1989 Atlantic hurricane season
|Season summary map|
|First system formed||June 24, 1989|
|Last system dissipated||December 4, 1989|
|Strongest storm||Hugo – 918 mbar (hPa) (27.12 inHg), 160 mph (260 km/h)|
|Major hurricanes (Cat. 3+)||2|
|Total damage||$10.74 billion (1989 USD)|
|Atlantic hurricane seasons
1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991
The 1989 Atlantic hurricane season was the costliest season at the time. The season officially began on June 1, and ended on November 30. It was an above average season due to a La Niña that developed during the previous year. The first storm, Tropical Depression One, developed on June 15, and dissipated two days later without effects on land. Later that month, Tropical Storm Allison caused severe flooding, especially in Texas and Louisiana. Tropical Storm Barry, Tropical Depressions Six, Nine, and Thirteen, and Hurricanes Erin and Felix caused negligible impact. Hurricane Gabrielle and Tropical Storm Iris caused light effects on land, with the former resulting in 9 fatalities from rip currents offshore the East Coast of the United States and Atlantic Canada, while the latter produced minor flooding in the United States Virgin Islands.
The most notable storm of the season was Hurricane Hugo, a Category 5 hurricane that caused at least $10 billion (1989 USD) in damage and 111 fatalities as it ravaged the Lesser Antilles and the United States, especially the state of South Carolina. Hugo ranked as the costliest Atlantic hurricane until Hurricane Andrew in the 1992 season, and has since fallen to the eighth costliest hurricane following the even more destructive storms during the 2000s decade. Few other storms in 1989 caused significant damage; Hurricane Chantal and Hurricane Jerry both caused moderate damage in Texas; Hurricane Dean also caused light damage in Bermuda and the Canadian province of Newfoundland. Tropical Storm Karen, the final storm of the season, brought heavy rainfall and a tornado to Cuba, before dissipating on December 4. Overall, the storms of the season collectively caused 147 fatalities and $10.74 billion (1989 USD) in damage.
- 1 Season summary
- 2 Storms
- 2.1 Tropical Depression One
- 2.2 Tropical Storm Allison
- 2.3 Tropical Storm Barry
- 2.4 Hurricane Chantal
- 2.5 Hurricane Dean
- 2.6 Tropical Depression Six
- 2.7 Hurricane Erin
- 2.8 Hurricane Felix
- 2.9 Tropical Depression Nine
- 2.10 Hurricane Gabrielle
- 2.11 Hurricane Hugo
- 2.12 Tropical Storm Iris
- 2.13 Tropical Depression Thirteen
- 2.14 Hurricane Jerry
- 2.15 Tropical Storm Karen
- 3 Storm names
- 4 Season effects
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
|Record high activity||28||15||8|
|Record low activity||1||0 (tie)||0|
Forecasts of hurricane activity are issued before each hurricane season by noted hurricane experts such as Dr. William M. Gray and his associates at Colorado State University (CSU). A normal season as defined by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has eleven named storms, of which six reach hurricane strength, and two major hurricanes. On May 31, 1989, it was forecast by CSU that there would be seven named storms, four of which would intensify into a hurricane; there was no prediction of the number of major hurricanes (Category 3+ on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale).
The Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1, 1989. It was an above average season in which 15 tropical depressions formed. Eleven depressions attained tropical storm status, and seven of these attained hurricane status. Two hurricanes further intensified into major hurricanes. The season was above average most likely because of relatively small amounts of dust within the Saharan Air Layer. Four hurricanes and one tropical storm made landfall during the season and caused 147 deaths and $10.74 billion in damage (1989 USD; $20.2 billion 2013 USD). The last storm of the season, Tropical Storm Karen, dissipated on December 4, four days after the official end of the season on November 30.
Tropical cyclogenesis in the 1989 Atlantic hurricane season began with a tropical depression developing on June 16. Later that month, another tropical depression developed, and intensified, eventually becoming Tropical Storm Allison. After June, the month of July was slightly more active with three tropical depressions developing; however, the latter two (Hurricane Chantal and Hurricane Dean) did not form until extremely late in the month. August was the most active month of the season, with a total of seven tropical cyclones either existing or developing in that period. Although September is the climatological peak of hurricane season, only two tropical cyclones developed in that month, and both of which later become Hurricane Hugo and Tropical Storm Iris. Two tropical cyclones also developed in October, and the latter one in that month eventually became Hurricane Jerry. Finally, one tropical cyclone developed in November; it eventually became Tropical Storm Karen, and lasted outside the bounds of hurricane season, dissipating on December 4.
The season's activity was reflected with a cumulative accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) rating of 135, which is classified as "above normal". ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so storms that last a long time, as well as particularly strong hurricanes, have high ACEs. ACE is only calculated for full advisories on tropical systems at or exceeding 34 knots (39 mph, 63 km/h) or tropical storm strength. Subtropical cyclones are excluded from the total.
Timeline of events
Tropical Depression One
|Tropical depression (SSHS)|
|Duration||June 15 – June 17|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 1007 mbar (hPa)|
The first tropical depression of the season developed on June 15 from a frontal zone situated 440 mi (710 km) east of Tampico, Mexico. The depression headed southeastward toward Mexico, and did not intensify into a tropical storm as predicted. Nearing the coast of Mexico, the tropical depression was absorbed into a larger extratropical system on June 17. Although the tropical depression was in close proximity to land, there was no effects on land, and as such, there was no damage or fatalities reported.
Tropical Storm Allison
|Tropical storm (SSHS)|
|Duration||June 24 – June 27|
|Peak intensity||50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 999 mbar (hPa)|
The second tropical depression developed on June 24 in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, from the interaction of a tropical wave and the remnants of eastern Pacific Hurricane Cosme. Heading northward, it slowly intensified, becoming Tropical Storm Allison early on June 26. Allison continued to slowly intensify, and made landfall near Freeport with winds of 50 mph (80 km/h) on the following day. Moving inland, Allison rapidly weakened over eastern Texas, and transitioned into an extratropical storm on June 28. Although it rapidly became extratropical over land, the remnants of Allison meandered over the Southern United States and reached as far north as Indiana. The remnants turned south and then west-northwest after reaching Mississippi, before finally dissipating over Arkansas on July 7.
Allison caused significant flooding in several states, especially Louisiana and Texas. Precipitation from the storm peaked at 25.27 inches (642 mm) in Winnfield, Louisiana. As a result, more than 1,200 structures in Louisiana were flooded and over 430,000 acres of crops were ruined, mostly soybeans and cotton. Three drowning fatalities were also reported. Several tornadoes were spawned in the state, the worst occurred in Ouachita Parish. It destroyed 5 homes, severely damaged to 10 others, and inflicted minor impact on 100 houses. In Texas, flooding was more severe. More than 6,200 homes received water damage, forcing hundreds of residents to evacuate and stranding thousands of other people. Three deaths occurred in Texas, all of which were teenage boys that drowned. In Mississippi, the storm caused $60 million in losses and five drowning deaths. Widespread, but mostly minor flooding was reported elsewhere in the Eastern United States. Overall, damage was estimated to have reached $360–560 million and there 11 fatalities.
Tropical Storm Barry
|Tropical storm (SSHS)|
|Duration||July 9 – July 14|
|Peak intensity||50 mph (80 km/h) (1-min) 1005 mbar (hPa)|
Tropical Storm Barry developed out of a tropical wave which moved off the west coast of Africa on July 7. The wave quickly developed a low-level circulation by July 9 and was designated Tropical Depression Three. The depression was located midway between Africa and the Lesser Antilles and traveling to the northwest in response to an area of high pressure located north of the Azores. The depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Barry on July 11. Barry slowly intensified and reached its peak intensity of 50 mph (85 km/h) the next day. By July 13, Barry weakened back to a depression and dissipated shortly after while located 545 mi (880 km) northeast of the Lesser Antilles.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||July 30 – August 3|
|Peak intensity||80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min) 984 mbar (hPa)|
In late July, a tropical disturbance within the Intertropical convergence zone was first observed near Trinidad and Tobago. Eventually the disturbance reached the Gulf of Mexico and developed into a tropical depression on July 30. While heading north-northwestward, the depression steadily intensified and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Chantal on the following day. Thereafter, Chantal quickly strengthen and became a hurricane on August 1. After intensifying slightly further, Chantal made landfall near High Island, Texas later that day. The storm quickly weakened upon moving inland and fell to tropical storm intensity a few hours after landfall. Early on August 2, Chantal weakened to a tropical depression and dissipated over Oklahoma by August 4.
While making landfall in Texas, the storm produced relatively small tides, with most locations reporting waves less than 4 feet (1.2 m) in height. However, some locations experienced extensive beach erosion. In addition, there were numerous rescues made by the U.S. Coast Guard. Due to both rainfall and high winds at least 3,000 homes were damaged, and numerous trees and sign were knocked down. Two tornadoes were reported, with one causing the destruction of a shed in Crystal Beach, Texas, and the other knocking over several trees and mobile homes in Iota, Louisiana. Elsewhere, Chantal and its remnants brought light to moderate rainfall to several other states, although affects were minor in other states. Overall, 13 fatalities occurred, all of which due to drowning, and at least $100 million in damage was reported.
|Category 2 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||July 31 – August 9|
|Peak intensity||105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min) 968 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave developed into Tropical Depression Five on July 31. The depression was situated about half way between Cape Verde and the Lesser Antilles, and intensified into Tropical Storm Dean on August 1. Dean headed generally west-northwestward, and eventually intensified into a hurricane on the following day. Dean remained a weak Category 1 hurricane as it curved northward, bypassing the Lesser Antilles. Tracking northward, Dean accelerated and intensified into a Category 2 hurricane as it crossed Bermuda late on August 6. Continuing to accelerate, Dean curved northeastward, and weakened back to a tropical storm before making landfall in southern Newfoundland on August 8. Dean continued in the northeast direction and lost tropical characteristics south of Greenland on the following day.
As Dean approached the Lesser Antilles, heavy rainfall and strong winds were reported in Antigua and Barbuda. However, no damage was reported. In Bermuda, winds gusted up to 113 mph (182 km/h) and 3–5 inches (76.2–127 mm) of precipitation fell. Flooding was reported on Bermuda, and damage on the island was nearly $9 million (1989 USD, $16.9 million 2013 USD). Although Dean caused no fatalities, 16 people were injured. Rough sea damaged 20 pleasure boats, while flooding damaged 15 houses. Storm surge up to 1.7 feet (0.52 m) occurred in North Carolina, though no significant erosion was reported. In Atlantic Canada, light to moderate rainfall was reported, and tropical storm force winds were observed in some areas. Furthermore, waves at 26 ft (7.92 m) were reported on Sable Island.
Tropical Depression Six
|Tropical depression (SSHS)|
|Duration||August 8 – August 17|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)|
Tropical Depression Six had developed on August 16 from a tropical wave about 600 mi (965 km) east of the Leeward Islands. Because of its close proximity to the Lesser Antilles, a tropical storm watch was issued for that area of the Caribbean Sea. After less than 24 hours as a tropical depression, an upper-level low increased wind shear on the system, and it dissipated later that day. The wave eventually split in two, with the south part eventually becoming Hurricane Lorena in the eastern Pacific Ocean.
|Category 2 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||August 18 – August 27|
|Peak intensity||105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min) 968 mbar (hPa)|
An organized tropical wave was seen emerging off the coast of Africa on August 16 by METEOSAT satellite imagery. Once the system emerged off the coast of Africa into the cool eastern Atlantic Ocean, its convection diminished but left a small, well-organized low-level circulation. Slowly the tropical wave began to regain its convection and it became a tropical depression just southeast of the Cape Verde Islands early on August 18 based on Dvorak satellite observations. Erin became a tropical storm on August 19 while 500 mi (804.7 km) west of Cape Verde. The interaction between the tropical depression, a tropical wave moving through the central Atlantic, and a subtropical system to the north, caused Erin to move north-northwestward. It continued to be steered north-northwestward until August 21, when it turned northwards.
Erin became a hurricane on August 22 after being in the environment of the northeastern quadrant of an upper-level low, which caused the stream above to become weaker and more conflicting. It slowed and began to move more northwestward while northeast of the upper-level low. However, shortly afterward, a wave moving westward into Erin forced it to move north and eventually north-northeast. The storm then began weakening and degenerated into a tropical storm on August 27. Shortly thereafter, Erin transitioned into an extratropical cyclone.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||August 26 – September 9|
|Peak intensity||85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min) 979 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave was observed over northwestern Africa on August 24. By the following day, the system moved into the Atlantic Ocean near Dakar, Senegal. It immediately began organized and became Tropical Depression Eight at 0000 UTC on August 26. The depression initially headed west-northwestward and strengthened into Tropical Storm Felix later that day. Shortly thereafter, the storm grazed Cape Verde, with some islands reporting sustained winds near 35 mph (55 km/h). Between August 27 and August 29, Felix drifted north-northwestward in response to a persistent upper-level trough. Southwesterly winds sheared away much of the deep convection, causing Felix to weaken back to a tropical depression on August 29.
The storm then headed northwestward, until a weak frontal trough turned Felix northward on September 1. Wind shear decreased, allowing Felix to become a tropical storm again on September 3. The storm continued to strengthen while moving west-northwestward and by early on September 5, it became a hurricane. Later that day, Felix peaked with winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). Drifting north-northeastward, the storm eventually began to accelerate, after weakening back to a tropical storm on September 7, due to colder sea surface temperatures and increasing wind shear. At 1200 UTC on September 9, Felix became extratropical while located well east of Cape Race, Newfoundland.
Tropical Depression Nine
|Tropical depression (SSHS)|
|Duration||August 27 – August 28|
|Peak intensity||30 mph (45 km/h) (1-min)|
Tropical Depression Nine developed from a tropical wave 490 mi (790 km) east of Barbados on August 27. However, on the following day, an Air Force plane did not indicate a low-level circulation, and Tropical Depression Nine had degenerated back into a tropical wave. Tropical Depression Nine did not re-develop in the Atlantic or the Caribbean Sea, although the remnants entered the Pacific and regenerated into Hurricane Octave on September 8.
|Category 4 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||August 30 – September 13|
|Peak intensity||145 mph (230 km/h) (1-min) 937 mbar (hPa)|
The tenth tropical depression of the season developed from a tropical wave on August 30. The depression quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Gabrielle on the following day. Gabrielle moved generally westward, but curved slightly west-northwestward after intensifying into a hurricane on September 1. Further intensification continued, and Gabrielle eventually peaked as a moderately strong Category 4 hurricane on September 5. After becoming a Category 4 hurricane, Gabrielle slowly curved nearly due north. Gabrielle significantly weakened while heading northward, and maximum sustained winds dropped from a low-end Category 4 hurricane intensity, to a strong Category 2 hurricane, within 12 hours on September 7. While weakening as it headed northward, Gabrielle bypassed the island of Bermuda early on September 8.
Gabrielle further weakened to a Category 1 hurricane late on September 8, and became nearly stationary roughly almost halfway between Bermuda and Cape Race, Newfoundland. Remaining nearly stationary, Gabrielle weakened to a tropical storm, and headed due westward on September 10. After heading westward, Gabrielle made a sharp turn to the northeast on September 11, and it weakened to a tropical depression on the following day. By September 13, the depression merged with a storm developing off Newfoundland. Although it never approached land, Gabrielle was an extremely large and powerful storm that generated swells up to 20 ft (6 m) all the way from the Lesser Antilles to Canada; waves reached a height of 30 ft (9 m) in Nova Scotia. Large waves responsible for eight deaths on the East Coast of the United States; almost all of the fatalities occurred in New England. In addition, one fatality was reported in Canada, when a man drowned near Ketch Harbor, Nova Scotia.
|Category 5 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||September 10 – September 22|
|Peak intensity||160 mph (260 km/h) (1-min) 918 mbar (hPa)|
A westward moving tropical wave developed into Tropical Depression Eleven on September 10, while located southeast of Cape Verde. It headed generally westward and intensified into Tropical Storm Hugo on September 11. Hugo became a hurricane by September 13. After becoming a major hurricane early on September 15, rapid intensification commenced, and less than 24 hours later, Hugo peaked as a Category 5 hurricane as winds of 160 mph (260 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 918 mbar (27.1 inHg). Six hours later, Hugo weakened back to a Category 4 hurricane. After weakening on September 17, Hugo entered the Caribbean Sea after passing between Guadeloupe and Montserrat with winds near 140 mph (230 km/h) and later made landfall on St. Croix at the same intensity. Hugo was further downgraded to a Category 3 hurricane, before landfall on eastern Puerto Rico. The storm weakened to a Category 2 hurricane on September 18, after re-emerging into the Atlantic. As Hugo accelerated to the northwest, re-intensification occurred, and it eventually reached a secondary peak intensity as a low-end Category 4 hurricane. Early on September 22, Hugo made landfall near Charleston, South Carolina with winds of 140 mph (225 km/h). After landfall, Hugo rapidly weakened as it turned to the northeast, and transitioned into an extratropical cyclone in northwestern Pennsylvania on September 23. The remnants continued rapidly northeastward, and dissipated on September 25 near Greenland.
The storm caused significant damage in Guadeloupe due to winds of 140 mph (230 km/h). Eleven fatalities and 107 injuries were reported, while 10,000 homes were destroyed, leaving 35,000 people homeless. Crop losses were extreme, with the storm wiping out 100% of the banana crop, 50% of the sugar cane crop, and nearly all coconut crops. Ten people were killed on Montserrat, 89 injured, and damage topped $260 million. In Antigua, one person was killed and 30% of the homes damaged. Dominica suffered the loss of 80% of its banana crop, and landslides cut off many towns for days. Two people were killed, 80 were injured, and 90% of the buildings were damaged or destroyed on Saint Croix. Damage estimates for Saint Croix exceeded $1 billion. Damage from erosion and crop losses in St. Kitts reached $43 million and one fatality was reported. In Puerto Rico, the storm downed thousands of trees in the El Yunque National Forest and caused near complete destruction of coffee and damage crops. Additionally, 28,000 people were left homeless, 12 deaths were reported, and losses exceeded $1 billion. In South Carolina alone, the Red Cross estimates that 3,307 single family homes were destroyed, 18,171 were inflicted major damage, and 56,580 sustained minor impact. Additionally, more than 12,600 mobile homes and 18,000 multi-family houses were either damaged or destroyed. The most significant impact elsewhere in the United States occurred in North Carolina, where 205 structure were destroyed, 1,149 suffered major damage, and 2,638 were inflicted minor impacts. There was one fatality and damaged reached $1 billion. Overall, Hugo caused at least 56 fatalities and $10 billion in losses, making it the costliest hurricane in the Atlantic basin, at the time.
Tropical Storm Iris
|Tropical storm (SSHS)|
|Duration||September 16 – September 21|
|Peak intensity||70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min) 1001 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave moved off the coast of northwest Africa on September 12, showing signs of organization three days later. Late on September 16, the National Hurricane Center classified it as Tropical Depression Twelve, about halfway between the southern Lesser Antilles and the Cape Verde islands. It slowly strengthened despite its proximity to Hurricane Hugo, and intensified into Tropical Storm Iris early on September 18. After attaining that status, Iris turned to the north-northwest, paralleling the Leeward Islands, and initially there was uncertainty in its path due to potential Fujiwhara, or binary interaction with Hugo. On September 19, Iris attained peak winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) about 260 mi (420 km) northeast of Barbuda. After reaching peak intensity, Iris weakened due to increased wind shear from Hugo. On September 21, the winds decreased below tropical storm status, after the center became exposed from the convection. The next day Iris dissipated, although a remnant circulation persisted and tracked toward southern Florida.
As Iris approached the Lesser Antilles, a tropical storm warning was issued for Barbados and St. Vincent and the Grenadines on September 18. Simultaneously, a tropical storm watch was issued for Trinidad and Tobago. Six hours later, both the tropical storm watch and warning was discontinued. While Iris was a strong tropical storm, it produced 7.53 in (191 mm) of rainfall on Saint John in the U.S. Virgin Islands, resulting in flooding. There were few reports of winds or rainfall on other islands, due to Hugo destroying observation stations a few days prior.
Tropical Depression Thirteen
|Tropical depression (SSHS)|
|Duration||October 2 – October 5|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)|
A tropical wave developed into Tropical Depression Thirteen on October 2, while located a few hundred miles east of the Lesser Antilles. Although the depression was predicted to intensify to near hurricane status by October 5, a mid-latitude trough increased wind shear, inducing weakening. Later on October 3, the National Hurricane Center began to forecast weakening of the depression. Late on October 3, the National Hurricane Center discontinued advisories, citing that satellite imagery only indicated a swirl of low-level clouds.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHS)|
|Duration||October 12 – October 16|
|Peak intensity||85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min) 983 mbar (hPa)|
Hurricane Jerry formed from an African tropical wave that failed to developed until crossing the Yucatán Peninsula and emerging into the Bay of Campeche on October 12. Developed as the fourteenth tropical depression of the season, the system quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Jerry on the following day. It tracked generally northwards while intensifying, and reached hurricane strength on October 15. After intensifying slightly more, Jerry made landfall near Jamaica Beach, Texas with winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). Jerry rapidly weakened after moving inland, and dissipated by October 16. The remnants moved through the Tennessee Valley ahead of a frontal zone, and eventually offshore the coast of the Mid-Atlantic states.
As Jerry approached the coast, light storm surge occurred in Louisiana and Texas, with the highest waves reaching 7 ft (2.1 m) in Baytown, Texas. Three people died when an automobile was blown off the Galveston, Texas seawall and State Highway 87 was washed away from High Island, Texas to the eastern portion of Sea Rim State Park. This was the last time that Highway 87 was open to traffic across much of Jefferson County due to increasing erosion. In addition, light to moderate rainfall fell in the path of Jerry and its remnants, with precipitation peaking at 6.40 in (163 mm) in Silsbee, Texas, and 6.71 in (170 mm) in eastern Kentucky. Damage is estimated at $70 million (1989 USD, $132 million 2013 USD).
Tropical Storm Karen
|Tropical storm (SSHS)|
|Duration||November 28 – December 4|
|Peak intensity||60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 1000 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on November 13, and failed to organize until reaching the western Caribbean Sea. An upper-level anticyclone provided favorable conditions, allowing thunderstorms to concentrate around a developing low-level circulation. On November 28, satellite imagery and reconnaissance aircraft indicated the development of Tropical Depression Fifteen just north of the Honduras coast. It moved northwestward then northeastward, intensifying into Tropical Storm Karen on November 30 while southwest of Isla de la Juventud off the south coast of Cuba; it was named on the last day of the hurricane season. Within 12 hours of reaching tropical storm intensity, Karen reached peak winds of 60 mph (95 km/h), and around the same time a building ridge in the Gulf of Mexico forced it southeastward.
While Karen was still a tropical depression, tropical storm watches were issued for Cozumel on the Yucatán Peninsula, Isle de la Juventud, and western Cuba; the latter two were upgraded to warnings after Karen attained tropical storm intensity. The storm dropped heavy rainfall in Cuba, reaching over 15 in (380 mm) on Isle de la Juventud. Wind gusts reached 60 mph (97 km/h), and there were reports of a tornado, but no damage or fatalities were reported. After affecting Cuba, Karen turned to the southwest while steadily weakening. It briefly threatened Belize, prompting a tropical storm watch, but the storm turned to the southeast and dissipated on December 4; its remnants later moved over Nicaragua. Karen was the last tropical cyclone to exist in December until Hurricane Nicole in 1998.
The following names were used for named storms that formed in the north Atlantic in 1989. The names not retired from this list were used again in the 1995 season. This is the same list used for the 1983 season except for Allison, which replaced Alicia. Storms were named Allison, Erin, Felix, Gabrielle, Hugo, Iris, Jerry, and Karen for the first time in 1989. The World Meteorological Organization retired one name in the spring of 1990: Hugo. It was replaced in the 1995 season by Humberto. Names that were not assigned are marked in gray.
This is a table of the storms in 1989 and their landfall(s), if any. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but are still storm-related. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical or a wave or low.
|Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale|
|Dates active||Storm category
at peak intensity
|One||June 15 – June 16||Tropical depression||35||Unknown||none||0||0|
|Allison||June 24 – July 1||Tropical storm||50||999||Freeport, Texas||June 27||50||560||11|
|Barry||July 9 – July 14||Tropical storm||55||1005||none||0||0|
|Chantal||July 30 – August 4||Category 1 hurricane||80||986||High Island, Texas||July 31||80||100||13|
|Dean||July 31 – August 9||Category 2 hurricane||105||968||Bermuda||August 6||100||9||0|
|Marystown, Newfoundland and Labrador||August 8||65|
|Six||August 16 – August 16||Tropical depression||35||Unknown||none||0||0|
|Erin||August 18 – August 27||Category 2 hurricane||105||968||none||0||0|
|Felix||August 26 – September 10||Category 1 hurricane||85||979||Cape Verde Islands (Direct hit, no landfall)||August 26||45||Minimal||0|
|Nine||August 28 – August 30||Tropical depression||35||Unknown||none||0||0|
|Gabrielle||August 30 – September 13||Category 4 hurricane||145||939||none||0||9|
|Hugo||September 9 – September 25||Category 5 hurricane||160||918||Guadeloupe||September 17||140||10,000||111|
|Vieques, Puerto Rico||September 18||125|
|Fajardo, Puerto Rico||September 18||125|
|Near Charleston, South Carolina||September 22||140|
|Iris||September 16 – September 21||Tropical storm||70||1001||none||0||0|
|Thirteen||October 2 – October 3||Tropical depression||35||Unknown||none||0||0|
|Jerry||October 12 – October 16||Category 1 hurricane||85||983||Galveston, Texas||October 16||75||70||3|
|Karen||November 28 – December 4||Tropical storm||60||1000||none||Minimal||0|
|15 cyclones||June 24 – December 4||160||918||7 landfalls||10,739||147|
- List of Atlantic hurricanes
- List of Atlantic hurricane seasons
- 1989 Pacific hurricane season
- 1989 Pacific typhoon season
- 1989 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
- Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone seasons: 1988–89, 1989–90
- Associated Press (June 1, 1989). "4 hurricane for the Atlantic predicted in 1989". Star-News. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- Dorst, Neil (January 12, 2010). "FAQ: When is hurricane season?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Archived from the original on 24 April 2011. Retrieved April 10, 2011.
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- Case, Bob & Mayfield, Max (May 1990). "Atlantic hurricane season of 1989". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- Robert A. Case (August 16, 1989). D. Casualty and Damage Statistics (Report). National Hurricane Center. p. 4. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1989-prelim/allison/prelim04.gif. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
- Gerrish, Harold (November 22, 1989). "Hurricane Chantal Preliminary Report, Page Four". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved November 1, 2010.
- Gerrish, Harold (November 22, 1989) (GIF). Hurricane Chantal Preliminary Report (Report). National Hurricane Center. p. 3. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1989-prelim/chantal/prelim03.gif. Retrieved November 1, 2010.
- B. Max Mayfield (October 22, 1989) (GIF). Hurricane Dean Preliminary Report (Report). National Hurricane Center. p. 2. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1989-prelim/dean/prelim02.gif. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- Robert A. Case (November 23, 1989) (GIF). Hurricane Gabrielle Preliminary Report (Report). National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1989-prelim/gabrielle/prelim03.gif. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- "1989-Gabrielle". Environment Canada. September 14, 2010. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- Grammatico, Michael (April 2006). "Hurricane Hugo – September 22, 1989". Archived from the original on October 26, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- Landsea, Christopher (2004). "Costliest U.S. Hurricanes 1900–2004 (unadjusted)". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- Dorst, Neal (January 21, 2010). "Subject: G1) When is hurricane season?". Hurricane Research Division. Archived from the original on 24 April 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- Hurricane Research Division (March 2011). "Atlantic basin Comparison of Original and Revised HURDAT". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- David Levinson (August 20, 2008). "2005 Atlantic Ocean Tropical Cyclones". National Climatic Data Center. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division (June 18, 2013) (TXT). Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2) (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/hurdat/hurdat2-atlantic-1851-2012-060513.txt. Retrieved December 21, 2013.
- Robert A. Case (August 16, 1989) (GIF). Preliminary Report Tropical Storm Allison 24 – 27 June, 1989 (Report). National Hurricane Center. p. 5. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1989-prelim/allison/prelim05.gif. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
- Lawrence, Miles (28 August 1989). "Tropical Storm Barry Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
- Gerrish, Harold (22 November 1989). "Hurricane Chantal Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
- Mayfield, Max (11 November 1989). "Hurricane Dean Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
- Avila, Lixion (1989). "Atlantic Tropical Systems of 1989". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
- Gross, Jim (4 December 1989). "Hurricane Erin Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
- Clark, Gil (17 November 1989). "Hurricane Felix Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
- Case, Robert (23 November 1989). "Hurricane Gabrielle Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
- Lawrence, Miles (15 November 1989). "Hurricane Hugo Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- Gerrish, Harold (20 November 1989). "Tropical Storm Iris Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- Mayfield, Max (21 November 1989). "Hurricane Jerry Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- Avila, Lixion (22 December 1989). "Tropical Storm Karen Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- Avila, Lixion (May 1990). "Atlantic Tropical Systems of 1989". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 31, 2010.
- Associated Press (June 16, 1989). "Pennsylvania tornado injures 7". Daily Union. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
- "First tropical depression forms". The Hour. June 16, 1989. Retrieved October 31, 2010.
- Robert A. Case (August 16, 1989) (GIF). Preliminary Report Tropical Storm Allison 24 – 27 June, 1989 (Report). National Hurricane Center. p. 1. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1989-prelim/allison/prelim01.gif. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
- Robert A. Case (August 16, 1989) (GIF). Preliminary Report Tropical Storm Allison 24 – 27 June, 1989 (Report). National Hurricane Center. p. 2. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1989-prelim/allison/prelim02.gif. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
- David M. Roth (May 1, 2007) (HTML). Tropical Storm Allison – June 24 – July 7, 1989 (Report). Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Archived from the original on 5 December 2010. http://www.wpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain//allison1989.html. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
- Jay Hollifield and S. C. Lackey (PDF). Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena (Report). National Climatic Data Center. pp. 46, 85–86. http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/orders/IPS-24CFE9B9-1464-47BE-8596-DD78D8BCA635.pdf. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
- Lawrence, Miles (August 28, 1989). "Tropical Storm Barry Preliminary Report, Page One". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved November 1, 2010.
- Gerrish, Harold (November 22, 1989) (GIF). Hurricane Chantal Preliminary Report (Report). National Hurricane Center. p. 1. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1989-prelim/chantal/prelim01.gif. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
- B. Max Mayfield (October 22, 1989) (GIF). Hurricane Dean Preliminary Report (Report). National Hurricane Center. p. 1. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1989-prelim/dean/prelim01.gif. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- (HTML) 1989-Dean (Report). Environment Canada. September 14, 2010. http://www.ec.gc.ca/Hurricane/default.asp?lang=En&n=BA1F7004-1. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- "Hurricane sweeps past Nova Scotia". Syracuse Herald Journal. Associated Press. 1989.
- Gerrish, Harold (1989). "Hurricane Lorena Preliminary Report, Page One". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved November 1, 2010.
- Gross, Jim (December 4, 1989). "Hurricane Erin Preliminary, Page One". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
- Gilbert B. Clark (November 17, 1989) (GIF). Hurricane Felix Preliminary Report, Page One (Report). National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1989-prelim/felix/prelim01.gif. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- Clark, Gilbert (November 9, 1989). "Hurricane Octave Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
- Robert A. Case (November 23, 1989) (GIF). Hurricane Gabrielle Preliminary Report (Report). National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1989-prelim/gabrielle/prelim01.gif. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- Robert A. Case (November 23, 1989) (GIF). Hurricane Gabrielle Preliminary Report (Report). National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1989-prelim/gabrielle/prelim02.gif. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- Miles B. Lawrence (November 15, 1989) (GIF). Hurricane Hugo Preliminary Report (Report). National Hurricane Center. p. 1. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1989-prelim/hugo/prelim01.gif. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- Miles B. Lawrence (November 15, 1989) (GIF). Hurricane Hugo Preliminary Report (Report). National Hurricane Center. p. 2. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1989-prelim/hugo/prelim02.gif. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- Jeff Masters. "Day 9: Hurricane Hugo Strikes Guadalupe". Remembering Hurricane Hugo. Weather Underground. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- Jeff Masters. "Day 10: Hugo Approaches the U.S. Virgin Islands". Remembering Hurricane Hugo. Weather Underground. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- Claire B. Rubin and Roy Popkin (January 1990). "Disaster Recovery After Hurricane Hugo In South Carolina" (PDF). George Washington University (University of Colorado at Boulder): 3 and 4. http://www.colorado.edu/IBS/hazards/publications/wp/wp69.pdf. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- Jay Hollifield and S. C. Lackey (PDF). Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena: September 1989 (Report). National Climatic Data Center. p. 43. http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/orders/IPS-655E8413-3EA1-48D8-A498-601BA8D29FBC.pdf. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- Jeff Masters. "Day 14: From the Carolinas to Buffalo". Remembering Hurricane Hugo. Weather Underground. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- Gerrish, Harold (November 20, 1989). "Tropical Storm Iris Preliminary Report, Page One". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 30, 2011.
- Gerrish, Harold (November 20, 1989). "Tropical Storm Iris Preliminary Report, Page Two". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 30, 2011.
- Gerrish, Harold (November 20, 1989). "Tropical Storm Iris Preliminary Report, Page Three". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 30, 2011.
- Tropical Depression Thirteen Marine Advisory Number 1 (Report). National Hurricane Center. October 2, 1989. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1989/td13e/marine/tcm0222z.gif. Retrieved November 1, 2010.
- Tropical Depression Thirteen Marine Advisory Number 4 (Report). National Hurricane Center. October 3, 1989. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1989/td13e/marine/tcm0316z.gif. Retrieved March 30, 2011.
- Tropical Depression Thirteen Marine Advisory Number 5 (Report). National Hurricane Center. October 3, 1989. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1989/td13e/marine/tcm0321z.gif. Retrieved March 30, 2011.
- Mayfield, Max (November 21, 1989). "Hurricane Jerry Preliminary Report, Page One". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 23, 2011.
- Mayfield, Max (November 21, 1989). "Hurricane Jerry Preliminary Report, Page Two". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 23, 2011.
- Mayfield, Max (November 21, 1989). "Hurricane Jerry Preliminary Report, Page Three". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- Roth, David (June 16, 2007). "Hurricane Jerry – October 12–18, 1989". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- Avila, Lixion (December 22, 1989). "Tropical Storm Karen Preliminary Report, Page One". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
- Avila, Lixion (December 22, 1989). "Tropical Storm Karen Preliminary Report, Page Five". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
- National Hurricane Center (March 16, 2011). "Retired Hurricane Names Since 1954". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- Monthly Weather Review
- Detailed information on all storms from 1989
- U.S. Rainfall caused by 1989 tropical cyclones
- UNISYS hurricane tracks for 1989