1983 in science
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The year 1983 in science and technology involved many significant events, as listed below.
- New Zealand anthropologist Derek Freeman publishes Margaret Mead and Samoa: The Making and Unmaking of an Anthropological Myth, critical of Coming of Age in Samoa (1928) by Margaret Mead (d. 1978).
Astronomy and space science
- June 13 – Pioneer 10 passes the orbit of Neptune, becoming the first man-made object to travel beyond the major planets of the solar system.
- September 26 – The Soyuz T-10-1 mission ends in a pad abort at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, when a pad fire occurs at the base of the Soyuz U rocket during the launch countdown. The escape tower system, attached to the top of the capsule containing the crew and Soyuz spacecraft, fires immediately pulling the crew safe from the vehicle, a few seconds before the rocket explodes, destroying the launch complex.
- April – Kary Mullis discovers polymerase chain reaction.
- May 20 – First reports of HIV as a possible cause of AIDS, by independent virology teams led by Luc Montagnier and Robert Gallo.
- June – First report of using a monoclonal antibody as a medical test.
- July – Determination of the first sequences of type I and type II keratins and prediction of the α-helical domain structure of intermediate filament proteins.
- January 1 – The ARPANET officially changes to use the Internet Protocol, creating the Internet.
- August – MIDI 1.0 specification for a Musical Instrument Digital Interface (originally devised by Dave Smith of Sequential Circuits) published.
- September 27 – Richard Stallman announces the GNU Project.
- November 10 – Fred Cohen demonstrates a self-replicating source code which his academic adviser at the University of Southern California, Leonard Adleman, likens to a virus.
- December – Yugoslav popular science magazine Galaksija releases a special (January 1984) issue, Računari u vašoj kući, with complete instructions on how to build a full-featured home computer, Galaksija.
- The US Federal Government standardizes Ada (programming language), a strongly typed, comb-structured computer language, with exception handlers, for general-purpose programming.
- Word processor software Multi-Tool Word, soon to become Microsoft Word, is released. Free demonstration copies on disk are distributed with the November issue of PC World magazine.
History of science
- Daniel Gorenstein (with Richard Lyons) proves the trichotomy theorem for finite simple groups of characteristic 2 type and rank at least 4, and announces that proof of the classification of finite simple groups is complete (although that for quasithin groups has not been demonstrated at this time).
- October 21 – At the seventeenth General Conference on Weights and Measures, the length of a metre is redefined as the distance light travels in vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second.
- Nobel Prizes
- Turing Award – Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie
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- February 27 – Nikolai Aleksandrovich Kozyrev, Russian astronomer and astrophysicist (b. 1908)
- March 18 – Ivan Vinogradov, Russian mathematician (b. 1891)
- May 22 – Albert Claude, Belgian biologist, co-recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974 (b. 1898)
- August 2 – Edmund Jaeger, American naturalist (b. 1887)
- October 26 – Alfred Tarski, Polish American logician and mathematician (b. 1901)
- December 6 - Bruce Irons, engineer
- Barre-Sinoussi, F.; Chermann, J.C.; Rey, F.; Nugeyre, M.T.; Chamaret, S.; Gruest, J.; Dauguet, C.; Axler-Blin, C.; Vezinet-Brun, F.; Rouzioux, C.; Rozenbaum, W.; Montagnier, L. (1983). "Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)". Science 220: 868–871. Bibcode:1983Sci...220..868B. doi:10.1126/science.6189183. PMID 6189183.
- Greener, Mark (2005). "MAbs Turn 30". The Scientist 19 (3): 14–16.
- Klotz S.A.; Drutz D.J.; Tam M.R.; Reed K.H. "Hemorrhagic proctitis due to lymphogranuloma venereum serogroup L2: Diagnosis by fluorescent monoclonal antibody". The New England Journal of Medicine 308 (26): 1563–1565. doi:10.1056/NEJM198306303082604. PMID 6602293.
- Hanukoglu, I.; Fuchs, E. (July 1983). "The cDNA sequence of a Type II cytoskeletal keratin reveals constant and variable structural domains among keratins". Cell 33 (3): 915–24. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(83)90034-X. PMID 6191871.
- Chadabe, Joel (2000-05-01). "The Electronic Century, Part IV: The Seeds of the Future". Electronic Musician (Penton Media) 16 (5). Retrieved 2012-11-28.
- On the net.unix-wizards and net.usoft newsgroups.
- Zetter, Kim (November 10, 2009). "This Day in Tech – Nov. 10, 1983: Computer ‘Virus’ Is Born". Wired. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
- Allen, Roy A. (2001). "Chapter 12: Microsoft in the 1980s". A History of the Personal Computer: the People and the Technology. Allan Publishing. pp. 12/25–12/26. ISBN 978-0-9689108-0-1. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
- "Microsoft Office online, Getting to know you...again: The Ribbon". Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "The history of branding, Microsoft history". Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- Pollack, Andrew (August 25, 1983). "Computerizing Magazines". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 May 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- Gorenstein, Daniel (1983). The classification of finite simple groups. Vol. 1. Groups of noncharacteristic 2 type. The University Series in Mathematics. New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 978-0-306-41305-6. MR 746470.