1987 in aviation

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This is a list of aviation-related events from 1987:

Events[edit]

January[edit]

  • During January and February, the United States Navy conducts proof-of-concept tests of Pioneer (later RQ-2 Pioneer) unmanned aerial vehicles aboard the battleship USS Iowa (BB-61) in the Caribbean to see if they can spot effectively for naval gunfire. Although four of the five Pioneers are lost during the tests, they demonstrate their ability to detect targets for Iowa '​s 16-inch (406-mm) guns.[1]
  • January 1 – United States Coast Guard HH-65 Dolphin and United States Navy H-3 Sea King helicopters help rescue people trapped inside the Dupont Plaza hotel in Puerto Rico after a fire breaks out there late on December 31, 1986.
  • January 3 – Varig Flight 797, a Boeing 707-379C, develops engine trouble after departing Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. It crashes while attempting to return to the airport, killing 50 of the 51 people on board.
  • January 7 – French Air Force jets attack the Libyan Air Force base in Ouadi Doum to avenge a raid by Libya against the French military three days before.
  • January 9 – In the Iran-Iraq War, an Iranian Hawk surface-to-air missile shoots down an Iraqi Air Force MiG-25 (NATO reporting name "Foxbat").[2]
  • January 14 – Iranian Hawk missiles shoot down two Iraqi Air Force Tupolev Tu-22 (NATO reporting name "Badger") bombers.[2]
  • January 15
    • Iraq claims to have shot down an Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force F-14 Tomcat in air-to-air combat.[3]
    • Iraq claims its aircraft have flown over 500 combat missions in support of Iraqi ground forces since January 14.[3]
    • Since January 1, Iraq has conducted airstrikes against five ships in the Persian Gulf and 30 economic and urban targets in Iran, while Iran has carried three airstrikes, all against economic and urban targets in Iraq.[4]
  • January 22 – Iran claims to have shot down 57 Iraqi aircraft since January 1, while Iraq admits to the loss of 15. [2]
  • January 28 – An Iranian Hawk missile shoots down an Iraqi MiG-23 (NATO reporting name "Flogger") flying at an altitude of 13,000 feet (3,962 meters) over the front lines at Basra, Iraq.[2]
  • January 30 – Since January 15, Iraq has conducted airstrikes against two ships in the Persian Gulf and 18 economic and urban targets in Iran, while Iran has carried out 12 airstrikes, all against urban and economic targets in Iraq.[4]
  • January 31
    • During the month, Iraq has conducted over 200 long-range air and ballistic missile strikes against 35 Iranian cities, including Qom, Nahawand, Ramhormoz, Isfahan, and Dezful. Iran claims that the raids have killed over 3,000 civilians in a single week, but later revises this claim to say that the raids killed over 1,800 Iranians and injured over 6,200.[4] Iran claims to have shot down 69 Iraqi aircraft during the month, while Iraq admits to the loss of no more than 38.[2]
    • During the month, Iran and Iraq have struck more targets in the Persian Gulf than in any other month of the Iran-Iraq War since it began in September 1980.[5]

February[edit]

  • British Airways is privatised.
  • During early and mid-February, the Iraqi Air Force conducts continual strikes against the 13 major cities in western Iran and against Tehran.[6]
  • During the month, a defecting Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force colonel says in Mujahideen-e-Khalq-sponsored press conferences that only one-third of Iran '​s 65 F-4 Phantom IIs, a third of its attack helicopters, 30 to 40 of its C-130 Hercules, six to ten of its F-14 Tomcats, and four of its tanker aircraft remain operational; that only one or two or its pre-Iran-Iraq War total of six P-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft remain fully operational; ; that several C-130s had crashed due to poor maintenance; that two-third of Iran '​s 65 flyable fighter aircraft were not fully functional; that all of Iran's RF-4E Phantom II reconnaissance aircraft had been shot down or lost in accidents; that Iran had shot down 55 of its own aircraft due to radar and identification-friend-or-foe problems, including a Dassault Falcon jet transport shot down by a Hawk surface-to-air missile in early February; that Iran had too few technical experts to keep its remaining aircraft flying; and that 180 Iranian pilots had defected, many with their aircraft, and that Iranian pilots were briefed on their missions only an hour or so ahead of time so that they would not have time to plan defections.[7]
  • February 1 - People Express Airlines ceases operations.
  • February 9 – A single Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force plane drops bombs on Basra, Iraq.[4]
  • February 14 – Since January 1, Iraq has conducted 75 airstrikes against Iranian economic installations.[4]
  • February 15
    • Iraq claims to have lost three aircraft over Iranian cities since 14 February, at least of them to an Iranian surface-to-air missile.[2]
    • Since February 1, Iraq has conducted airstrikes against four ships in the Persian Gulf and 27 economic and urban targets in Iran.[4]
  • February 18 – The latest phase of major Iraqi airstrikes against Iranian cities and Iranian ballistic missile strikes agains Iraqi cities, which began on January 9, ends. Iran claims that Iraqi aircraft have struck 35 Iranian cities and towns, killing 3,000 Iranians and injuring 9,000.[8]
  • February 28 – Since February 16, Iraq has conducted airstrikes against five ships in the Persian Gulf and eight economic and urban targets in Iran[9]

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

  • September 1 – In three straight days of air raids beginning on August 30, the Iraqi Air Force has hit Iranian tankers, oil facilities in the Persian Gulf, oil facilities ashore in Iran, and factories.[22]
  • September 15
    • The pace of Iraqi and Iranian airstrikes against shipping in the Persian Gulf and urban and economic targets on each other '​s territory has increased sharply during the first half of September. Since September 1, Iraq has conducted 22 airstrikes against Persian Gulf shipping and 35 against urban and economic targets in Iran, while Iran has conducted 10 airstrikes against shipping and eight against urban and economic targets in Iraq. [23]
    • A Eurocopter Panther sets new time-to-altitude records for helicopters in its class.
  • September 16 – Iraq begins a new series of airstrikes against Iranian ships and oil facilities. Iran responds, and by September 19 both sides are striking inland oil targets.[24]
  • September 21 – Two United States Army OH-6A Cayuse light attack helicopters equipped with night vision devices and operating from the United States Navy guided-missile frigate USS Jarrett (FFG-33) as part of Operation Prime Chance observe the Iranian naval landing craft Iran Ajr laying naval mines at night in the Persian Gulf. The helicopters fire on Iran Ajr, disabling her and killing three to five (sources differ) members of her crew. U.S. Navy SEALs soon board and seize Iran Ajr, which U.S. forces scuttle on 26 September.[25]
  • September 30 – Since September 16, Iraq has conducted 19 airstrikes against shipping in the Persian Gulf and 19 against urban and economic targets in Iraq. Iran has carried out seven airstrikes against Persian Gulf shipping and three against urban and economic targets in Iraq. [23]

October[edit]

  • October 3 – After United States Air Force E-3A Sentry airborne early warning and control aircraft detect 48 to 60 Iranian speed boats moving from Kharg Island across the Persian Gulf toward the Khafji oil field in Kuwait, Royal Saudi Air Force F-15 Eagle and Tornado aircraft join Royal Saudi Navy and United States Navy warships in moving toward them. After detecting the movement of the Saudi and American forces, the Iranian boats turn away and return to Iran.[26]
  • October 5 – The Iraqi Air Force begins a new series of long-range strikes targeting tankers loading at Iran '​s Larak Island, scoring major hits in the vicinity of Larak Island for the first time. The attack is the 21st Iraqi airstrike against Persian Gulf shipping since late August. Although it fails to sink or set afire any ships, it does hit four tankers, including Seawise Giant, the world '​s largest ship.[27]
  • October 8
    • A force of American helicopters including three United States Army MH-6 Little Bird night surveillance/attack helicopters attacks an Iranian naval force of a corvette and three speedboats approaching the barge Hercules, employed as a floating American base near Farsi Island in the Persian Gulf. The helicopters sink one Boghammer speedboat and damage two Boston Whaler-type boats, killing or mortally wounding eight Iranian crewmen, and United States Navy SEALs take six other Iranian crewmen prisoner.[28]
    • The Iraqi Air Force hits a Greek-owned merchant ship, killing one crewman. The strike brings the total number of Iraqi Air Force antishipping raids since October 1 to 12, and the number of ships Iraq and Iran have hit in the Persian Gulf since October 1 to nine, with seven crewmen killed and four injured in the attacks. The Iraqi Air Force has flown some 50 sorties a day against Persian Gulf shipping since October 5 and has lost one Mirage F-1 since October 1.[29]
  • October 12 – Since January 1, Iraq has made 60 air attacks against shipping in the Persian Gulf, three using bombs and the remainder using air-to-surface missiles, while Iran has conducted no air attacks against Persian Gulf shipping. The total of Iraqi air attacks against Persian Gulf shipping since 1984 has reached 185 – five using bombs, four using rockets, and 176 using air-to-surface missiles, while Iran's total since 1984 stands at 37.[30]
  • October 15 – Since October 1, Iraq has conducted 15 airstrikes against shipping in the Persian Gulf and 12 against urban and economic targets in Iran. Iran has carried out eight airstrikes against Persian Gulf shipping and six against urban and economic targets in Iraq.[23]
  • October 19 – In retaliation for a series of Iranian Silkworm missile strikes against Kuwait, a U.S. Navy force attacks Iran '​s Rustam oil platform in the Persian Gulf. Three U.S. Navy aircraft – two F-14 Tomcats and an E-2C Hawkeye – cover the operation. The only Iranian response is to launch a single Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force F-4 Phantom II, which turns away as soon as it detects the size of the American force.[31]
  • October 20 – Attempting to make an emergency landing at Indianapolis International Airport in Indianapolis, Indiana, a U.S. Air Force A-7D-4-CV Corsair II crashes into the nearby Airport Ramada Inn. The pilot survives, but nine people in the hotel die.
  • October 23 – The last F-104 Starfighter is phased out of German Air Force service.
  • October 24
    • Iran claims that three Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force fighter aircraft have flown within 10 miles (16 km) of a U.S. Navy warship in the Persian Gulf despite warnings not to do so.[32]
    • A Pan American World Airways office in Kuwait is damaged by a terrorist bomb.[32]
  • October 28 – Iraq claims hits on three Iranian tankers in an airstrike in the Persian Gulf. In fact, no ships are damaged.[33]
  • October 31
    • British Airways accepts the airline's first women pilots.
    • In late October, Iraqi Air Force aircraft strike the Agha Jari oil field in southwestern Iran, an Iranian oil refinery in Shiraz, and tankers shuttling oil cargoes in the Persian Gulf for Iran, hitting a supertanker in use as a storage hulk. Since October 16, Iraq has conducted nine airstrikes against shipping in the Persian Gulf and four against urban and economic targets in Iran. Iran has carried out one airstrike against Persian Gulf shipping and four against urban and economic targets in Iraq.[23][32]

November[edit]

December[edit]

  • During the month, Iraq focuses it air campaign against Iran on strikes against shipping in the Persian Gulf, although the Iraqi Air Force also occasionally raids Iranian dams and oil refineries.[36]
  • December 7 – David Burke, an angry former employee of USAir, the parent company of Pacific Southwest Airlines, shoots both pilots of Pacific Southwest Airlines Flight 1771, a BAe 146, while it is cruising at 22,000 feet (6,706 m) over the central California coast. No longer under control, the plane pitches forward and accelerates, crashing into the ground at a speed of around 700 mph (1,100 km/hr) near Cayucos, California, killing all 43 people on board.
  • December 8 – A Peruvian Naval Aviation Fokker F27 Friendship chartered by the Peruvian association football club Alianza Lima crashes into the Pacific Ocean off the Ventanilla District of Callao, Peru, killing 43 of the 44 people on board. Among the dead are José Casanova, Luis Antonio Escobar, José González Ganoza, Alfredo Tomassini, Johnny Watson, and 11 other players; head coach Marcos Calderon and nine other coaches and team staff; eight cheerleaders; three referees; two Peruvian Navy passengers; and five crew members. The pilot is the only survivor.
  • December 15 – Since December 1, Iraq has conducted eight airstrikes against shipping in the Persian Gulf and seven against urban and economic targets in Iran. Iran has carried out five airstrikes against Persian Gulf shipping and two against urban and economic targets in Iraq.[23]
  • December 22 – The Iraqi Air Force conducts an unusually long-range raid, striking shipping around Iran '​s Larak Island. The raid hits four supertankers employed as storage ships there, including the world '​s largest ship, Seawise Giant.[38]
  • December 31 – Iraq claims that it has hit four ships in the Persian Gulf since December 26, although none actually have been damaged. Since December 16, Iraq has conducted nine airstrikes against shipping in the Persian Gulf and a single airstrike against urban and economic targets in Iran. Iran has carried out 10 airstrikes against Persian Gulf shipping, but none against urban and economic targets in Iraq.[23] During 1987, Iraq has conducted 83 attacks – mostly by air – on shipping in the Persian Gulf, an increase from 65 in 1986, while Iran has conducted 80, mostly by using surface warships, speedboats, and naval mines. Since 1984, Iraq has attacked 215 ships in the Persian Gulf, destroying 49 and badly damaging nine, while Iran has destroyed 16. Despite the Iraqi and Iranian antishipping campaigns, Iranian oil exports for 1987 are 40 percent higher in 1987 than in 1986 and both Iranian and Iraqi oil exports have increased during the second half of 1987.[39]

First flights[edit]

February[edit]

March[edit]

April[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

October[edit]

November[edit]

December[edit]

Entered service[edit]

April - Tu-160 in Soviet Air Forces (184th Guards Heavy Bomber Regiment in Pryluki)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Polmar, Norman, "Historic Aircraft: The Pioneering Pioneer," Naval History, October 2013, p. 15.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 256.
  3. ^ a b Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 251.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 255.
  5. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 271.
  6. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 279.
  7. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, pp. 279, 343n.
  8. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 280.
  9. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, pp. 255-256.
  10. ^ Polmar, Norman, "Historic Aircraft: A Premier Fighter," Naval History, April 2012, p. 14.
  11. ^ Polmar, Norman, "Historic Aircraft: The Last Photo Plane," Naval History, October 2010, p. 65.
  12. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 262.
  13. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 310.
  14. ^ Brogan, Patrick, The Fighting Never Stopped: A Comprehensive Guide to Global Conflict Since 1945, New York: Vintage Books, 1990, ISBN 0-679-72033-2, pp. 230-231.
  15. ^ a b c Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 291.
  16. ^ "Today in History," The Washington Post Express, July 3, 2012, p. 32.
  17. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, pp. 347-348n.
  18. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, pp. 340.
  19. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 303.
  20. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 304.
  21. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 307.
  22. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 310.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 311.
  24. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 312-313.
  25. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 318.
  26. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 324.
  27. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, pp. 309, 325.
  28. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, pp. 325-326.
  29. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, pp. 325, 326.
  30. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, pp. 339.
  31. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, pp. 328-330.
  32. ^ a b c Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, pp. 333.
  33. ^ a b c Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, pp. 334.
  34. ^ a b c Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, pp. 335.
  35. ^ a b Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, p. 520.
  36. ^ a b Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, pp. 336.
  37. ^ Brogan, Patrick, The Fighting Never Stopped: A Comprehensive Guide to Global Conflict Since 1945, New York: Vintage Books, 1990, ISBN 0-679-72033-2, p. 197, 201.
  38. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, pp. 337.
  39. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War, Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8133-1330-9, pp. 338, 352n.
  40. ^ Taylor 1988, p. 174.
  41. ^ Taylor 1988, p. 107.
  42. ^ Taylor 1988, p. 8.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h Taylor 1988, p. [48].
  44. ^ Taylor 1988, p. [49].