1988 Tour de France

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1988 Tour de France
Race details
Dates 4–24 July 1988
Stages 22+Prelude
Distance 3,281.5 km (2,039 mi)
Winning time 84h 27' 53" (38.909 km/h or 24.177 mph)
Palmares
Winner  Pedro Delgado (Spain) (Reynolds)
Second  Steven Rooks (Netherlands) (PDM)
Third  Fabio Parra (Colombia) (Kelme)

Points  Eddy Planckaert (Belgium) (ADR)
Mountains  Steven Rooks (Netherlands) (PDM)
Youth  Erik Breukink (Netherlands) (Panasonic)
Combination  Steven Rooks (Netherlands) (PDM)
Sprints  Frans Maassen (Netherlands) (Superconfex)
Team PDM
Team Points PDM
1987
1989

The 1988 Tour de France was the 75th Tour de France, taking place from July 4 to July 24, 1988. It consisted of 22 stages over 3281 km, ridden at an average speed of 38.909 km/h.[1] The race was won by Pedro Delgado with the top three positions at the end of the race being occupied by specialist climbers. The points classification was won by Eddy Planckaert, while Steven Rooks won the mountains classification and the combination classification. The young rider classification was won by Erik Breukink, and Frans Maassen won the intermediate sprints classification. Both team classifications were won by the PDM team. During the race, Delgado failed a doping test, but because the product was not yet on the doping list from the Union Cycliste International, he was not penalized.

Changes from the 1987 Tour[edit]

Months before the start of the Tour, director Jean-François Naquet-Radiguet was replaced by Xavier Louy. [2]

The Union Cycliste International (UCI) introduced the rule that a cycling race could not span three weekends. The Tour de France could therefore only start on Monday 4 July, and the prologue was removed. The Tour organisers were not happy with this, and they extended the Tour by adding a 'prelude' or 'preface' to the race, circumventing the rule by making it unofficial. Each team would ride for 3.8 kilometres (2.4 mi), and one cyclist per team would then finish one kilometer on his own. The recorded times were not used for the rest of the Tour, but the cyclist with the fastest time would wear the yellow jersey in the next stage.[3]

The UCI had also introduced a rule that limited the number of cyclists in a race to 200. In 1987, the Tour had started with 207 cyclists, so because of this rule, the number of teams in the 1988 Tour was reduced from 23 to 22.[4]

Participants[edit]

The 1988 Tour started with 198 cyclists, divided into 22 teams of 9 cyclists. The 22 teams, announced two weeks before the Tour, were:[5][4]

The Tour organisation named three reserve teams, in case one of the 22 teams was unable to start:[4]

These reserve teams were unused.

The winner of the 1987 Tour de France, Stephen Roche, was unable to defend his title as he was coming back from knee surgeries. The winner from 1986, Greg LeMond, had still not fully recovered from the hunting accident that caused him to miss the 1987 Tour, and did not start this Tour.[2]

Remaining favourites were Pedro Delgado, who had finished in second place in 1987, and Andy Hampsten, the winner of the 1988 Giro d'Italia, several weeks before the Tour.[2]

Stages[edit]

The 1988 Tour de France started on 4 July, and had one rest day, during which the cyclists were transferred from Villard-de-Lans to Blagnac.[6]

Stage results[5][7]
Stage Date Route Terrain Length Winner
Preface 3 July PornichetLa Baule Individual time trial 1 km (0.62 mi)  Guido Bontempi (ITA)
1 4 July PontchâteauMachecoul Plain stage 92 km (57 mi)  Steve Bauer (CAN)
2 4 July La Haye-FouassièreAncenis Team time trial 48 km (30 mi) Panasonic
3 5 July NantesLe Mans Plain stage 213 km (132 mi)  Jean-Paul van Poppel (NED)
4 6 July Le Mans – Évreux Plain stage 158 km (98 mi)  Acácio da Silva (POR)
5 7 July Neufchâtel-en-BrayLiévin Plain stage 148 km (92 mi)  Jelle Nijdam (NED)
6 8 July Liévin – Wasquehal Individual time trial 52 km (32 mi)  Sean Yates (GBR)
7 9 July Wasquehal – Reims Plain stage 225 km (140 mi)  Valerio Tebaldi (ITA)
8 10 July Reims – Nancy Plain stage 219 km (136 mi)  Rolf Gölz (GER)
9 11 July Nancy – Strasbourg Hilly stage 161 km (100 mi)  Jérôme Simon (FRA)
10 12 July BelfortBesançon Hilly stage 149 km (93 mi)  Jean-Paul van Poppel (NED)
11 13 July Besançon – Morzine Stage with mountain(s) 232 km (144 mi)  Fabio Parra (COL)
12 14 July Morzine – Alpe d'Huez Stage with mountain(s) 227 km (141 mi)  Steven Rooks (NED)
13 15 July GrenobleVillard-de-Lans Individual time trial 38 km (24 mi)  Pedro Delgado (ESP)
14 17 July BlagnacGuzet-Neige Stage with mountain(s) 163 km (101 mi)  Massimo Ghirotto (ITA)
15 18 July Saint-GironsLuz Ardiden Stage with mountain(s) 187 km (116 mi)  Laudelino Cubino (ESP)
16 19 July Luz Ardiden – Pau Plain stage 35 km (22 mi)  Adrie van der Poel (NED)
17 19 July Pau – Bordeaux Plain stage 198 km (123 mi)  Jean-Paul van Poppel (NED)
18 20 July Ruelle-sur-TouvreLimoges Plain stage 94 km (58 mi)  Gianni Bugno (ITA)
19 21 July Limoges – Puy de Dôme Hilly stage 188 km (117 mi)  Johnny Weltz (DEN)
20 22 July Clermont-FerrandChalon-sur-Saône Plain stage 223 km (139 mi)  Thierry Marie (FRA)
21 23 July Santenay Individual time trial 46 km (29 mi)  Juan Martinéz (ESP)
22 24 July NemoursParis (Champs-Élysées) Plain stage 173 km (107 mi)  Jean-Paul van Poppel (NED)

The total length of this Tour was 3,286 kilometres (2,042 mi), which was the shortest since 1906.[2]

Since 1910, Belgian cyclists had won at least one stage in every Tour, but in 1988 they did not win any stages.[2]

Race details[edit]

The prelude was won by Guido Bontempi, and the first official stage was won by Steve Bauer. Bauer lost the lead in the next stage, a Team Time Trial, to Teun van Vliet.[2]

The favourites for the overall victory did not lose time in the first stages. The individual time trial of stage six did not change that, although some outsiders (Sean Kelly and Laurent Fignon) lost two minutes.[2]

In the eleventh stage, in hilly conditions, the first serious attacks were seen. Most contenders were able to stay in the main group, but Laurent Fignon and Jean-François Bernard lost a lot of time and were no longer seen as contenders.[2]

The twelfth stage included higher climbs. Delgado escaped on the climb of the Glandon, and he was joined by Steven Rooks. On the descent, they were joined by Gert-Jan Theunisse and Fabio Parra; the other cyclists were unable to get to them. Close to the finish, Rooks escaped and won the stage, and Delgado became the new leader of the general classification.[2] Delgado won the next stage, an uphill individual time trial, and solidified his lead.[2]

In the fourteenth stage, the favourites stayed together, and other cyclists were allowed to go for the stage victory. Philippe Bouvatier was going to win, until he took a wrong turn 1 km before the finish (at the point where the team cars were separated from the cyclists), and the victory went to Massimo Ghirotto. Ghirotto offered his prize (a new car) to Bouvatier.[2]

In the fifteenth stage, Delgado increased his lead. He let Laudelino Cubino get away and claim the victory, because Cubino was no threat for the general classification, and finished in third place, gaining time on all his direct competitors.[2]

Delgado further increased his lead in the nineteenth stage, by leaving his the other cyclists behind him on the final climb of the day.[2] Delgado was aiming to win the twenty-first stage, an individual time trial, and was leading at all the intermediate check points, but lost time in the final part of the stage, finishing in fourth place. This was more than enough to secure the overall victory.[2]

Doping cases[edit]

During the race, it was announced that doping tests of Pedro Delgado and Gert-Jan Theunisse indicated they had used doping products.

In Delgado's case, it was probenecid. Promenicid was a doping product according to the International Olympic Committee not yet on the doping list of the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), so Delgado was not sanctioned, and he remained the winner of the Tour.[6] Tour director Louy tried to convince Delgado to leave the race voluntarily, but Delgado refused.[8] Delgado admits that he took probenecid, but with the intention to assist the kidneys, not to mask anabolic steroids.[9]

Theunisse was found to have a high testosteron-level, which was on the UCI doping list. Theunisse received a penalty of ten minutes, which dropped him from fifth place to eleventh place in the general classification.[10]

One other cyclist was penalized during this Tour: Spanish cyclist Roque de la Cruz failed a doping test after the sixth stage, and was given the same penalty as Theunisse.[11]

In 2013, a notebook from the team doctor of the PDM team showed that all but one of the PDM cyclist were given doping in the 1988 Tour de France.[12]

Classification leadership table[edit]

There were several classifications in the 1988 Tour de France, six of them awarding jerseys to their leaders. The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour.[13]

Additionally, there was a points classification, where cyclists were given points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a green jersey.[13]

There was also a mountains classification. The organisation had categorized some climbs as either hors catégorie, first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorized climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a polkadot jersey.[13]

There was also a combination classification. This classification was calculated as a combination of the other classifications, its leader wore the combination jersey.[14]

Another classification was the intermediate sprints classification. This classification had similar rules as the points classification, but only points were awarded on intermediate sprints. Its leader wore a red jersey.[15]

The sixth individual classification was the young rider classification. This was decided the same way as the general classification, but only riders under 25 years were eligible, and the leader wore a white jersey.[13]

For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the leading team was the team with the lowest total time. The riders in the team that lead this classification wore yellow caps.[16] For the last time, there was also a team points classification. After each stage, the stage rankings of the best three cyclists per team were added, and the team with the least total lead this classification, and were identified by green caps.[14]

For the combativity classification, a jury gave points after each stage to the cyclists they considered most combative. The cyclist with the most votes in all stages lead the classification.

Results[edit]

General classification[edit]

Final general classification (1–10)[5]
Rank Name Team Time
1  Pedro Delgado (ESP) Reynolds 84h 27' 53"
2  Steven Rooks (NED) P.D.M. +7' 13"
3  Fabio Parra (COL) Kelme +9' 58"
4  Steve Bauer (CAN) Weinmann-La Suisse-SMM Uster +12' 15"
5  Eric Boyer (FRA) System U +14' 04"
6  Luis Herrera (COL) Café de Colombia +14' 36"
7  Ronan Pensec (FRA) Z-Peugeot +16' 52"
8  Álvaro Pino (ESP) BH +18' 36"
9  Peter Winnen (NED) Panasonic +19' 12"
10  Denis Roux (FRA) Z-Peugeot +20' 08"

Points classification[edit]

Final points classification (1–10)[17]
Rank Name Team Points
1  Eddy Planckaert (BEL) A.D.R-I.O.C. 278
2  Davis Phinney (USA) Seven Eleven-Hoonved 193
3  Sean Kelly (IRE) Kas-Canal 10-Mavic 183
4  Steven Rooks (NED) P.D.M. 154
5  Mathieu Hermans (NED) Caja Rural 153
6  Jean-Paul van Poppel (NED) SuperConfex 141
7  Etienne De Wilde (BEL) Sigma-Fina-Diamant 133
8  Adrie van der Poel (NED) P.D.M. 132
9  Manuel Jorge Domínguez (ESP) BH 114
10  Steve Bauer (CAN) Weinmann-La Suisse-SMM Uster 108

Mountains classification[edit]

Final mountains classification (1–10)[17][18]
Rank Name Team Points
1  Steven Rooks (NED) P.D.M. 326
2  Gert-Jan Theunisse (NED) P.D.M. 248
3  Pedro Delgado (ESP) Reynolds 223
4  Ronan Pensec (FRA) Z-Peugeot 130
5  Jérôme Simon (FRA) Z-Peugeot 127
6  Fabio Parra (COL) Kelme 123
7  Laudelino Cubino (ESP) BH 101
8  Álvaro Pino (ESP) BH 98
9  Samuel Cabrera (COL) Café de Colombia 82
10  Luis Herrera (COL) Café de Colombia 80

Team classification[edit]

Final team classification (1–5)[17]
Rank Team Time
1 PDM 253h 57' 58"
2 BH +12' 32"
3 Z-Peugeot +14' 43"
4 Weinmann +31' 23"
5 Système U +32' 43"

Team points classification[edit]

Final team points classification (1–5)[18]
Rank Team Points
1 PDM 1028
2 7 Eleven 1713
3 Weinmann 1737
4 Système U 1787
5 Z-Peugeot 1789

Combination classification[edit]

Final combination classification (1–5)[18]
Rank Name Team Points
1  Steven Rooks (NED) P.D.M. 84
2  Gert-Jan Theunisse (NED) P.D.M. 70
3  Pedro Delgado (ESP) Reynolds 63
4  Eddy Planckaert (BEL) A.D.R-I.O.C. 49
5  Jérôme Simon (FRA) Z-Peugeot 47

Young rider classification[edit]

Young rider classification (1–5)[18]
Rank Name Team Time
1  Erik Breukink (NED) Panasonic 84h 50' 59"
2  Raúl Alcalá (MEX) Seven Eleven-Hoonved +8' 08"
3  Jaanus Kuum (NOR) A.D.R-I.O.C. +15' 47"
4  Peter Stevenhaagen (NED) P.D.M. +22' 21"
5  Philippe Bouvatier (FRA) BH +25' 08"

Intermediate sprints classification[edit]

Intermediate sprints classification (1–10)[17]
Rank Name Team Points
1  Frans Maassen (NED) SuperConfex 276
2  Eddy Planckaert (BEL) A.D.R-I.O.C. 214
3  Johnny Weltz (DEN) Fagor 64
4  Davis Phinney (USA) Seven Eleven-Hoonved 55
5  Gert-Jan Theunisse (NED) P.D.M. 50
6  Ludo Peeters (BEL) SuperConfex 35
7  Jérôme Simon (FRA) Z-Peugeot 32
8  Dag Otto Lauritzen (NOR) Seven Eleven-Hoonved 30
9  Martial Gayant (FRA) Toshiba 30
10  Bruno Leali (ITA) Carrera 30

Combativity classification[edit]

Combativity classification (1–5)[18]
Rank Name Team Points
1  Jérôme Simon (FRA) Z-Peugeot 38
2  Régis Clère (FRA) Teka 30
3  Johnny Weltz (DEN) Fagor 30
4  Pedro Delgado (ESP) Reynolds 25
5  Rolf Gölz (GER) SuperConfex 24

Aftermath[edit]

The owners of the Tour de France thought that director Louy had handled the Delgado affair in the wrong way, and they fired him later that year. They appointed Jean-Marie Leblanc as his replacement.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Augendre, Jacques (2009). "Guide Historique" (PDF) (in French). Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 2009-10-09. Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol (2008). The Story of the Tour de France: 1965-2007. Dog Ear Publishing. pp. 178–184. ISBN 1-59858-608-4. Retrieved 30 March 2013. 
  3. ^ Van den Bogaart, Ronnie. "Een merkwaardige tourstart" (in Dutch). Sportgeschiedenis. Retrieved 10 February 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c "TVM-ploeg derde reserve Tour". Limburgsch Dagblad (in Dutch). Koninklijke Bibliotheek. 16 June 1988. p. 23. Retrieved 28 December 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c "75ème Tour de France 1988" (in French). Memoire du cyclisme. Retrieved 15 August 2011. (registration required)
  6. ^ a b Augendre, Jacques (2009). "Guide Historique, Part 4" (PDF) (in French). Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2010. 
  7. ^ Zwegers, Arian. "Tour de France GC Top Ten". CVCC. Archived from the original on 2009-06-10. Retrieved 15 Aug 2011. 
  8. ^ a b Vanwalleghem, Rik (17 July 2004). "Kuitenbijter, Spelregels". De Standaard (in Dutch). Retrieved 10 February 2012. 
  9. ^ "Pedro Delgado turns 50 and reflects on his career". Cyclingnews. Future Publishing Limited. 15 April 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2013. 
  10. ^ "Theunisse takes on coaching role at Rusvelo". VeloNation. 5 January 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2012. 
  11. ^ "Delgado drugs shock". Glasgow Herald. 21 July 1988. Retrieved 30 March 2013. 
  12. ^ "Seven out of eight PDM riders doped at 1988 Tour de France". Cyclingnews. Future Publishing Limited. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2013. 
  13. ^ a b c d Christian, Sarah (2 July 2009). "Tour de France demystified — Evaluating success". RoadCycling.co.nz Ltd. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  14. ^ a b Mark, Eddy van der. "Tour Xtra: Other Classifications & Awards". Chippewa Valley Cycling Club. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  15. ^ Mark, Eddy van der. "Tour Xtra: Intermediate Sprints Classification". Chippewa Valley Cycling Club. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  16. ^ Chauner, David; Halstead, Michael (1990). The Tour de France Complete Book of Cycling. Villard. ISBN 0679729364. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  17. ^ a b c d "Clasificaciones oficiales". El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 25 July 1988. p. 10. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  18. ^ a b c d e "Tour in cijfers". Leidsch Dagblad (in Dutch) (Regionaal Archief Leiden). 25 July 1988. p. 16.