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1985 Giro d'Italia

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1985 Giro d'Italia
Race details
Dates 16 May – 9 June
Stages 22 + Prologue, including one split stage
Distance 3,998.6 km (2,485 mi)
Winning time 105h 46' 51" (37.893 km/h or 23.546 mph)
Palmares
Winner  Bernard Hinault (FRA) (La Vie Claire)
Second  Francesco Moser (ITA) (Gis Gelati-Trentino Vacanze)
Third  Greg LeMond (USA) (La Vie Claire)

Points  Johan van der Velde (NED) (Vini Ricordi-Pinarello)
Mountains  José Luis Navarro (ESP) (Gemeaz Cusin-Zor)
Youth  Alberto Volpi (ITA) (Sammontana-Bianchi)
Combination  Urs Freuler (SUI) (Atala-Ofmega-Campagnolo)
Team Alpilatte-Olmo-Cierre
1984
1986

The 1985 Giro d'Italia was the 68th running of the Giro d'Italia, one of cycling's Grand Tours races. The Giro started in Palermo, on 16 May, with a 6.6 km (4.1 mi) prologue and concluded in Lucca, on 9 June, with a 48 km (29.8 mi) individual time trial. A total of 180 riders from twenty teams entered the 22-stage race, that was won by Frenchman Bernard Hinault of the La Vie Claire team. The second and third places were taken by Italian Francesco Moser and American Greg LeMond, respectively.

Moser led the race for the first two days after winning the opening prologue. He lost the lead to Giuseppe Saronni after his team won the stage three team time trial. Upon conclusion of the event's fourth stage, Roberto Visentini won sufficient time to take the race leader's maglia rosa (English: pink jersey) from Saronni. Visentini held the jersey for a total of eight days of racing, during which the race traversed the Dolomites, before losing it to Hinault after the stage 12 time trial. Hinault then successfully defended his lead through the Alps, all the way to the race's finish.

Amongst the other classifications that the race awarded, Johan van der Velde of Vini Ricordi-Pinarello won the points classification, José Luis Navarro of Gemeaz Cusin-Zor won the mountains classification, and Sammontana-Bianchi's Alberto Volpi completed the Giro as the best neo-professional in the general classification, finishing tenth overall. Alpilatte-Olmo-Cierre finishing as the winners of the team classification, ranking each of the twenty teams contesting the race by lowest cumulative time.

Teams[edit]

The outside of a stone amphitheater.
The team presentation ceremony took place on 15 May at the Verona Arena in Verona.

A total of twenty teams were invited to participate in the 1985 Giro d'Italia,[1] six of which were based outside of Italy.[2] Each team sent a squad of nine riders, which meant that the race started with a peloton of 180 cyclists.[1][3][4] The presentation of the teams – where each team's roster and manager are introduced in front the media and local dignitaries – took place at the Verona Arena on 15 May.[5] From the riders that began this edition, 135 made it to the finish in Lucca.[3][6]

The teams entering the race were:[7]

Pre-race favorites[edit]

The starting peloton did include the 1984 winner, Francesco Moser.[8][9] Spanish rider Marino Lejarreta decided not to race the Vuelta a España in favor of racing the Giro.[1] Luis Gómez, of El Pais, believed Lejarreta to be in top form going into the race and that he could challenge for the overall victory.[1] Author Bill McGann believed that going into the race Hinault was "the world's most potent racing machine" and that Moser would have to ride very well in order to repeat as champion.[3] Javier Dalmases, an El Mundo sportswriter, believed that there was no clear favorite for the race.[8] Mario Fossati of La Repubblica named Moser, Saronni, Hinault, and Greg LeMond as contenders for the overall crown.[2] Prominent French rider Laurent Fignon did not participate in the race due to an inflamed Achilles tendon.[3][5]

Route and stages[edit]

A mountain in the distance.
The Gran Sasso d'Italia hosted the end of the 195 km (121 mi) fourteenth stage.

The route for the 1985 edition of the Giro d'Italia was revealed to the public by head organizer Vincenzo Torriani on 16 February 1985.[5][10][11] Covering a total of 3,998.6 km (2,484.6 mi), it included four time trials (three individual and one for teams), and eleven stages with categorized climbs that awarded mountains classification points.[12] Three of these eleven stages had summit finishes:[8] stage 4, to Selva di Val Gardena; stage 14, to Gran Sasso d'Italia; and stage 20, to Valnontey di Cogne.[12] The organizers chose to include two rest days. When compared to the previous year's race, the race was 190.6 km (118 mi) longer and contained the same amount of time trials and rest days. In addition, this race contained the same amount of stages, but one more set of half stages.

Luis Gómez, an El Pais writer, believed that the route was designed to benefit the Italian participants, with there being three individual time trials, the team time trial being flat, and most stages being primarily flat.[1] El Mundo writer Javier Dalmases believed that the route was purposefully less mountainous so that an Italian would win the race, citing that this route favored the likes of Giuseppe Saronni or Moreno Argentin.[8] La Stampa's Gian Paolo Ormezzano thought overall easiness of the course — the few mountains and summit finishes — added some mystery as to who could win.[4]

Stage characteristics and winners[3]
Stage Date Course Distance Type Winner
P 16 May Verona 6.6 km (4 mi) Individual time trial  Francesco Moser (ITA)
1 17 May Verona to Busto Arsizio 218 km (135 mi) Plain stage  Urs Freuler (SUI)
2 18 May Busto Arsizio to Milan 38 km (24 mi) Team time trial Del Tongo-Colnago
3 19 May Milan to Pinzolo 190 km (118 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Giuseppe Saronni (ITA)
4 20 May Pinzolo to Selva di Val Gardena 237 km (147 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Hubert Seiz (SUI)
5 21 May Selva di Val Gardena to Vittorio Veneto 225 km (140 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Emanuele Bombini (ITA)[N 1]
6 22 May Vittorio Veneto to Cervia 237 km (147 mi) Plain stage  Frank Hoste (BEL)
7 23 May Cervia to Jesi 185 km (115 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Orlando Maini (ITA)
24 May Rest day
8a 25 May Foggia to Foggia 45 km (28 mi) Plain stage  Stefano Allocchio (ITA)
8b Foggia to Matera 167 km (104 mi) Plain stage  Acácio da Silva (POR)
9 26 May Matera to Crotone 237 km (147 mi) Plain stage  Paolo Rosola (ITA)
10 27 May Crotone to Paola 203 km (126 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Acácio da Silva (POR)
11 28 May Paola to Salerno 240 km (149 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Stefano Allocchio (ITA)
12 29 May Capua to Maddaloni 38 km (24 mi) Individual time trial  Bernard Hinault (FRA)
13 30 May Maddaloni to Frosinone 154 km (96 mi) Plain stage  Urs Freuler (SUI)
14 31 May Frosinone to Gran Sasso d'Italia 195 km (121 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Franco Chioccioli (ITA)
15 1 June L'Aquila to Perugia 208 km (129 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Ron Kiefel (USA)
16 2 June Perugia to Cecina 217 km (135 mi) Plain stage  Giuseppe Saronni (ITA)
17 3 June Cecina to Modena 248 km (154 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Daniel Gisiger (SUI)
4 June Rest day
18 5 June Monza to Domodossola 128 km (80 mi) Plain stage  Paolo Rosola (ITA)
19 6 June Domodossola to Saint-Vincent 247 km (153 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Francesco Moser (ITA)
20 7 June Saint-Vincent to Valnontey di Cogne 58 km (36 mi) Stage with mountain(s)  Andrew Hampsten (USA)
21 8 June Saint-Vincent to Genoa 229 km (142 mi) Plain stage  Urs Freuler (SUI)
22 9 June Lido di Camaiore to Lucca 48 km (30 mi) Individual time trial  Francesco Moser (ITA)
Total 3,998.6 km (2,485 mi)

Race overview[edit]

A man sweating and wearing a cycling jersey while being surrounded by several people.
Francesco Moser (pictured here at the Amstel Gold Race in 1978) came into the Giro as a favorite to repeat as champion. He finished in second place overall and won three stages.

The event began with a 6.6 km (4.1 mi) prologue around the city of Verona.[3][15] The brief time trial leg was won by Francesco Moser, who finished seven seconds faster than the second placed rider.[15] The following day was the first mass-start stage of the race, which culminated in a bunch sprint that was won by Atala-Ofmega-Campagnolo's Urs Freuler.[16] The second stage was a team time trial that stretched 38 km (23.6 mi).[17] Del Tongo-Colnago won the leg and their rider, Giuseppe Saronni, earned enough of an advantage to take race lead and don the race leader's maglia rosa (English: pink jersey).[3][17] The third stage saw Saronni expand upon his lead by winning the leg after out-sprinting the rest of the leading group.[18] The fourth stage took the race into the Dolomites, as well as featuring a summit finish on Selva di Val Gardena.[3] Spanish rider Marino Lejarreta attacked on the with around 15 km (9.3 mi) to go and only Roberto Visentini, Bernard Hinault, Hubert Saiz, and Gianbattista Baronchelli were able to mark his move.[19] The group of five stayed together to the finish as Saiz took the stage victory by edging out Hinault.[19][20] Visentini took the race lead after Saronni finished over four minutes behind, while another Italian favorite Francesco Moser finished two minutes behind.[3][19][20]

The route went through more mountains in the fifth stage.[13] With large amounts of rain, the peloton made a truce and the stage saw few attacks.[13] A three-man breakaway formed with around twelve kilometers to go.[13][14] The riders stayed together and all sprinted for the stage win, which was originally won by Roberto Pagnin; however, due to his non-linear sprint line that interfered with the two other riders, he was relegated to second place and the original second place finisher, Emanuele Bombini, was promoted and declared winner.[13][14] The next day of racing ended with a bunch sprint won by Frank Hoste, but a crash with two kilometers to go from the finish saw general classification contenders Visentini and Saronni, as well as others, lose twenty seconds.[21][22] The seventh stage saw a six-man breakaway survive and finish ahead of the peloton by almost two minutes as Orlando Maini won the day.[23][24]

A cyclist holding a trophy.
Bernard Hinault (pictured here at the 1978 Tour de France) won a single stage, in addition to the general classification.

The twelfth stage of the race was 38 km (23.6 mi) individual time trial.[25] Hinault won the stage by fifty-three seconds over Moser.[25] Hinault's time gains were enough to give him the race lead by a minute and fourteen seconds.[25] The thirteenth stage saw Freuler win his second stage of the race by virtue of a sprint finish.[26] Italian Franco Chioccioli won the mountainous fourteenth leg of the event after attacking on the descent of the third climb of the day.[27][28] The following day of racing began with a twenty-man breakaway forming off the front of the peloton; however, all but one rider was caught with ten kilometers remaining.[29] With under five kilometers left, another four-man attack group formed, of which 7-Eleven's Ron Kiefel survived.[29] Kiefel caught the lone remaining rider in front and went on to win the stage as the peloton crossed the line three seconds behind.[29][30][31] This was the first stage victory by an American in the history of the Giro d'Italia.[29][30] The sixteenth stage saw the day of racing end with a field sprint which was won by Saronni.[32]

Race leader Hinault and his team, La Vie Claire, allowed a breakaway to get almost a twenty-minute advantage over the peloton during the race's seventeenth stage, before other general classification contenders' teams stepped in to help with the chase.[3] The attack group reached the finish line around ten minutes faster than the peloton.[3] Swiss rider Daniel Gisiger won the stage ahead of Giovanni Mantovani.[33] Paolo Rosola won his second stage of the event as the eighteenth stage resulted in a bunch sprint.[34][35] The following day's race route was altered the night before by Torriani, which removed six kilometers off the climb of Great St Bernard Pass, while it still contained the full climb of the Cima Coppi, the Simplon Pass.[3][36] The stage saw a large group of fifty-three riders cross the finish line together, with Moser at the head, taking his second stage victory of the event.[3][36] Former race leader Visentini, after losing a significant amount of time during the stage 16 individual time trial,[32] abandoned the race during the nineteenth stage.[37]

Stage 20 was a brief 58 km (36 mi) that featured a seventeen kilometer ascent to finish the leg.[29] La Vie Claire drove a hard pace throughout the stage and fractured the peloton in the process.[3] American Andrew Hampsten attacked with around nineteen kilometers to go and won the stage by a minute over the second place finisher.[3][29][38] The penultimate stage of the race was culminated with a field sprint, which was won by Freuler.[39][40] The final stage of the race was a 48 km (30 mi) individual time trial that stretched from Lido di Camaiore to Lucca.[3][41] Moser was able to win the stage by seven seconds on race leader Hinault, which was not enough to overcome Hinault and take first.[3] This meant Hinault won his third Giro d'Italia.[3][41]

Six riders achieved multiple stage victories: Freuler (stages 1, 13, and 21),[16][26][39] Moser (prologue and stages 19 and 22),[15][36][41] da Silva (stages 8b and 10),[42][43] Allocchio (stages 8a and 11),[42][44] Saronni (stages 3 and 16),[18][32] and Rosola (stages 9 and 18).[35][45][46] Stage wins were achieved by nine of the twenty competing squads, six of which won multiple stages. Del Tongo-Colnago collected a total of five wins through the team time trial,[17] Saronni, Bombini (stage 5),[14] and Hoste (stage 6).[22] Atala-Ofmega-Campagnolo amassed a total of four stage wins through Freuler and Gisiger (stage 17).[33] Malvor-Bottecchia also secured four stage wins through da Silva and Allocchio. Sammontana-Bianchi obtained two stage victories with Rosola. Gis Gelati-Trentino Vacanze collected two stage successes with Moser. 7-Eleven recorded two stage wins with Kiefel (stage 15) and Hampsten (stage 20).[31][38] Cilo-Aufina, Alpilatte-Olmo-Cierre, and La Vie Claire all won a single stage at the Giro, the first through Seiz (stage 4),[20] the second through Maini (stage 7),[24] and the third by Hinault (stage 12),[25] and the fourth with Chioccioli (stage 14).[27]

Classification leadership[edit]

A picture of a mountain.
The Simplon Pass was the Cima Coppi for the 1985 running of the Giro d'Italia.

Four different jerseys were worn during the 1985 Giro d'Italia. The leader of the general classification – calculated by adding the stage finish times of each rider, and allowing time bonuses for the first four finishers on mass-start stages – wore a pink jersey.[1][8] This classification is the most important of the race, and its winner is considered as the winner of the Giro.[47]

For the points classification, which awarded a purple (or cyclamen) jersey to its leader, cyclists were given points for finishing a stage in the top 15; additional points could also be won in intermediate sprints. The green jersey was awarded to the mountains classification leader. In this ranking, points were won by reaching the summit of a climb ahead of other cyclists. Each climb was ranked as either first, second or third category, with more points available for higher category climbs. The Cima Coppi, the race's highest point of elevation, awarded more points than the other first category climbs.[47] The Cima Coppi for this Giro was the Simplon Pass.[34] The first rider to cross the Simplon Pass was Colombian rider Reynel Montoya. The white jersey was worn by the leader of young rider classification, a ranking decided the same way as the general classification, but considering only neo-professional cyclists (in their first three years of professional racing).[47] Although no jersey was awarded, there was also one classification for the teams, in which the stage finish times of the best three cyclists per team were added; the leading team was the one with the lowest total time.[47]

The rows in the following table correspond to the jerseys awarded after that stage was run.

Classification leadership by stage
Stage Winner General classification
Pink Jersey
Points classification
Purple Jersey
Mountains classification
Green Jersey
Young rider classification
White Jersey
Team classification
P Francesco Moser Francesco Moser not awarded not awarded not awarded not awarded
1 Urs Freuler Urs Freuler Roberto Calovi Gis Gelati-Trentino Vacanze
2 Del Tongo-Colnago Giuseppe Saronni Del Tongo-Colnago
3 Giuseppe Saronni Giuseppe Saronni Acácio da Silva Alberto Volpi
4 Hubert Seiz Roberto Visentini Johan van der Velde Carrera-Inoxpran
5 Emanuele Bombini[N 1]
6 Frank Hoste Urs Freuler
7 Orlando Maini Johan van der Velde
8a Stefano Allocchio
8b Acácio da Silva
9 Paolo Rosola
10 Acácio da Silva Alpilatte-Olmo-Cierre
11 Stefano Allocchio
12 Bernard Hinault Bernard Hinault Johan van der Velde & Urs Freuler
13 Urs Freuler Urs Freuler
14 Franco Chioccioli Johan van der Velde
15 Ron Kiefel
16 Giuseppe Saronni
17 Daniel Gisiger José Luis Navarro Del Tongo-Colnago
18 Paolo Rosola
19 Francesco Moser
20 Andrew Hampsten Alpilatte-Olmo-Cierre
21 Urs Freuler
22 Francesco Moser
Final Bernard Hinault Johan van der Velde José Luis Navarro Alberto Volpi Alpilatte-Olmo-Cierre

Final standings[edit]

Legend
  Pink jersey   Denotes the winner of the General classification   Green jersey   Denotes the winner of the Mountains classification
  Purple jersey   Denotes the winner of the Points classification   White jersey   Denotes the winner of the Young rider classification

General classification[edit]

Final general classification (1–10)[3][6][41]
Rank Name Team Time
1  Bernard Hinault (FRA) Pink jersey La Vie Claire 105h 46' 51"
2  Francesco Moser (ITA) Gis Gelati-Trentino Vacanze + 1' 08"
3  Greg LeMond (USA) La Vie Claire + 2' 55"
4  Tommy Prim (SWE) Sammontana-Bianchi + 4' 53"
5  Marino Lejarreta (ESP) Alpilatte-Olmo-Cierre + 6' 30"
6  Gianbattista Baronchelli (ITA) Supermercati Brianzoli + 6' 32"
7  Silvano Contini (ITA) Ariostea + 7' 22"
8  Michael Wilson (AUS) Alpilatte-Olmo-Cierre + 7' 38"
9  Franco Chioccioli (ITA) Maggi Mobili-Fanini + 8' 33"
10  Alberto Volpi (ITA) A white jersey Sammontana-Bianchi + 10' 31"

Points classification[edit]

Final points classification (1–5)[3]
Rider Team Points
1  Johan van der Velde (NED) A purple jersey Carrera-Inoxpran 195
2  Urs Freuler (SUI) Panasonic-Merckx-Agu 172
3  Francesco Moser (ITA) Gis Gelati-Trentino Vacanze 140
4  Frank Hoste (BEL) Del Tongo 126
5  Franco Chioccioli (ITA) Maggi Mobili-Fanini 122

Mountains classification[edit]

Final mountains classification (1–5)[3]
Rider Team Points
1  José Luis Navarro (ESP) Green jersey Gemeaz Cusin-Zor 54
2  Reynel Montoya (COL) Varta-Café de Colombia 47
3  Rafael Acevedo (COL) Varta-Café de Colombia 38
4  Acácio da Silva (POR) Malvor-Bottecchia 32
5  Andrew Hampsten (USA) 7-Eleven 30

Young rider classification[edit]

Final young rider's classification (1–5)[3]
Rider Team Time
1  Alberto Volpi (ITA) A white jersey Sammontana-Bianchi 105h 57' 22"
2  Marco Giovannetti (ITA) Ariostea + 3' 59"
3  José Luis Navarro (ESP) Green jersey Gemeaz Cusin-Zor + 10' 19"
4  Andrew Hampsten (USA) 7-Eleven + 10' 52"
5  Luca Rota (ITA) Murella-Rossin + 15' 47"

Team classification[edit]

Final team classification (1–3)[3]
Team Time
1 Alpilatte-Olmo-Cierre 315h 47' 32"
2 Del Tongo-Colnago + 4' 44"
3 La Vie Claire + 5' 29"

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Roberto Pagnin was the original winner of stage 5 but was later relegated to second place.[13][14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Luis Gómez (16 May 1985). "Hinault, Lemond, Arroyo y Lejarreta, la alternativa 'extranjera' en el Giro" [Hinault, Lemond, Arroyo and Lejarreta, the 'foreign' alternative in the Giro]. El País (in Spanish) (Ediciones El País). Archived from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Mario Fossati (15 June 1985). "Giro e Arena Anche il ciclismo riparte da Verona" [Giro and Arena Cycling also starts from Verona]. La Repubblica (in Italian) (Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso). Archived from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Bill and Carol McGann. "1985 Giro d'Italia". Bike Race Info. Dog Ear Publishing. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  4. ^ a b Gian Paolo Ormezzano (15 May 1985). "Il Giro da Verona cerca il <<suo>> Verona" [The ride from <<his>> Verona]. La Stampa (in Italian) (Editrice La Stampa). p. 26. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c Gian Paolo Ormezzano (16 May 1985). "Parte un Giro d'Italia senza copione" [Part of a Tour of Italy unscripted]. La Stampa (in Italian) (Editrice La Stampa). p. 25. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  6. ^ a b Paul Mannini. "68a edizione Giro d'Italia (1985)" [70th edition Giro d'Italia (1987)] (in Italian). Il Museo del Ciclismo. Archived from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  7. ^ "Quasi metà stranieri" [Almost half foreigners]. La Stampa (in Italian) (Editrice La Stampa). 15 May 1985. p. 26. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Javier Dalmases (16 May 1985). "El "Giro" No Quiere Volver A Ser Lo Que Fue" [The "Giro" Does Not Want to Be What It Was] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). p. 24. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  9. ^ "Etapas, Kilometraje Y Perfiles" [Stages, Kilometers, and Profiles] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 16 May 1985. p. 25. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  10. ^ Carlo Gobbo (17 February 1985). "Giro d'Italia in Valle con 2 tappe decisive" [Tour of Italy in the Valley with two decisive stages]. La Stampa (in Italian) (Editrice La Stampa). p. 23. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  11. ^ "El "Giro-85" Quiere a Fignon" [The "Giro-85" Want to Fignon] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 17 February 1985. p. 49. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 January 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  12. ^ a b "...e tutte le salite" [... and all the climbs] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian) (PCI). 13 May 1985. p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  13. ^ a b c d e "Los favoritos del Giro se toman una tregua en la quinta etapa" [Giro favorites truce taken in the fifth stage]. El País (in Spanish) (Ediciones El País). Agence France-Presse. 22 May 1985. Archived from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  14. ^ a b c d ""Bombini", en el "Giro"" ["Bombini", in the "Giro"] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 22 May 1985. p. 34. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  15. ^ a b c "Moser, siempre de rosa en verona" [Moser, always rose in Verona] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 17 May 1985. p. 28. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  16. ^ a b "Freuler, en apretado "sprint"" [Freuler, in tight "sprint"] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 18 May 1985. p. 29. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  17. ^ a b c "Saronni, nuevo "maglia rosa"" [Saronni, new "maglia rosa"] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 19 May 1985. p. 41. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  18. ^ a b "Saronni bonifica su liderato" [Saronni reclamation of liderato] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 20 May 1985. p. 51. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  19. ^ a b c "Visentini, nuevo líder, y Lejarreta, tercero en la general del Giro" [Visentini, new leader, and Lejarreta third overall in the Giro]. El País (in Spanish) (Ediciones El País). Agence France-Presse. 21 May 1985. Archived from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  20. ^ a b c "Marino Lejarreta rompio el "Giro"" [Lejarreta Marino broke the "Giro"] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 21 May 1985. p. 25. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  21. ^ "Visentini perdió 20 segundos" [Visentini lost 20 seconds]. El País (in Spanish) (Ediciones El País). Agence France-Presse. 23 May 1985. Archived from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  22. ^ a b "Hoste presento su tarjeta de velocista en el "Giro"" [Hoste presented his card sprinter in the "Giro"] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 23 May 1985. p. 28. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  23. ^ "Arroyo pierde 17 minutos en la séptima etapa del Giro" [Arroyo lost 17 minutes in the seventh stage of the Giro]. El País (in Spanish) (Ediciones El País). Agence France-Presse. 24 May 1985. Archived from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  24. ^ a b "Arroyo empeza atacando y acabo perdiendo 17'" [Arroyo begins attacking and losing just '17] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 24 May 1985. p. 26. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  25. ^ a b c d "El Bernard Hinault de los mejores tiempos" [The Bernard Hinault of the best times] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 30 May 1985. p. 30. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  26. ^ a b "Freuler sigue siendo el rey" [Freuler is still king] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 31 May 1985. p. 30. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  27. ^ a b "Chioccioli: Un rodador gano el la cima" [Chioccioli: A Wheeler won the top] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 1 June 1985. p. 30. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  28. ^ ""El Giro es una farsa", según el italiano Beccia" ["The Giro is a farce," the Italian Beccia]. El País (in Spanish) (Ediciones El País). EFE. 1 June 1985. Archived from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f Peter Hymas (5 May 2009). "An American in Italy". Cycling News. Future Publishing Limited. Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2013. 
  30. ^ a b "Primer triunfo estadounidense en el Giro" [First American victory in the Giro]. El País (in Spanish) (Ediciones El País). EFE. 2 June 1985. Archived from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  31. ^ a b "Kiefel: Un Americano en Perugia" [Kiefel: An American in Perugia] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 2 June 1985. p. 44. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  32. ^ a b c "Saronni, en un extraño "sprint"" [Saronni, in an strange "sprint"] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 3 June 1985. p. 38. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  33. ^ a b "Navarro, nuevo "rey" de la montaña" [Navarro, new "king" of the mountain] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 4 June 1985. p. 19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  34. ^ a b "Giro." [Giro.]. El País (in Spanish) (Ediciones El País). Agence France-Presse. 6 June 1985. Archived from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  35. ^ a b "Esta vex fue Rosola el mas rapido" [This vex was Rosola the fastest] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 6 June 1985. p. 38. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  36. ^ a b c "Moser, veinte segundos mas cerca de Hinault" [Moser, twenty seconds closer Hinault] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 7 June 1985. p. 37. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  37. ^ Jean Michel Forest (7 June 1985). "Navarro venc a la muntanya i Moser guanya vint segons" [Navarro came to the mountain and Moser won twenty seconds] (PDF). Avui (in Catalan) (Hermes Comunicacions S.A.). p. 34. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  38. ^ a b "Hampstean: Segunda victoria norte americana" [Hampsten: Second North American victory] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 8 June 1985. p. 37. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  39. ^ a b "Freuler, tercer podio" [Freuler, third podium] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 9 June 1985. p. 43. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  40. ^ "Giro." [Giro.]. El País (in Spanish) (Ediciones El País). Agence France-Presse. 9 June 1985. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  41. ^ a b c d "Hinault: Tres Vidas En Rosa" [Hinault: Three Lives In Pink] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 10 June 1985. p. 34. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  42. ^ a b "El rey de la montaña, al sprint" [The King of the Mountain, the sprint] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 26 May 1985. p. 35. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  43. ^ "Marino tuvo a Moser en las cuerdas" [Marino had to Moser on the ropes] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 28 May 1985. p. 28. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  44. ^ "Allocchio, mas rapido que Saronni y Freuler" [Allocchio, quick que mas y Saronni Freuler] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 29 May 1985. p. 30. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  45. ^ "Rosola: A la tercera fue la vencida" [Rosola: The Third time lucky] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 27 May 1985. p. 26. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  46. ^ "Rosola: A la tercera fue la vencida" [Rosola: The Third time lucky] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish) (El Mundo Deportivo S.A.). 27 May 1985. p. 27. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  47. ^ a b c d Laura Weislo (13 May 2008). "Giro d'Italia classifications demystified". Cycling News. Future Publishing Limited. Archived from the original on 17 June 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2013.