1985 in spaceflight

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1985 in spaceflight
National firsts
Space traveller  Mexico
 Saudi Arabia
Rockets
Maiden flights Space Shuttle Atlantis
M-3SII
Manned flights
Orbital 11
Total travellers 63


Launches[edit]

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Launch site LSP
Payload Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January[edit]

24 January
19:50
United StatesSpace Shuttle Discovery United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-51-C NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment 27 January
21:23
Successful
United StatesUSA-8 (Magnum 1) NRO Geosynchronous ELINT In orbit Successful
Manned orbital flight with five astronauts

February[edit]

8 February
06:10
United StatesTitan 34B United StatesVandenberg SLC-4W United States
United StatesUSA-9 (SDS) US Air force Molniya Communications In orbit Successful
8 February
23:22
European UnionAriane 3 FranceKourou ELA FranceArianespace
Saudi ArabiaArabsat-1A Arabsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
BrazilBrasilsat-A1 Embratel Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
Arabsat 1A failed in March 1992

March[edit]

13 March
02:00
United StatesAtlas E/OIS United StatesVandenberg SLC-3W United States
United StatesGeosat US Navy Sun-synchronous Earth observation In orbit Successful
Mission ended in January 1990
22 March
23:55
United StatesAtlas G United StatesCape Canaveral LC-36B United States
United NationsIntelsat 510 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful

April[edit]

12 April
13:59
United StatesSpace Shuttle Discovery United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-51-D NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment 19 April
13:54
Successful
CanadaAnik C1 Telesat Canada Current: Graveyard
Operational: Geosynchronous
Communications In orbit Successful
United StatesLeasat 3 US Navy Current: Graveyard
Operational: Geosynchronous
Communications In orbit Successful
Manned orbital flight with seven astronauts including the first sitting member of the United States Congress to fly in space (Senator Jake Garn).
Anik C1 was retired on 5 May 2003.
Leasat 3 failed to maneuver to geosynchronous orbit and was re-captured by mission STS-51-I in August, repaired and subsequently maneuvered to geosynchronous orbit.
Discovery suffered extensive brake and tyre damage upon landing at Kennedy Space Center.
29 April
16:02
United StatesSpace Shuttle Challenger United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-51-B NASA Low Earth Microgravity research 6 May
16:11
Successful
United StatesEuropean UnionSpacelab Long Module 1 NASA/ESRO Low Earth (Challenger) Microgravity research Successful
United StatesGLOMAR Intended: Low Earth Getaway Special Deployment failure
United StatesNUSAT Low Earth Getaway Special 15 December Successful
Manned orbital flight with seven astronauts; GLOMAR failed to deploy from its GAS canister

May[edit]

8 May
01:15
European UnionAriane 3 FranceKourou ELA FranceArianespace
United StatesGStar 1 GTE Spacenet Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
FranceTelecom 1B France Télécom Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful

June[edit]

6 June
06:39
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionSoyuz T-13 Low Earth (Salyut 7) Salyut 7 EO-4 26 September
09:51
Successful
Manned orbital flight with two cosmonauts
17 June
11:33
United StatesSpace Shuttle Discovery United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-51-G NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment 24 June
13:11
Successful
MexicoMorelos 1 Morelos Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
Saudi ArabiaArabsat-1B Arabsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
United StatesTelstar 303 AT&T Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
United StatesSpartan 101 NASA Low Earth Astronomy 24 June
13:11
Successful
Manned orbital flight with seven astronauts including the first Saudi Arabian space traveller and member of royalty to fly in space (Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud)
Arabsat 1B retired in 1993.
21 June
00:39
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionProgress 24 Low Earth (Salyut 7) Logistics 15 July
22:33
Successful
30 June
00:44
United StatesAtlas G United StatesCape Canaveral LC-36B United States
United NationsIntelsat 511 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful

July[edit]

2 July
11:23
European UnionAriane 1 FranceKourou ELA FranceArianespace
European UnionGiotto ESA Heliocentric Flyby of Halley's Comet In orbit Successful
Closest approach of Halley's Comet (596 kilometres (370 mi)) achieved on 13 March 1986
Closest approach of 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup (200 kilometres (120 mi)) achieved on 10 July 1992
19 July
13:05
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 1669 (Progress) Low Earth (Salyut 7) Logistics 30 August
01:20
Successful
29 July
21:00
United StatesSpace Shuttle Challenger United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-51-F NASA Low Earth Astronomical experiments 6 August
19:45
Successful
United StatesPDP NASA Low Earth Plasma research Successful
United StatesEuropean UnionSpacelab 2 (three pallets) NASA/ESRO Low Earth (Challenger) Astronomy Successful
Manned orbital flight with seven astronauts; A main engine shut-down during ascent caused an Abort to Orbit, the first abort of the Space Shuttle program.

August[edit]

27 August
10:58
United StatesSpace Shuttle Discovery United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-51-I NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment and repair 3 September
13:15
Successful
AustraliaAussat 1 Aussat Pty Ltd Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
United StatesASC-1 ASC Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
United StatesLeasat 4 US Navy Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Spacecraft failure
Manned orbital flight with five astronauts
Leasat 4 failed in orbit after becoming operational for a short period
Retrieved Leasat 3, deployed by STS-51-D in April and repaired the malfunctioning perigee motor to allow the satellite to reach geosynchronous orbit.
28 August
21:20
United StatesTitan 34D United StatesVandenberg SLC-4E United States
United StatesKH-11-7 NRO Intended: Sun-synchronous Reconnaissance 28 August Launch Failure
First stage propellant feed malfunction

September[edit]

12 September
23:26
European UnionAriane 3 FranceKourou ELA FranceArianespace
FranceEutelsat 1F3 Eutelsat Intended: Geosynchronous Communications 12 September Launch Failure
United StatesSpacenet F3 Spacenet Intended: Geosynchronous Communications
Third stage failed to ignite
13 September United StatesASM-135 ASAT United StatesCelestial Eagle, Vandenberg United StatesUS Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital Anti-satellite weapon 13 September Successful
Successful intercept and destruction of Solwind P78-1.
17 September
12:38
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionSoyuz T-14 Low Earth (Salyut 7) Salyut 7 EP-5 21 November
10:31
Successful
Manned orbital flight with three cosmonauts
27 September
08:41
Soviet UnionProton-K Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 200/39 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 1686 (TKS) Low Earth (Salyut 7) Logistics 7 February 1991 Successful
TKS-4; remained docked with Salyut 7 through that station's re-entry
28 September
23:17
United StatesAtlas G United StatesCape Canaveral LC-36B United States
United NationsIntelsat 512 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful

October[edit]

3 October
15:15
United StatesSpace Shuttle Atlantis United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-51-J NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment 7 October
17:00
Successful
United StatesUSA-11 (DSCS-III) US Air Force Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
United StatesUSA-12 (DSCS-III) US Air Force Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
Manned orbital flight with five astronauts; Maiden flight of Space Shuttle Atlantis
9 October
02:53
United StatesAtlas E/SGS-2 United StatesVandenberg SLC-3W United States
United StatesUSA-10 (GPS-11) US Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
30 October
17:00
United StatesSpace Shuttle Challenger United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-61-A NASA Low Earth Microgravity research 6 November
17:44
Successful
United StatesSpacelab Long Module 2 NASA Low Earth (Challenger) Spacelab D1 Successful
GermanyGLOMAR DLR Low Earth Getaway Special 26 December 1986 Successful
Manned orbital flight with eight astronauts
Maiden flight of Spacelab Long Module #2

November[edit]

27 November
00:29
United StatesSpace Shuttle Atlantis United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-61-B NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment 2 December
21:33
Successful
MexicoMorelos 2 Morelos Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
AustraliaAussat A2 Aussat Pty Ltd Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
United StatesSatcom K2 RCA Americom Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
United StatesOEX Target NASA Low Earth 2 March 1987 Successful
United StatesEASE/ACCESS NASA Low Earth (Atlantis) Structure assembly experiment 2 December
21:33
Successful
Manned orbital flight with seven astronauts including the first Mexican space traveller.

Deep Space Rendezvous[edit]

Date (GMT) Spacecraft Event Remarks
11 June Vega 1 delivered lander and balloon on Venus
15 June Vega 2 delivered lander and balloon on Venus
11 September ISEE-3/ICE Flyby of 21P/Giacobini-Zinner

EVAs[edit]

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Remarks
16 April 3 hours
6 minutes
STS-51-D
Discovery
United StatesJeffrey A. Hoffman
United StatesS. David Griggs
Installed an improvised switch-pulling tool, called the Flyswatter, on the RMS robotic arm. The Flyswatter was used in an effort to push the sequencer start lever on the Leasat-3 in the proper position for deployment.[1] This attempted repair was the first unplanned spacewalk in NASA history.[2]
2 August
07:15
5 hours 12:15 Salyut 7 EO-4 Soviet UnionVladimir Dzhanibekov
Soviet UnionViktor Savinykh
Installed a third pair of solar arrays on exterior of Salyut 7.
31 August 7 hours
20 minutes
STS-51-I
Discovery
United StatesWilliam Fisher
United StatesJames van Hoften
Van Hoften rode the RMS to capture the Leasat 3 satellite and pulled it into payload bay. Fisher and Van Hoften secured and started repairs on the satellite in the payload bay. The retrieval was complicated by a malfunction of the RMS that made operation of the arm more complicated.[3]
1 September 4 hours
26 minutes
STS-51-I
Discovery
United StatesWilliam Fisher
United StatesJames van Hoften
Completed repairs on the Leasat 3 satellite. Then Van Hoften, riding the RMS, heaved the satellite out of the payload bay, imparting the required spin needed to fire the perigee motor.[3]
29 November 5 hours
32 minutes
STS-61-B
Atlantis
United StatesJerry L. Ross
United StatesSherwood C. Spring
Practiced construction techniques in the payload bay and assembled and disassembled the two experimental EASE/ACCESS structures.[4]
1 December 6 hours
41 minutes
STS-61-B
Atlantis
United StatesJerry L. Ross
United StatesSherwood C. Spring
Conducted supplementary experiments on the EASE and ACCESS structures, including a test of the RMS to aid in the construction experiments.[4]

References[edit]

Generic references:

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "Space Shuttle Mission Archives". NASA. 2007. Archived from the original on 2 March 2009. Retrieved February 20, 2009. 
  2. ^ Becker, Joachim; Janssen, Heinz Hermann (2009). "Human Spaceflights - STS-51D". Space Facts. Retrieved February 20, 2009. 
  3. ^ a b "Space Shuttle Flight 20 (STS-51A)". Space Shuttle Video Library. National Space Society. July 2008. Retrieved February 21, 2009. 
  4. ^ a b Rumerman, Judith; Gamble, Chris; Okolski, Gabriel (2007). "Human Spaceflight" (PDF). NASA History Division. p. 45. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved February 23, 2009.