1986 in spaceflight

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1986 in spaceflight
Challenger explosion.jpg
Space Shuttle Challenger disintegrates during the launch of STS-51-L, killing seven astronauts
National firsts
Satellite  Sweden
Rockets
Maiden flights Ariane 2
Retirements Ariane 1
Space Shuttle Challenger
Manned flights
Orbital 2
Total travellers 9


Launches[edit]

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Launch site LSP
Payload Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January[edit]

12 January
11:55
United StatesSpace Shuttle Columbia United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-61-C NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment 18 January
13:58
Successful
United StatesSatcom K1 RCA Americom Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
United StatesMSL-2 NASA Low Earth (Columbia) Microgravity experiments 18 January
13:58
Successful
United StatesGetaway Special Bridge NASA Low Earth (Columbia) Getaway Special carrier 18 January
13:58
Successful
Manned orbital flight with seven astronauts; Maiden flight of the Getaway Special Bridge
28 January
16:38
United StatesSpace Shuttle Challenger United StatesKennedy LC-39B United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-51-L NASA Intended: Low Earth Satellite deployment + 73 seconds Launch failure
United StatesTDRS-B NASA Intended: Geosynchronous Communications
United StatesSPARTAN 203 NASA Intended: Low Earth Examine Halley's Comet
Space Shuttle Challenger disaster; Vehicle disintegrated at + 73 seconds from an O-ring failure in the right SRB.
All seven astronauts were killed, including Christa McAuliffe, the intended first Teacher in Space.
First Shuttle launch from LC-39B.

February[edit]

9 February
10:06
United StatesAtlas H United StatesVandenberg SLC-3E United States
United StatesUSA-15 (NOSS-8) US Navy Low Earth SIGINT In orbit Successful
United StatesUSA-16 (NOSS) US Navy Low Earth SIGINT In orbit Successful
United StatesUSA-17 (NOSS) US Navy Low Earth SIGINT In orbit Successful
United StatesUSA-18 (NOSS) US Navy Low Earth SIGINT In orbit Successful
19 February
21:28
Soviet UnionProton-K Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 200/39 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionDOS-7 (Mir Core) Low Earth (Mir) Space station 23 March 2001
05:07
Successful
Core module of the Mir space station
22 February
01:44
European UnionAriane 1 FranceKourou ELA FranceArianespace
FranceSPOT 1 CNES Sun-synchronous Earth observation In orbit Successful
SwedenViking SSC Sun-synchronous Plasma research In orbit Successful
Final flight of Ariane 1
SPOT 1 retired on 31 December 1990 and orbit was lowered to a disposal orbit in 2003
Viking is the first Swedish satellite, and operations concluded on 12 May 1987

March[edit]

13 March
12:33
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionSoyuz T-15 Low Earth
(Salyut 7 and Mir)
Salyut 7 EO-5
Mir EO-1
16 July
12:34
Successful
Manned orbital flight with two cosmonauts; Final manned spaceflight to Salyut 7 and the first to Mir.
Final flight of the Soyuz-T spacecraft.
Only spacecraft to dock with two space stations during one flight.
19 March
10:08
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionProgress 25 Low Earth (Mir) Logistics 21 April
00:48
Successful
28 March
23:30
European UnionAriane 3 FranceKourou ELA FranceArianespace
United StatesGStar 2 GTE Spacenet Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
BrazilBrasilsat-A2 Embratel Current: Graveyard
Operational: Geosynchronous
Communications In orbit Successful
Brasilsat-A2 was retired on 6 March 2004 and moved 200 kilometres (120 mi) higher to a graveyard orbit

April[edit]

18 April
17:45
United StatesTitan 34D United StatesVandenberg SLC-4E United States
United StatesKH-9-20 NRO Intended: Sun-synchronous Reconnaissance + 8.5 seconds Launch Failure
United StatesSSF-D-6 NRO Intended: Sun-synchronous ELINT
SRM burnthrough, exploded 8.5 seconds after launch
Final flight of the KH-9 spacecraft
23 April
19:40
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionProgress 26 Low Earth (Mir) Logistics 23 June
18:41
Successful

May[edit]

3 May
22:18
United StatesDelta 3914 United StatesCape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 17A United StatesMcDonnell Douglas
United StatesGOES-G NOAA, NASA Geostationary Weather satellite 3 May Launch Failure
Rocket destroyed 71 sec. after liftoff due to engine shutdown; First launch from CCAFS after Space Shuttle Challenger disaster
21 May
08:21
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionSoyuz TM-1 Low Earth (Mir) Test flight 30 May
04:26
Successful
Maiden flight of Soyuz-TM spacecraft; Unmanned test flight
31 May
00:53
European UnionAriane 2 FranceKourou ELA FranceArianespace
United NationsIntelsat 514 Intelsat Intended: Geosynchronous Communications 31 May Launch Failure
Maiden flight of Ariane 2; Third stage failed to ignite

August[edit]

28 August
08:02
Soviet UnionMolniya-M/2BL Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 16/2 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 1774 (Oko) Molniya Missile defence 2 November 2010
15:14[1]
Successful

September[edit]

17 September
15:52
United StatesAtlas E/Star-37S-ISS United StatesVandenberg SLC-3W United States
United StatesNOAA-10 (NOAA-G) NOAA Sun-synchronous Meteorology In orbit Successful

November[edit]

14 November
00:23
United StatesScout G-1 United StatesVandenberg SLC-5 United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesPolar BEAR P87-1 US Air Force/STP Low Earth (Polar) In orbit Successful

December[edit]

5 December
02:30
United StatesAtlas G United StatesCape Canaveral LC-36B United States
United StatesUSA-20 (FLTSATCOM 7) US Navy Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful

Deep space rendezvous[edit]

Date (GMT) Spacecraft Event Remarks
24 January Voyager 2 Flyby of Uranus Closest approach: 71,000 kilometres (44,000 mi)
6 March Vega 1 Flyby of Halley's Comet Closest approach: 8,890 kilometres (5,520 mi)
8 March Suisei Flyby of Halley's Comet Closest approach: 151,000 kilometres (94,000 mi)
9 March Vega 2 Flyby of Halley's Comet Closest approach: 8,030 kilometres (4,990 mi)
11 March Sakigake Distant flyby of Halley's Comet Closest approach: 6,990,000 kilometres (4,340,000 mi)
14 March Giotto Flyby of Halley's Comet Closest approach: 595 kilometres (370 mi)

EVAs[edit]

Start date/time Duration End time Spacecraft Crew Remarks
28 May
05:43
3 hours
50 minutes
09:33 Salyut 7 EO-5 Soviet UnionLeonid Kizim
Soviet UnionVladimir Solovyov
Retrieved test panels from the outside of Salyut 7 and assembled a test "girder-constructor" apparatus in preparation for work on Mir.
31 May
04:57
5 hours 09:57 Salyut 7 EO-5 Soviet UnionLeonid Kizim
Soviet UnionVladimir Solovyov
Conducted additional tests on the experimental construction equipment, including the welding of several girders joints.

References[edit]

Generic references:

Footnotes[edit]