1986 Commonwealth Games
|13th Commonwealth Games|
|Host city||Edinburgh, Scotland|
|Nations participating||27 nations of the Commonwealth|
|Events||161 events in 10 sports|
|Opening ceremony||24 July 1986|
|Closing ceremony||2 August 1986|
|Officially opened by||Elizabeth II|
|Main venue||Meadowbank Stadium|
The 1986 Commonwealth Games were held in Edinburgh, Scotland, between 24 July and 2 August 1986. They were the second Games to be held in Edinburgh.
- 1 Organisation and controversy
- 2 Participating teams
- 3 Opening ceremony
- 4 Venues
- 5 Medals by country
- 6 Medals by event
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Organisation and controversy
Unlike the 1970 Games in Edinburgh, which were popular and successful, the 1986 Games are ill-famed for the wide political boycott connected with them and the resulting financial mismanagement.
The majority of Commonwealth nations staged a boycott, so that the Games appeared to be a whites-only event. Thirty two of the eligible fifty nine countries—largely African, Asian and Caribbean states—stayed away because of the Thatcher government's policy of keeping Britain's sporting links with apartheid South Africa in preference to participating in the general sporting boycott of that country. Consequently, Edinburgh 1986 witnessed the lowest number of athletes since Auckland 1950. Bermuda was a particularly late withdrawal, as its athletes appeared in the opening ceremony before the association decided to formally withdraw before competition began.
Further controversy arose when it was revealed that through this much-reduced participation and the resultant decline in anticipated broadcasting and sponsorship revenues, the Organising Committee was facing a big financial black hole. The boycott ended any prospect of securing emergency government assistance. Businessman Robert Maxwell stepped in to offer funding, taking over as chairman; but although he promised to invest £2m, his contribution was just £250,000. On a budget of £14m, the Games opened with a deficit of £3m, which later grew to £4.3m, and instead of putting enough money into the event to save it, the new chairman of the Games asked creditors to forgo half the payment due to them to keep the event out of liquidation. The debt was finally paid off in 1989, with the city of Edinburgh losing approximately £500,000.
Several participants were excluded because they breached the amateurism rules, most notably lawn bowlers Phil Skoglund from New Zealand and Willie Wood from Scotland, both of whom have competed in subsequent games.
27 teams were represented at the 1986 Games.
(Teams competing for the first time are shown in bold).
- Bermuda (Took part in opening ceremony but boycotted rest of the games.)
- Cayman Islands
- Cook Islands
- Falkland Islands
- Hong Kong
- Isle of Man
- New Zealand
- Norfolk Island
- Northern Ireland
- Western Samoa
The theme of the opening ceremony celebrated the "Spirit of Youth" and included 6500 Scottish schoolchildren taking part in a series of large Mass Games-style Gymnastics routines. The theme song "Spirit of Youth" was written by Gerard Kenny. The ceremony began on the esplanade of Edinburgh Castle from which hundreds of schoolchildren ran down the Royal Mile, through Holyrood Park to Meadowbank Stadium. The Bermudan team took part in the opening ceremony, before being ordered to boycott the games and leave.
Medals by country
|8||Isle of Man||1||0||0||1|
Medals by event
|Mixed Team|| England
Paul Heng Kong
|Mixed Doubles|| Australia
|Men's Singles||Steve Baddeley (ENG)||Sze Yu (AUS)||Nick Yates (ENG)|
|Men's Doubles|| Scotland
| New Zealand
|Women's Singles||Helen Troke (ENG)||Fiona Elliott (ENG)||Gillian Clark (ENG)|
|Women's Doubles|| England
|Singles||Ian Dickison (NZL)||Ian Schuback (AUS)||Richard Corsie (SCO)|
|Singles||Wendy Line (ENG)||Senga McCrone (SCO)||Flora Anderson (BOT)|
|Pairs|| Northern Ireland
|Time Trial||Martin Vinnicombe (AUS)||00:01:06||Gary Anderson (NZL)||00:01:06||Maxwell Rainsford (AUS)||00:01:07|
|Sprint||Gary Neiwand (AUS)||Alex Ongaro (CAN)||Eddie Alexander (SCO)|
|Individual Pursuit||Dean Woods (AUS)||00:04:44||Colin Sturgess (ENG)||00:04:51||Gary Anderson (NZL)||00:04:54|
|Team Pursuit|| Australia
|00:04:27|| New Zealand
|10 Miles (16 Kilometres) Scratch||Wayne McCarney (AUS)||00:19:41||Dean Woods (AUS)||00:19:41||Gary Anderson (NZL)||00:19:41|
|Road Race||Paul Curran (ENG)||04:08:50||Brian Fowler (NZL)||04:08:50||Jeff Leslie (AUS)||04:08:50|
|Team Time Trial|| England
|02:13:16|| New Zealand
|02:14:50|| Northern Ireland
|Free Pistol||Greg Yelavich (NZL)||551|| Phil Adams (AUS)
Ho Kar Fai (HKG)
|Free Pistol – Pairs|| Canada
|Centre-Fire Pistol||Bob Northover (ENG)||583||Phil Adams (AUS)||582||Rod Hack (AUS)||580|
|Centre-Fire Pistol – Pairs|| Australia
|1157|| New Zealand
|Rapid-Fire Pistol||Pat Murray (AUS)||591||Adrian Breton (GGY)||588||Mark Howkins (CAN)||585|
|Rapid-Fire Pistol – Pairs|| England
|Air Pistol||Greg Yelavich (NZL)||575||Tom Guinn (CAN)||574||Gilbert U (HKG)||574|
|Air Pistol – Pairs|| England
|1143|| New Zealand
|Trap||Ian Peel (ENG)||195||Peter Boden (ENG)||192||Roland Phillips (WAL)||192|
|Trap – Pairs|| England
|185|| Northern Ireland
|Skeet||Nigel Kelly (IOM)||196|| Joe Neville (ENG)
Brian Gabriel (CAN)
|Skeet – Pairs|| England
|193|| New Zealand
|Flyweight – Overall||Greg Hayman (AUS)||212.5||Charlie Revolta (SCO)||185||Alan Ogilvie (SCO)||177.5|
|Bantamweight – Overall||Nick Voukelatos (AUS)||245||Clayton Chelley (NZL)||217.5||Teo Yong Joo (SIN)||215|
|Featherweight – Overall||Ray Williams (WAL)||252.5||David Lowenstein (AUS)||250||Jeffrey Brice (WAL)||235|
|Lightweight – Overall||Dean Willey (ENG)||315||Ron Laycock (AUS)||307.5||Langis Côté (CAN)||290|
|Middleweight – Overall||Bill Stellios (AUS)||302.5||Louis Payer (CAN)||300||Neil Taylor (WAL)||270|
|Light Heavyweight – Overall||Dave Morgan (WAL)||350||Robert Kabbas (AUS)||325||Peter May (ENG)||317.5|
|Middle Heavyweight – Overall||Keith Boxell (ENG)||350||David Mercer (ENG)||342.5||Guy Greavette (CAN)||340|
|Sub Heavyweight – Overall||Denis Garon (CAN)||360||Duncan Dawkins (ENG)||332.5||Andrew Saxton (ENG)||327.5|
|Heavyweight – Overall||Kevin Roy (CAN)||375||Gino Frantangelo (AUS)||372.5||Andrew Davies (WAL)||370|
|Super Heavyweight – Overall||Dean Lukin (AUS)||392.5||David Bolduc (CAN)||347.5||Charles Garzarella (AUS)||342.5|
|Light Flyweight||Ron Moncur (CAN)||Duncan Burns (ENG)||David Connelly (SCO)|
|Flyweight||Chris Woodcroft (CAN)||James McAlary (AUS)||Nigel Donahue (ENG)|
|Bantamweight||Mitch Ostberg (CAN)||Steve Reinsfield (NZL)||Brian Aspen (ENG)|
|Featherweight||Paul Hughes (CAN)||Dan Cumming (AUS)||Stephen Bell (NZL)|
|Lightweight||Dave McKay (CAN)||Zsigmund Kelevitz (AUS)||Stephen Cooper (ENG)|
|Welterweight||Gary Holmes (CAN)||George Marsh (AUS)||Fitzlloyd Walker (ENG)|
|Middleweight||Chris Rinke (CAN)||Wally Koenig (AUS)||Anthony Bell (ENG)|
|Light Heavyweight||Noel Loban (ENG)||Doug Cox (CAN)||Graeme English (SCO)|
|Heavyweight||Clark Davis (CAN)||Robert Algie (NZL)||David Kilpin (ENG)|
|Super Heavyweight||Wayne Brightwell (CAN)||Albert Patrick (SCO)||Keith Peache (ENG)|
- "The forgotten story of … Robert Maxwell’s 1986 Commonwealth Games | Sport | theguardian.com". theguardian.com. Retrieved 2014-07-28.
- "Scottish independence referendum will increase interest in Glasgow 2014, it is claimed | Glasgow 2014". insidethegames.biz. 29 February 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-09.
- Fraser, Graham (2014-04-25). Glasgow 2014: The Bermuda boycott of 1986 that still hurts. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2014-11-02.
- "Glasgow makes final call for 2014 Games - Athletics - Scotsman.com". News.scotsman.com. 9 May 2007. Retrieved 2012-08-09.
- "Power From Within - Commonwealth Games 1986 Opening Ceremony - YouTube". youtube.com. Retrieved 2014-07-28.
- Commonwealth Games official site
- 1986 Commonwealth Games – Australian Commonwealth Games website
- Video of the Opening Ceremony
XIII Commonwealth Games