyt. As the field approached the start/finish line to start the race, Cogan suddenly swerved right, touching and bouncing off of A.J. Foyt's car. He then slid directly into the path of, and collected, Mario Andretti. Deeper in the field, the cars started to check-up. A fast-moving Dale Whittington nearly collected Geoff Brabham, lost control, spun across the track and ran into the back of Roger Mears. Both cars were eliminated. Bobby Rahal also reported getting hit from behind, but was undamaged. The green flag had not come out, and the race was immediately red flagged.

Cogan's shocking accident took out four cars, including himself. Foyt's team was able to make repairs, and pushed his car out for the restart attempt. Meanwhile, Andretti and Foyt were furious and outspoken about their displeasure with Cogan. Andretti shunned Cogan's attempts to explain himself with a light shove.

Andretti on live radio and television[4] made the comment:

Back in the garage area, Andretti complained about Cogan's abilities, claiming that Cogan was "looking for trouble,"[5] that he "couldn't handle the responsibilities of the front row,"[5] and that the Penske car he was driving was "too good for him."[5]

The commonly outspoken Foyt also chimed in during comments to ABC-TV's Chris Economaki with:[4]

After he had cooled off, Foyt brushed it off a little saying "the guy pulled a stupid trick"[6] and then back in the garage area[5][7] of the crash and of Cogan that:

Johnny Rutherford[5][6] and Bobby Unser[4] later placed some blame of the incident on the polesitter Rick Mears, for bringing the field down at such a slow pace. Director of competition Roger McCluskey mentioned an overwhelming disdain from the drivers about the poor pace set at the start.[6] Mears contended that his intentions were to keep the same pace, rather than radically speed up and slow down.[6] Gordon Johncock pointed out that Andretti had jumped the start, and could have avoided the spinning car of Cogan had he been lined up properly in the second row.[7] Neither observation gained much attention.

Aftermath[edit]

Cogan quickly fell out of favor following the humiliation stemming from the accident. It was followed by a noticeable "blacklisting" by fans and press. Cogan nearly had the dubious distinction of taking out two of the most famous American auto racing legends and the two most successful IndyCar drivers of all time (Foyt and Andretti) on the first lap, in one move, in the biggest race of the season. The incident also further rehashed a standing feud between Penske Racing and Patrick Racing. A year earlier, Penske and Patrick had been the key fixtures in the controversial 1981 race.

Cogan did not manage to win a race in 1982, and was possibly fired by Roger Penske because of it.[8]

The accident was never explained by the Penske team. Derrick Walker the team manager at the time, claimed that they found "no cause" for the accident.[9] However, several experts had differing opinions. Rodger Ward, working for the IMS Radio Network immediately believed the rear brakes locked up.[6] It was a common practice for drivers in the turbocharged era to "ride the brakes" during warm up laps in order to engage the turbocharger. Others theorized it may have happened due to a broken CV joint or halfshaft. Fellow drivers such as Johnny Rutherford and Gordon Johncock suggested that due to the slow start, Cogan may have been in first gear, and when he accelerated, the back end simply car came around.[6] Some feel that Sam Posey on ABC-TV inadvertently may have added to the controversy when he proclaimed "absolutely no idea" to the question of how it could have happened,[4] and saying "it was as if he turned the wheel intentionally."[4] The comments led many to conclude, albeit unfairly, that the accident may have been entirely of Cogan's doing. As soon as he climbed from the car, Cogan was observed looking at the rear end axle, suggesting that he thought something broke.

One year later, in an autobiography detailing his career up to that point, Foyt gave a somewhat more analytical account of what occurred than he had before, while still assigning Cogan nearly all of the responsibility. According to Foyt, the slow straightaway pace previously noted by Unser and Rutherford had been beneath the power-amplification threshold of the turbocharger, which provides a progressively higher energy boost to the engine the higher the engine's RPM. Due to the pace, competitors had to run in lower gears much later than they normally did when approaching the start. Cogan, Foyt in turn maintained, had intended to jump both he and Mears into the first turn through the 'stupid trick' of using lower gears, via the significantly faster acceleration they provided compared to higher gears. When Mears' insufficient pace precluded this strategy, Foyt accused Cogan of simply 'jump[ing] on it' early, even before the green flag had fully come out, whereby the resulting explosive power increase caused the car to veer sideways and '[get] away from him'. Any broken half shaft, Foyt finally stated, was merely due to the subsequently unavoidable collision with Andretti.[10]

Years later Donald Davidson, the historian for the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, mentioned that team driver, and the more experienced, Rick Mears had a nearly identical accident during private testing at Michigan.[11][12][13] The accident was never disclosed to the public, even though it could have vindicated Cogan. In 2009, Roger Penske seemed to brush off ideas, stating "Cogan said something broke, I don't know whether it did or didn't."[14]

Race running[edit]

First half[edit]

According to the rules, the cars are required to maintain a minimum fuel economy of 1.8 miles per gallon. To complete two parade laps, one pace lap, and the 200 laps for the race, each car is allotted 280 US gallons (1,100 L) of methanol fuel in their pitside tank. Due to the aborted start, officials took the time to replenish approximately 5.6 US gallons (21 L) of fuel to each team's pitside tank.

Overall, the delay stemming from the Cogan accident lasted over 45 minutes. Only 29 cars lined up for the second start attempt.

A. J. Foyt took the lead at the start. It was the first time in his 25-year Indy career that he led the first lap of the race. After the hasty repairs from the Cogan incident, Foyt's car was precariously unproven, yet Foyt made no effort to "feel his car out" before charging into the lead. Meanwhile, popular second-year driver Josele Garza barely completed the first lap, and dropped out with an oil leak.

Rick Mears soon established himself as the fastest car in the field, and found the lead in the first half.

A. J. Foyt's day ended just short of the midway point. A failed transmission linkage prevented him from pulling out of the pits. Foyt famously climbed from the cockpit, grabbed a hammer and a screwdriver, and started pounding away at the rear mechanics of the car. His attempts were futile, and the car was wheeled back to the garage area. Foyt revealed, during an interview immediately thereafter, that the Cogan crash had damaged the car's toe in alignment, and that it had been handling poorly all race up to that point. The 1982 race would be the final Indy 500 Foyt would lead during his driving career.

Finish[edit]

Gordon Johncock leads Rick Mears in the closing stages of the race.

With less than 20 laps to go, Gordon Johncock led Rick Mears. Most of the balance of the field was eliminated, or running several laps behind. The two cars were running right together, and had developed into a late-race duel. Both drivers needed to make one final pit stop to make it to the finish.

With 18 laps to go Mears ducked into the pits. The car of Herm Johnson slowed in front, and Mears bumped into his back wheel. The incident cost Mears several seconds. In his pit box, Mears Penske crew proceeded to fill his car full with 40 US gallons (150 L) of fuel, more than enough needed to make it to the finish. No tires were changed, and no repairs were necessary from hitting Johnson's car.

Two laps later, Johncock dove into the pits. He precariously diced around a backmarker and slid into his pit box. The Patrick Racing crew conducted a timed pit stop. The team calculated the amount of fuel needed to make it to the finish. When enough fuel had flowed into the car, a pit crew member tapped the fuel man on the back with a stick, and he disengaged. Johncock pulled away, with a pit stop many seconds quicker than Mears'.

Back on the track, Johncock held a lead of more than eleven seconds. It seemed he was cruising to his second Indy victory. However, his car's handling was starting to suffer. The light fuel load he took on was exacerbating a pushing condition.

Meanwhile, Mears' fully fueled car was heavier, and handling much better. He started closing in, more than 1 second per lap. Johncock started driving very low in the turns, trying to alleviate the pushing condition. It became clear in the waning laps that Mears was dramatically closing in on the lead. Such a circumstance was entirely unprecedented in Indy 500 history, with the exception of the 1937 race. With only 6 other cars left running, traffic was not a factor.

Mears closed to under 3 seconds with 3 laps to go. With two laps to go, the margin was less than 1 second. Johncock's car was handling so poorly in turn 3 that he mentioned afterwards that he nearly crashed.

With one lap to go, Mears pulled alongside on the mainstretch. The cars took the white flag side-by-side. Johncock refused to give up the lead. He "chop-blocked" Mears in the first turn, and stayed ahead. Mears lost considerable momentum, but began to reel Johncock back in down the backstretch. As they exited turn four, Mears tried to slingshot pass Johncock for the win. Johncock held off the challenge, and won by 0.16 seconds, the closest-ever in Indy 500 history to date. It would stand as the closest finish in race history for ten years.

Starting grid[edit]

Note: Following the Kevin Cogan crash on the pace lap, the cars of Cogan, Mario Andretti, Roger Mears, and Dale Whittington were eliminated. When the field was lined up for a second attempt to start the race, none of the four cars joined the field. Holes were left in the grid as those four spots were left vacant, with the first two rows conspicuously holding only two cars each, and only 29 cars took the green flag.

Row Inside Middle Outside
1 United States Rick Mears (W) United States Kevin Cogan United States A.J. Foyt (W)
2 United States Mario Andretti (W) United States Gordon Johncock (W) United States Bill Whittington
3 United States Tom Sneva United States Don Whittington United States Danny Ongais
4 United States Pancho Carter United States Chip Ganassi (R) United States Johnny Rutherford (W)
5 United States Danny Sullivan (R) United States Herm Johnson (R) Mexico Héctor Rebaque (R)
6 United States Al Unser (W) United States Bobby Rahal (R) United States Howdy Holmes
7 United States Roger Mears (R) Australia Geoff Brabham Australia Dennis Firestone
8 United States Michael Chandler United States Dale Whittington (R) United States Jim Hickman (R)
9 United States Johnny Parsons United States George Snider United States Tony Bettenhausen, Jr.
10 United States Jerry Sneva United States Chet Fillip (R) United States Gary Bettenhausen
11 United States Tom Bigelow United States Pete Halsmer Mexico Josele Garza
     Yellow indicates the driver was eliminated during the Cogan crash, and did not start the race
     Green indicates the driver was involved in the Cogan crash, but managed to start the race

Alternates[edit]

Failed to Qualify[edit]

Results[edit]

Finish Start No Name Qual Rank Laps Led Status
1 5 20 United States Gordon Johncock (W) 201.884 5 200 57 Running
2 1 1 United States Rick Mears (W) 207.003 1 200 77 Running
3 10 3 United States Pancho Carter 198.950 10 199 0 Flagged
4 7 7 United States Tom Sneva 201.028 7 197 31 Engine
5 16 10 United States Al Unser (W) 195.567 23 197 0 Flagged
6 8 91 United States Don Whittington 200.725 8 196 2 Flagged
7 24 42 United States Jim Hickman (R) 196.217 18 189 0 Flagged
8 12 5 United States Johnny Rutherford (W) 197.066 16 187 0 Engine
9 14 28 United States Herm Johnson (R) 195.929 19 186 0 Flagged
10 18 30 United States Howdy Holmes 194.469 32 186 0 Flagged
11 17 19 United States Bobby Rahal (R) 194.700 29 174 0 Engine
12 30 8 United States Gary Bettenhausen 195.673 22 158 0 Engine
13 15 52 Mexico Héctor Rebaque (R) 195.684 21 150 0 Fire
14 13 53 United States Danny Sullivan (R) 196.292 17 148 0 Crash T4
15 11 12 United States Chip Ganassi (R) 197.705 13 147 0 Engine
16 6 94 United States Bill Whittington 201.658 6 121 0 Engine
17 22 68 United States Michael Chandler 198.042 12 104 0 Gearbox
18 31 27 United States Tom Bigelow 194.784 28 96 0 Engine
19 3 14 United States A.J. Foyt (W) 203.332 3 95 32 Transmission
20 25 34 United States Johnny Parsons 195.929 20 92 0 Spin
21 26 35 United States George Snider 195.493 24 87 0 Engine
22 9 25 United States Danny Ongais 199.148 9 62 1 Crash T2
23 28 69 United States Jerry Sneva 195.270 26 61 0 Crash T2
24 29 39 United States Chet Fillip (R) 194.879 27 60 0 Crash T2
25 32 66 United States Pete Halsmer 194.595 30 38 0 Transmission
26 27 16 United States Tony Bettenhausen, Jr. 195.429 25 37 0 Crash FS
27 21 75 Australia Dennis Firestone 197.217 15 37 0 Rear End
28 20 21 Australia Geoff Brabham 198.906 11 12 0 Engine
29 33 55 Mexico Josele Garza 194.500 31 1 0 Engine
30 2 4 United States Kevin Cogan 204.082 2 0 0 Crash FS
31 4 40 United States Mario Andretti (W) 203.172 4 0 0 Crash FS
32 19 31 United States Roger Mears (R) 194.154 33 0 0 Crash FS
33 23 95 United States Dale Whittington (R) 197.694 14 0 0 Crash FS

Legacy[edit]

The 1982 Indianapolis 500 is often considered one of the greatest editions of the race by historians, media, and fans. Race winner Gordon Johncock, who won the tragic 1973 race, was able to complement his record by winning one of the most exciting races. The win was bittersweet, however, for Johncock. The day after the race, Johncock's mother Frances died after a lengthy illness. Johncock learned of her death at the 500 Victory Banquet Monday night.[15][16]

Kevin Cogan, who was a key fixture in the opening lap accident, was fired at the end of the season. Mario Andretti's misfortune, strengthened the perceived Andretti curse at Indy.

Despite the historic battle at the finish, and the shocking crash at the start, the horrific fatal crash of Gordon Smiley still marred the month. Smiley's crash came just one week after the fatal crash of Gilles Villeneuve at the Belgian Grand Prix at Zolder. About two months later, Jim Hickman was killed at Milwaukee. In just three months, three high-profile drivers were killed in auto racing accidents.

Broadcasting[edit]

Radio[edit]

The race was carried live on the IMS Radio Network. Paul Page served as anchor for the sixth year. Lou Palmer reported from victory lane. Several assignments were shifted, and a new member was added, Sally Larvick, who served as a roving reporter, interviewing celebrities and other dignitaries. At the start of the race, roving reporter Bob Forbes rode in one of the pace cars on the parade lap. Howdy Bell moved to the backstretch. Doug Zink moved from turn three to turn two, and Larry Henry took over the third turn position.

For 1982, the famous commercial out cue of the network was changed to "Now stayed turned for the Greatest Spectacle in Sports."

The broadcast crew was critically acclaimed for their collective call of the closing laps of the 1982 race.

Indianapolis Motor Speedway Radio Network
Booth Announcers Turn Reporters Pit/garage reporters

Chief Announcer: Paul Page
Driver expert: Rodger Ward
Statistician: John DeCamp
Historian: Donald Davidson

Turn 1: Ron Carrell
Turn 2: Doug Zink
Backstretch: Howdy Bell
Turn 3: Larry Henry
Turn 4: Bob Jenkins

Sally Larvick (interviews)
Bob Forbes (garages)
Jerry Baker (north pits)
Chuck Marlowe (north-center pits)
Luke Walton (south-center pits)
Lou Palmer (south pits)

Television[edit]

The race was carried in the United States on ABC Sports on a same-day tape delay basis. After controversy the previous year, Jackie Stewart was moved from the booth to a new host position in "ABC Race Central." Sam Posey returned to the booth as driver expert, and Jack Whitaker joined the crew for in-depth features and commentary. Whitaker rode along and reported live from inside the pace car at the start of the race. Clyde Lee, anchorman for WRTV, was also on hand to report on drivers who happened to drop out of the race, as well as from the infield hospital.

Producer Mike Pearl would receive an Sports Emmy award for his efforts in the telecast, which won three total.

Pole day time trials on ABC featured Al Michaels, Jackie Stewart, and Sam Posey.

The broadcast has re-aired numerous times on ESPN Classic since April 2000. In May 2004, the broadcast was featured on ESPN Classic's "Big Ticket" series, featuring interview with Gordon Johncock and Rick Mears, hosted by Gary Miller.

ABC Television
Booth Announcers Pit/garage reporters

Host: Jackie Stewart
Announcer: Jim McKay
Color: Sam Posey

Chris Economaki
Bill Flemming
Jack Whitaker (features)
Clyde Lee

Gallery[edit]

Notes[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Foyt's Condition Good
  2. ^ The Talk of Gasoline Alley - 1070-AM WIBC, May 2, 2005
  3. ^ "Rapid Response" (pp 98-99) by Dr. Steve Olvey, Indycar Medical Director between 1979 and 2003
  4. ^ a b c d e 1982 Indianapolis 500 television broadcast, ABC Sports, May 30, 1982
  5. ^ a b c d e "1982 Indianapolis 500 Daily Trackside Report" (PDF). Indianapolis Motor Speedway. 1982-05-30. Retrieved 2008-07-23. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f 1982 Indianapolis 500 radio broadcast, May 30, 1982
  7. ^ a b 1982 Indianapolis 500 broadcast, ESPN Classic, May 2006
  8. ^ Bob Varsha, on WindTunnel with Dave Despain, 10 June 2007
  9. ^ Indianapolis 500: The 80's A Decade for the Ages - Collector's Edition DVD
  10. ^ Foyt, A.J.; Neely, William (1983). "There's Never Been A Four-Time Winner---Before". A.J.: The Life of America's Greatest Race Car Driver (Warner Books). pp. 229–230. 
  11. ^ "All night race party," WIBC 1070-AM, May 30, 2004
  12. ^ "The Talk of Gasoline Alley" - WIBC, May 22, 2006
  13. ^ The Talk of Gasoline Alley - 1070-AM WIBC, May 9, 2007
  14. ^ "Centennial Era Moments - '82 Indy 500 Start". IndianapolisMotorSpeedway.com. 2009-01-26. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  15. ^ "Johncock's Mother Died". Reading Eagle. 1982-06-01. Retrieved 2012-05-07. 
  16. ^ Jaynes, Roger (1982-06-08). "Indy victory great, but...". The Milwaukee Journal. Retrieved 2012-05-07. 

Works cited[edit]

External links[edit]


1981 Indianapolis 500
Bobby Unser
1982 Indianapolis 500
Gordon Johncock
1983 Indianapolis 500
Tom Sneva