1989 Pacific typhoon season

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1989 Pacific typhoon season
Season summary map
First system formed January 15, 1989
Last system dissipated December 27, 1989
Strongest storm Gordon and Elsie – 915 hPa (mbar), 185 km/h (115 mph)
Tropical depressions 42
Total storms 32 official, 2 unofficial
Typhoons 21
Super typhoons 5 (unofficial)
Total fatalities At least 3,459 total
Total damage $2.1 billion (1989 USD)
Pacific typhoon seasons
1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991

The 1989 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1989, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November.[1] These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. Tropical Storms forming in the Western Pacific basin were assigned a name by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tropical depressions that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility are assigned a name by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration or PAGASA. This can often result in the same storm having two names.

Season summary[edit]

Throughout 1989, several large-scale factors across the western Pacific Ocean displaced unusual characteristics that presented unique difficulties to forecasters. In their annual tropical cyclone report for 1989, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center regarded the season as one of the most challenging and unique years in their history. During much of the year, a very broad monsoon trough was present and resulted in significant diurnal fluctuations in convective activity that inhibited rapid development of many disturbances. The mid-tropospheric ridge was unusually narrow and led to difficulties in forecasting straight-running storms. Additionally, the Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough (TUTT) had a major role in the development of many systems, most notably Typhoon Gordon which formed from a single thunderstorm underneath a TUTT cell.[2]

The season began with the unusual development of Tropical Storm Winona east of the International Dateline in early January. Remaining active for two weeks, the system crossed the basin before dissipating over the Philippines. Following a three month lull in activity, a powerful typhoon developed in mid-April and was the second system in nine years to become a super typhoon during that month. By mid-May, an extensive monsoon trough had become established from the Bay of Bengal eastward into the South China Sea. Typhoon Brenda developed from this trough over the South China Sea and moved inland over southern China before dissipating. The typhoon left an area of enhanced low-level southerly flow in its wake that triggered the development of Typhoon Cecil at the end of the month. Two more storms developed during June – Typhoon Dot and Tropical Storm Ellis. The first was a strong typhoon that developed near the Caroline Islands and moved westward, eventually dissipating over Vietnam. The second was a poorly organized system that moved generally northward and struck Japan.[2]

In early July, a surge in the monsoon trough over the basin resulted in the development of Tropical Storm Faye. While this system was over the Philippines, Typhoon Gordon developed underneath a TUTT cell to the east. Following Gordon's rapid intensification phase, a new tropical storm developed within an area of enhanced divergence associated with the same TUTT cell. Several days later, the monsoon trough became exceptionally active and spawned several consecutive cyclones in late-July: Irving over the South China Sea, Judy near the Mariana Islands, 12W near Taiwan, and Ken–Lola around the Ryukyu Islands. The development of seven tropical cyclones in July made it the most active July since 1973. The extreme activity continued into August with the formations of Mac, Nancy, Owen, Peggy, and 19W, all of which formed within the monsoon trough. The rapid succession of Nancy, Owen, and Peggy led to several days of binary interaction between the systems well to the south of Japan. Tropical Storm Roger developed near the Ryukyu Islands a few days after 19W dissipated and rapidly tracked northeastward through Japan. This was the only storm of the month not to develop within the monsoon trough. The final system of August, 21W, developed to the northeast of Guam and dissipated due to strong wind shear.[2]

Heavy rains alongside several typhoons between June and September resulted in deadly flooding across parts of Anhui, Hebei, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Sichuan, and Zhejiang provinces in China. The floods killed approximately 3,000 people and overall losses reached $2.7 billion.[3]

Storms[edit]

Tropical Storm Winona (Atring)[edit]

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration January 15 (Crossed 180°) – January 21
Peak intensity 65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  991 mbar (hPa)

During the second week of January, an upper-level trough located east of Hawaii created an area of divergence to its southeast, allowing an area of low pressure to develop alongside deep convection. Initially, the system was hampered by wind shear as it moved west-northwestward to the south of Hawaii; however, by January 11, the system was able to maintain convection over its center and was classified as a tropical depression. On January 13, it was estimated in post-storm analysis to have become a tropical storm at an unprecedented 20°42′N 170°30′W / 20.7°N 170.5°W / 20.7; -170.5. Meteorologists at the time struggled to forecast the storm as climatological forecast guidance (modeling based off previous cyclones), was not available due to the uniqueness of Winona. On January 15, the system crossed the International Dateline and entered the Western Pacific basin. Embedded within broad easterly flow, the storm turned west-southwestward, a heading it would retain until dissipation, and accelerated. This acceleration caused slight strengthening of the storm by enhancing winds on the north side of the low.[4]

On January 16, Winona passed approximately 140 km (85 mi) south of Wake Island. Operationally, it was not until January 18 that the JTWC began issuing warnings on the system.[4] At the same time, the JMA assessed Winona to have been a weak tropical storm with winds of 65 km/h (40 mph).[5] Around 0700 UTC on January 18, the ship MV Williams passed close to or through the center of Winona and measured a pressure of 991 mb (hPa; 29.27 inHg) alongside 85 km/h (50 mph) sustained winds with gusts up to 130 km/h (80 mph). This was the only direct measurement in relation to the cyclone. Early on January 19, the JTWC assessed Winona to have reached its peak intensity with 100 km/h (65 mph) winds as it passed just north of Saipan. Later that day, convection quickly diminished as Winona moved into a shallow air mass-produced by polar system to the north. The system maintained only intermittent convection for another day before making landfall in the central Philippines. The storm quickly weakened and dissipated on January 22 as it emerged into the South China Sea.[4]

As a tropical depression, Winona brought heavy rains to portions of Hawaii, triggering flash flooding on a few islands. No damage resulted from the floods. After becoming a tropical storm, the system brushed Wake Island, bringing gusty winds and moderate rainfall. Several days later, the storm passed near the Mariana Islands and Guam, bringing tropical storm-force wind gusts and heavy rainfall. Minor damage resulted from Winona but there was no loss of life. Before dissipating, the remnants of Winona tracked through the Philippines; however, no known impact resulted from its passage. Throughout its nearly two week existence, Winona traveled approximately 10,185 km (6,330 mi) across the Pacific Ocean.[4]

Typhoon Andy[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHS)
Duration April 17 – April 24
Peak intensity 185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  920 mbar (hPa)

Thunderstorm activity increased in coverage near Truk/Chuuk in the Caroline Islands on April 13. The system slowly developed, organizing into a tropical depression on April 18 while moving slowly to the west. On April 19, Andy began to move northward while continuing to intensify. The intense cyclone missed Guam by 130 kilometres (81 mi) to the southeast, with winds peaking at 68 knots (126 km/h) on Guam. Thereafter, Andy recurved to the northeast and steadily weakened due to increased vertical wind shear out of the west, dissipating as a tropical cyclone on April 24. Andy became the second typhoon to form in April in nine years.[6]

Prior to Typhoon Andy's arrival, 14 B-52s and 3 KC-135s were relocated from Anderson Air Force Base in Guam to Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii.[7] Nearly half of the schools in Guam were converted to public shelters.[8] Approximately 1,100 people sought refuge across the island.[8] On April 21, the typhoon's close passage brought sustained winds of 130 km/h (80 mph) and gusts up to 155 km/h (100 mph) to Guam.[7] The storm's high winds downed many power lines, leaving about 15 percent of Guam without power for several hours. Overall damage from the storm was minimal despite the strong winds and no reports of major structural damage or injuries were received.[8] Heavy rain also impact much of the southern Mariana Islands, amounting to about 130 mm (5 in) in Guam. These heavy rains caused pump malfunctions that left many residents without drinkable water.[9]

Typhoon Brenda (Bining)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration May 14 – May 21
Peak intensity 120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min)  970 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Typhoon Brenda (1989)

A tropical depression which formed in the monsoon trough on May 14 became a tropical storm on May16 and struck Samar Island and southern Luzon in the Philippines that day. At least four ships sank and 50 people were killed in the Philippines. Brenda became a typhoon and reached a peak of 85 mph (137 km/h) winds before hitting southern China on May 20. The storm brought torrential flooding, resulting in at least 84 casualties and widespread damage in China. In Hong Kong six people were killed and one was missing due to landslides and flooding.[10]

On May 16, storm warnings were issued for 20 provinces across the Philippines as Brenda approached the country. Multiple commercial vessels were kept at port until the storm passed.[11] Throughout the country, Brenda killed at least 18 people and left 6,000 more homeless. Additionally, 52 people were reported missing.[12]

Severe Tropical Storm Cecil[edit]

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration May 22 – May 26
Peak intensity 110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  975 mbar (hPa)

Cecil originated as a tropical depression over the South China Sea on May 22.[13] Tracking north-northwestward, the system steadily intensified, attaining peak winds of 110 km/h (70 mph).[5] The JTWC assessed Cecil to have been slightly stronger with one-minute sustained winds of 140 km/h (85 mph). The storm made landfall near Hoi An late on May 24 and quickly weakened. The system later dissipated over Laos on May 26.[13] In Vietnam, heavy rains accompanying the storm, amounting to over 510 mm (20 in) in some areas, triggered catastrophic flooding that killed 751 people.[14][15] Widespread structural and agricultural losses took place in addition to the significant loss of life, with damage estimated at 300 billion ($71.7 million).[16][17] In the wake of the flooding, some international aid was sent to Vietnam, though most relief work was conducted by the government, local agencies, and the Red Cross.[18]

Typhoon Dot (Kuring)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 3 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration June 4 – June 12
Peak intensity 150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  955 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Typhoon Dot (1989)

Originating from a tropical disturbance near Palau on June 4, Dot tracked west-northwestward towards the Philippines. Crossing the country on June 6, the system moved over the South China Sea and attained typhoon status. Late on June 8, Dot reached its peak intensity with winds estimated at 185 km/h (115 mph). The system weakened slightly the next day before making landfall in Hainan Island. A weakened storm then entered the Gulf of Tonkin before striking northern Vietnam and dissipating on June 12.[19]

Throughout its course, Typhoon Dot produced heavy rains in the Philippines, China and Vietnam, resulting in significant damage and eight fatalities. The most severe impacts took place on Hainan Island where 1,400 homes were destroyed and another 60,000 were damaged.[20] In Vietnam, Dot killed six people and exacerbated flooding triggered in late May by Tropical Storm Cecil.[21]

Severe Tropical Storm Ellis (Daling)[edit]

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration June 18 – June 24
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  985 mbar (hPa)

Developing as a disturbance in the Philippine Sea on June 18, the system moved westward initially and became a tropical depression late on June 20 and weakened on June 21. Early on June 23, the large system with gales well removed from its center became a tropical depression once more. A trough to its northwest had deepened, which was accelerating the cyclone northward. It became a minimal tropical storm during this acceleration. Late that day, it became a frontal wave before moving through Japan into the Sea of Japan.[22]

Tropical Storm Ellis produced rain over much of Japan, with the heaviest falling around Tokyo where rainfall rates reached 53 mm (2.1 in) per hour. Between June 23 and 24, 343 mm (13.5 in) of rain fell in the city, much of which fell in a 24 hour span. Several areas also recorded tropical storm force winds.[23]

Severe Tropical Storm Faye (Elang)[edit]

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration July 6 – July 11
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  980 mbar (hPa)

On July 6 a tropical depression formed west of Luzon. Tracking generally westward, the system soon strengthened into Tropical Storm Faye. On July 8, the storm struck the Philippines as a severe tropical storm before moving into the South China Sea. Struggling to regain strength, the system subsequently made landfall in northern Hainan Island. After briefly emerging into the Gulf of Tonkin, Faye made its third and final landfall near Hai Phong, Vietnam on July 11. Once onshore, Faye rapidly dissipated.[24]

Typhoon Gordon (Goring)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHS)
Duration July 9 – July 19
Peak intensity 185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  915 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Typhoon Gordon (1989)

Originating from a single cumulonimbus cloud on July 9, Gordon developed into a tropical depression near the Northern Mariana Islands and quickly intensified as it tracked west-southwestward. On July 13, the storm attained typhoon status and subsequently underwent a period of rapid intensification. By July 15, the storm attained its peak strength as a Category 5 equivalent super typhoon with winds estimated at 260 km/h (160 mph). After striking the northern Philippines, Gordon moved through the South China Sea and slowly weakened. On July 18, the storm made landfall in southern China and was last noted the following day as it dissipated over land.[25]

Throughout Gordon's path from the Philippines to China, the storm caused widespread damage and loss of life.[25] Across the Philippines, 90 people were killed by the typhoon and an estimated 120,000 people were left homeless.[26] Though a weaker storm when it struck China, damage was more severe due to extensive flooding. Several coastal cities were completely inundated.[27] Throughout the country, at least 200 people died and losses reached 1.2 billion yuan ($319 million USD).[28] Additionally, 14 people drowned offshore and 2 others died in Hong Kong.[20][29]

Tropical Storm Hope (Huling)[edit]

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration July 16 – July 21
Peak intensity 85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  990 mbar (hPa)

A tropical depression formed in the wake of Super Typhoon Gordon on July 16. The depression moved towards the northwest and strengthened into Tropical Storm Hope. Hope moved approximately 100 miles (160 km) south of Okinawa and then strengthened to a peak of 65 mph (105 km/h) while nearing the China coastline. Due to its proximity to the Philippines, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration also monitored the storm and assigned it with the local name Huling.[30] Hope made landfall on the east China coastline on July 21.[31]

Following on the heels of Typhoon Gordon, Hope enhanced monsoonal rainfall over the Philippines, exacerbating ongoing floods and hampering relief efforts. Three fatalities took place after a landslide in Baguio destroyed a home. Although related to Tropical Storm Hope, the deaths were attributed to Typhoon Gordon.[32]

Throughout Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces, Hope killed 198 people, injured more than 1,901 and left $340 million in damage. Additionally, 53 people were reported missing.[33][34]

Severe Tropical Storm Irving (Ibiang)[edit]

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration July 18 – July 24
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  985 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Storm Irving formed in the South China Sea west of the Philippines on July 21. Although hampered by northerly sheer Irving intensified to a peak of 65 mph (105 km/h) just before landfall in northern Vietnam.[31]

Striking Vietnam as a strong tropical storm, Irving brought widespread heavy rain that caused damaging floods. Parts of Tinh Gia District received up to 423 mm (16.7 in) of rain. At least 82,000 homes were destroyed and according to the Vietnamese Army newspaper, Quan Doi Nhan Dan, 10,273 classrooms were also damaged or destroyed by the floods.[35][36] Agricultural losses were also significant with approximately 159,800 hectares (395,000 acres) of crops, including 56,800 hectares (140,000 acres) of rice and 7,900 hectares (19,500 acres) of other products, being inundated by flood waters.[36][37] Throughout the country, 104 people were killed due to Tropical Storm Irving's passage.[38]

Typhoon Judy[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration July 20 – July 29
Peak intensity 155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  940 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Typhoon Judy (1989)

Originating from a monsoon trough on July 21, Judy began as a tropical depression west of the Northern Mariana Islands. Tracking west-northwest, the system gradually intensified into Tropical Storm Judy on July 23. By this time, the storm had turned due north. Two days later, Judy attained typhoon status as it began a gradual turn to the west-northwest. Late on July 25, the storm peaked with winds of 165 km/h (110 mph). Striking Kyushu on July 27, interaction with the island's mountainous terrain caused Judy to quickly weaken as it neared South Korea. The weakened storm struck the country west of Pusan the following day before losing its identity near the border with North Korea. The remnants of Judy were last noted over the Sea of Japan.[39]

In Japan, damaging winds from the typhoon left approximately 4 million people without power.[40] Significant flooding in the country resulted in 11 deaths and $28.9 million in damage.[41][42][43] In South Korea, heavy rains from the storm exacerbated ongoing floods, leading to at least 20 fatalities.[44] Flooding from the remnants of Judy affected the Soviet Far East, temporarily severing the Trans-Siberian Railway and killing 15 people.[45]

Tropical Depression 12W[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHS)
Duration July 27 – July 31
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (1-min)  1000 mbar (hPa)

TD 12W developed out of an active monsoon trough and moved westward for the duration of its existence, never attaining tropical storm status due to high wind shear. After the tropical depression moved over northern Taiwan, The low-level center decoupled from the mid-level center in the Taiwan Strait, and advisories were discontinued.

Between July 26 and 30, heavy rains fell across parts of Taiwan, resulting in deadly floods. At least 16 people perished while 2 others were reported missing. Sixty-three homes were destroyed and forty-two others were damaged by the floods. Nearly 1,000 hectares (2,500 acres) of farmland were inundated, resulting in $31.78 million in losses. Infrastructural damage across the country amounted to $15.74 million. In the wake of the floods, the Government of Taiwan pledged to provide relief funds to those left homeless and family of the deceased.[46]

Severe Tropical Storm Ken–Lola[edit]

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration July 29 – August 7
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  980 mbar (hPa)

The monsoon trough spawned a tropical depression on July 29. Poorly organized, it moved quickly northeastward and became a tropical storm on July 30. Operationally, Tropical Storm Ken continued northeastward with the rest of the convection, with Tropical Storm Lola forming further westward, but the ill-defined circulation actually continued westward, leading to one storm with two names. Ken–Lola turned to the southwest, stalling before heading northwest again. Ken–Lola reached a peak of 65 mph (105 km/h) winds before hitting eastern China on August 3, causing little damage as it slowly dissipated until August 7.[47] Ken–Lola shows the troubles of tracking poorly organized systems. A more recent example is Tropical Depression 32W/33W in 1995.

Heavy rains associated with Tropical Storm Ken–Lola affected much of Japan as it meandered south of the country for several days. In Tokyo, the storm produced 195 mm (7.7 in) of rain, leading to several mudslides and flash flooding. Areas along the Kanda River were inundated after the river overflowed its banks. At least nine people were killed in and around Tokyo while seventeen others were reported missing.[48]

Striking the Chinese coastline near Shanghai, rains from Tropical Storm Ken–Lola caused the Huangpu River to rise above its warning level; however, no damage was reported.[49]

Typhoon Mac[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration July 30 – August 8
Peak intensity 150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  950 mbar (hPa)

Moving around the northeast side of Ken–Lola, and then an upper tropospheric cyclone Mac moved along a wide northwest arc before settling on a north-northwest track into Japan as a typhoon on August 6, dissipating over Sakhalin Island on August 8.[50]

Tropical Depression Luming[edit]

Tropical depression (PAGASA)
Counterclockwise vortex
Duration August 8 – August 12
Peak intensity 45 km/h (30 mph) (10-min)  1002 mbar (hPa)

Typhoon Nancy[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration August 11 – August 16
Peak intensity 130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min)  965 mbar (hPa)

Typhoon Owen[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration August 11 – August 18
Peak intensity 140 km/h (85 mph) (10-min)  960 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Storm Peggy[edit]

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Counterclockwise vortex
Duration August 16 – August 18
Peak intensity 65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  995 mbar (hPa)

A short lived tropical storm existed near the Northern Mariana Islands in mid-August. Forming on August 16, Peggy attaining minimal tropical storm status before succumbing to wind shear and dissipating on August 18.

Tropical Depression 19W[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHS)
Duration August 16 – August 19
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (1-min)  1000 mbar (hPa)

On August 16, a large area of low pressure centered about 335 km (210 mi) northwest of Okinawa began to show signs of possible tropical cyclogenesis. Initially, the storm's center was mostly cloud-free as subsidence from the mid-level low suppressed convective activity. Later on August 16, however, strong divergence moved into the region and allowed for showers and thunderstorms to form. Subsequently, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert and later issued the first advisory on Tropical Depression 19W early on August 17.

Severe Tropical Storm Roger (Narsing)[edit]

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration August 24 – August 28
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  980 mbar (hPa)

A tropical disturbance began to organize just to the north of Taiwan while moving eastwards. The disturbance consolidated to a depression on August 24 and was named Tropical Storm Roger the next day. Roger then abruptly turned towards the northeast and accelerated. Roger reached peak intensity of 60 mph (97 km/h) just before landfall at Cape Muroto on Shikoku Island.[31]

Tropical Storm Roger produced significant rainfall across the majority of Japan, affecting areas from the Ryukyu Islands to Hokkaido. The heaviest rains fell over the Kii Peninsula and Shikoku, with 505 mm (19.9 in) and 464 mm (18.3 in) measured in Hidegadake, Nara and Kubokawa, Kōchi respectively.[51] These rains triggered widespread flooding that killed at least three people.[52] In Osaka, a train derailed and crashed into a buffer, resulting in 50 injuries. It is unknown if the accident was the result of Roger, though many trains at the time were cancelled due to flooding.[53] At least 1,071 homes were flooded across the country and numerous roads were washed out.[54]

Tropical Storm 21W[edit]

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHS)
Duration August 23 – August 29
Peak intensity 65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  1002 mbar (hPa)

On August 23, a tropical depression formed well to the north-northeast of Guam. Tracking northeast, the depression struggled to intensify amidst wind shear. According to the JMA, the system attained tropical storm intensity on August 26. By August 27, the storm weakened due to persistent shear and later dissipated on August 29.

Typhoon Sarah (Openg)[edit]

Main article: Typhoon Sarah (1989)
Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration September 3 – September 14
Peak intensity 150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  950 mbar (hPa)

Originating from a disturbance within a monsoon trough in early September, Sarah was first classified as a tropical depression near the Mariana Islands on September 5. Moving quickly westward, the depression soon strengthened into Tropical Storm Sarah. On September 8, the storm abruptly turned southward and temporarily attained typhoon status. Following a series of interactions with secondary areas of low pressure, the storm turned northward the following day. By September 11, Sarah entered a region favoring development and underwent a period of explosive intensification. At the end of this phase, the storm attained its peak intensity as a Category 4-equivalent typhoon on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. The typhoon subsequently weakened rapidly and made two landfalls in Taiwan by September 12. After moving over the Taiwan Strait, Sarah made its final landfall in eastern China on September 13 before dissipating the following day.[55]

While the typhoon meandered near the Philippines, it brought several days of heavy rain to much of Luzon, triggering extensive flash flooding. At least 44 people perished across the country and another 200,000 were left homeless.[26] Striking Taiwan as a strong typhoon, Sarah caused widespread wind damage that left approximately 840,000 residents without power.[56] Excessive rainfall associated with the storm triggered flooding that washed away highways and inundated about 40,500 hectares (100,000 acres) of farmland.[57] Throughout the island, Sarah was responsible for 19 fatalities and at least $171 million USD (4.38 billion New Taiwan dollars) in damage.[20][58] Four deaths also took place on the Gotō Islands.[59] Additionally, four deaths took place offshore and another seventeen people were listed as missing.[20][60]

Severe Tropical Storm Tip[edit]

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration September 8 – September 14
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  985 mbar (hPa)

Tip formed along the eastern portion of the monsoon trough, and tracked northeast until the subtropical ridge blocked its motion in that direction. Rounding the western periphery of the ridge, Tip eventually recurved well offshore Japan and became an extratropical cyclone.[61]

Severe Tropical Storm Vera (Pining)[edit]

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration September 11 – September 16
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  980 mbar (hPa)

On September 10, an area of low-level convergence developed within a monsoon trough several hundred kilometres north of Guam. Following the development of persistent convection, the JTWC issued a TCFA early on September 11 before classifying it as a tropical depression 26 hours later. Initially, the system moved slowly and erratically before being steered west-northwest by a subtropical ridge. Shortly after being declared a depression, the system intensified into Tropical Storm Vera. Only modest strengthening took place thereafter, with the system attaining peak winds of 95 km/h (60 mph). Accelerating towards China, Vera gradually weakened due to increasing wind shear. After passing 185 km (115 mi) south of Okinawa on September 14, the storm made landfall about 240 km (150 mi) south of Shanghai the next day. Once onshore, Vera weakened to a tropical depression as it turned northward.[62] The remnants of Vera later transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on September 16 as it emerged over the Yellow Sea. The system tracked east-northeast for several days, passing over South Korea and northern Japan before moving over north Pacific Ocean. Vera was last noted as a powerful system near the International Dateline on September 19 with a central pressure of 964 mbar (hPa; 28.47 inHg).[5]

Although only a tropical storm at landfall, torrential rains associated with Vera triggered widespread flooding throughout eastern China.[63] Damage from the storm was regarded as the worst in 27 years.[64] Large parts of Zhejiang Province were inundated by the storm, including the port city of Shujiang. Early reports indicated that at least 190 people were injured near Shanghai.[63] Two days after the storm, only scarce reports on the scale of damage were available. On September 18, officials announced over national television that at least 72 people were killed and hundreds were missing. By then, workers began repairing damaged coastlines and building up stone sea walls.[65] According to the nation's flood control officials, approximately 347,000 hectares (857,000 acres) of farmland and 16,000 hectares (40,000 acres) of crops were flooded by the storm. At least 162 people were killed and another 354 were listed as missing. Additionally, 692 people were injured by the storm.[66] Immense structural losses took place throughout the province with 3.1 million homes damaged or destroyed. Additionally, 430 km (270 mi) of coastal dykes and 174 km (108 mi) of irrigation ditches were washed away.[67] Total losses throughout Zhejiang Province reached $351 million.[66] Significant losses also took place in nearby Jiangsu Province where 34 people were killed and an estimated 2,000 more were injured. Approximately 590,000 hectares (1.5 million acres) of farmland was inundated by the storm and total losses reached $485,000.[67] Throughout eastern China, approximately 5.86 million households (23 million people) were affected by flooding triggered by the storm.[68] According to the news estimates, a total of 500 – 700 people died as a result of Vera.[62]

Typhoon Wayne[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration September 17 – September 20
Peak intensity 120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min)  970 mbar (hPa)

Typhoon Wayne formed from a depression on September 17 about 100 miles (160 km) southwest of Okinawa. Tropical Storm Wayne was named the next day and into a typhoon on September 19. Wayne reached peak intensity of 75 mph (121 km/h) before beginning to accelerate toward the northeast. Typhoon Wayne skimmed the southeastern island of Japan while weakening into a tropical storm.[31]

Throughout Japan, Wayne produced rainfall in excess of 200 mm (7.9 in), peaking at 313 mm (12.3 in), that triggered flash flooding and mudslides. In parts of Kōchi Prefecture, rainfall rates reached 83 mm (3.3 in) per hour.[69] According to Japanese Police, the storm caused 166 mudslides and affected 33 of the country's 49 prefectures.[70] Eight people were killed by the storm,[69] including three children who drowned after falling into a swollen river.[71] A total of 247 homes were destroyed and another 5,824 were damaged.[69]

Typhoon Angela (Rubing)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 super typhoon (SSHS)
Duration September 28 – October 10
Peak intensity 175 km/h (110 mph) (10-min)  925 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Typhoon Angela (1989)

The first in a series of tropical cyclones to develop within the monsoon trough, Angela was first identified as a tropical depression on September 28. Initially, a shortwave trough caused the system to move north-northwest; however, once this feature moved away from Angela, the cyclone acquired a general westward track. Developing dual outflow channels on October 1, Angela rapidly intensified into a Category 4 equivalent typhoon. After maintaining its strength for four days, the storm intensified into a super typhoon on October 5 with peak winds estimated at 240 km/h (150 mph).[72] At this time, the JMA assessed Angela to have attained ten-minute winds of 175 km/h (110 mph) and a minimum pressure of 925 mbar (hPa; 27.31 inHg).[73] Later that day, the storm skirted the northern coast of Luzon before moving into the South China Sea. Considerable weakening took place due to the interaction with the Philippines and the system was slow to re-organize. In response to a ridge over China, Angela turned to the west-southwest. On October 9, the storm brushed the southern coast of Hainan Island before making landfall near Huế, Vietnam. Once onshore, Angela rapidly dissipated and was last noted during the afternoon of October 10.[72]

Throughout northern Luzon, high winds and heavy rains from the typhoon destroyed 14,064 homes and damaged 19,245 more. Angela was the deadliest in the series of storms to strike the Philippines with 119 fatalities; another 28 people were reported missing.[26] Total economic losses from the storm reached $8 million.[74] Significant damage took place on Hainan Island and in Vietnam but specifics are unknown due to the rapid succession of storms.[20][75]

Typhoon Brian[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration September 28 – October 3
Peak intensity 120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min)  970 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Typhoon Brian (1989)

Originating from an area of low pressure associated with a monsoon trough in late-September, Brian quickly organized into a tropical storm over the South China Sea. Tracking along a general west-southwest to westerly course, the storm attained typhoon status on October 1 before making landfall along the southern coast of Hainan Island the following day. After briefly crossing land, the storm moved into the Gulf of Tonkin and ultimately struck Vietnam on October 3 before dissipating the next day over Laos.[76]

Across Hainan Island, Brian caused extensive damage to property and infrastructure. Nearly 185,000 homes were damaged or destroyed by the storm's high winds or flash flooding. Communications were severely disrupted as 2,800 km (1,700 mi) of power and telephone lines were downed. Brian killed 40 people and inflicted 837 million Renminbi (US$222 million) in damage throughout Hainan before striking Vietnam and causing further damage.[20] Significant losses were reported in Vietnam as well; however, the rapid succession of Brian and two other typhoons made it difficult to differentiate the losses caused by each storm.[75]

Typhoon Colleen[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration October 1 – October 8
Peak intensity 150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  950 mbar (hPa)

On October 2, a tropical storm warning was issued for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands as Colleen approached.[77] As a precautionary measure, U.S. military installations relocated aircraft to Japan and sent ships to sea to ride out the storm.[78]

Typhoon Dan (Saling)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration October 6 – October 13
Peak intensity 140 km/h (85 mph) (10-min)  960 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Typhoon Dan (1989)

The second of three typhoons to strike Vietnam in October, Dan developed on October 6, and tracked generally westward throughout its course. Initially, intensification was somewhat limited due to its proximity to Typhoon Angela; however, by October 9 conditions became more favorable and Dan attained typhoon status.[79] After crossing the Philippines, the typhoon emerged into the South China Sea and reached its peak intensity, with sustained 10-minute winds of 140 km/h (85 mph) and a minimum barometric pressure of 960 mbar (hPa; 28.35 inHg).[73] After brushing the southern coast of Hainan Island, a weakened Dan made landfall in northern Vietnam before dissipating on October 13.[79]

The storm caused extensive damage throughout its course. In the Philippines, Dan left more than 232,000 homeless and killed 58 people.[26][79] Though not the strongest in the series of typhoons to affect the Philippines, Dan was the costliest with total economic losses reaching $59.2 million.[74] Roughly 95 percent of Metro Manila was left without power and some areas remained in the dark for weeks.[79] Across Vietnam, heavy rains from Dan exacerbated ongoing floods and caused further damage to areas recovering from Typhoons Angela and Brian.[75] Approximately 130,000 hectares (320,000 acres) of land was flooded by the storm.[79]

Typhoon Elsie (Tasing)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHS)
Duration October 13 – October 22
Peak intensity 185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  915 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Typhoon Elsie (1989)

A powerful Category 5 super typhoon, Elsie formed out of a tropical disturbance on October 13, and initially moved relatively slowly in an area of weak steering currents. On October 15, the storm underwent a period of rapid intensification, attaining an intensity that corresponds to a Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. After taking a due west track towards the northern Philippines, the storm intensified further, becoming a Category 5 super typhoon hours before making landfall in Luzon. After moving inland, the typhoon rapidly weakened to a tropical storm. Once back over water in the South China Sea, wind shear prevented re-intensifcation. Elsie eventually made landfall in Vietnam on October 22 and dissipated the following day over Laos.[80]

In the Philippines, Elsie worsened the situation already left in the wakes of typhoons Angela and Dan. Although it was stronger than the previous two, Elsie caused far less damage due to the relatively sparse population in the area of landfall. During the storm's passage, 47 people were killed and another 363 were injured. Damages throughout the country amounted to $35.4 million and roughly 332,000 people were left homeless.[26][74]

Typhoon Forrest[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration October 18 – October 30
Peak intensity 155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  940 mbar (hPa)

The last of the tropical cyclones in October and the 17th typhoon of the year, Forrest was slow to develop initially near the Marshall Islands as it was a large cyclone. Once it passed Guam by only 85 mi (140 km/h), it intensified into a typhoon, with maximum sustained winds peaking at 95 kt/110 mph. Tree limbs and power lines were downed as the system pulled away from Saipan. It then recurved, accelerating northeast to become of the strongest extratropical cyclones in the Pacific Ocean that year.[81]

Typhoon Gay[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 3 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration November 1 – November 4 (West of 100°E)
Peak intensity 140 km/h (85 mph) (10-min)  960 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Typhoon Gay (1989)

On November 1, a tropical disturbance developed over the Gulf of Thailand. Aided by well-developed outflow, the a low pressure area quickly formed within the disturbance. Classified a tropical storm early on November 2, Gay rapidly intensified into a typhoon over warm waters. The following day, the storm attained typhoon status and an eye developed within a concentrated area of deep convection. This trend continued until the storm made landfall in Chumphon Province with winds estimated at 185 km/h (115 mph). After moving onshore, the storm crossed west of 100°E and entered the Northern Indian Ocean.[82]

Throughout the Gulf of Thailand, hundreds of ships were caught off-guard by the rapidly intensifying storm and sank amidst 11 to 14 m (36 to 46 ft) seas.[82] At least 275 people died in offshore incidents with hundreds more reported missing.[83][84][85] In Thailand, disastrous flash flooding destroyed tens of thousands of homes, with Chumphon Province receiving the brunt of the damage. At least 588 people perished in the region and monetary losses were estimated at $496.5 million (USD).[83]

Typhoon Hunt (Unsing)[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration November 16 – November 23
Peak intensity 140 km/h (85 mph) (10-min)  960 mbar (hPa)

A tropical disturbance began to organize and a tropical depression formed east of the Philippines on November 16. As the depression moved towards the northwest it strengthened into Tropical Storm Hunt which rapidly intensified becoming a typhoon while moving towards the northwest. Typhoon Hunt reached peak intensity of 105 mph (169 km/h) just before turning due west towards the Philippines. Hunt maintained peak intensity until landfall on central Luzon Island. Seven people were killed and minor damage occurred to U.S. Military operations. After departing the Philippines Hunt was downgraded and dissipated in the South China Sea.[31]

Offshore, large swells produced by the storm sank a boat off the coast of Quezon Province, killing six people.[86] These waves also swept away 60 homes in the coastal communities of Catarman and Biri, leaving 948 people homeless.[87] A total of 212 homes were destroyed and 3,401 more were damaged. Overall, 11 people were killed in the Philippines and damage reached 8 million pesos (US$350,000).[26] Additionally, approximately 1,500 people were left homeless.[87]

Typhoon Irma[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHS)
Duration November 21 – December 4
Peak intensity 175 km/h (110 mph) (10-min)  925 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression 35W[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHS)
Duration December 1 – December 9
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (1-min)  1000 mbar (hPa)

Typhoon Jack[edit]

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHS)
Duration December 21 – December 27
Peak intensity 175 km/h (110 mph) (10-min)  925 mbar (hPa)

On December 25, a level two tropical cyclone condition of readiness was issued for Guam as Typhoon Jack stalled about 320 km (200 mi) east of the territory.[88] On December 26, several B-52s were relocated from Anderson Air Force Base to Okinawa and the United States Navy ordered vessels to ride out the storm at sea. Banks across Guam were also closed that day and officials in Saipan advised residents to stock up on emergency supplies.[89] Following the storm's dramatic weakening on December 27, it was no longer deemed a major threat to the region.[90]

Other storms[edit]

In addition to the storms listed above, the China Meteorological Agency also monitored seven other tropical depressions.

  • January 26 – 28, 55 km/h (35 mph) 1002 mbar (hPa; 29.59 inHg)[91]
    In late January, heavy rains affected much of Samar Island, resulting in widespread flooding. In some areas, flood waters reached depths of 1.2 m (4 ft).[92] At least 35 people died as a result of the floods and agricultural losses were estimated at $5 million.[93] The flooding was soon worsened as several days of monsoonal rains followed in early February. By February 7, at least 61 people had been killed and many more were reported missing.[94]
  • June 24 – 27, 55 km/h (35 mph) 1002 mbar (hPa; 29.59 inHg)[95]
  • August 9 – 12, 55 km/h (35 mph) 1000 mbar (hPa; 29.53 inHg)[96]
  • August 18 – 22, 45 km/h (30 mph) 1002 mbar (hPa; 29.59 inHg)[97]
  • August 19 – 23, 55 km/h (35 mph) 1005 mbar (hPa; 29.68 inHg)[98]
  • December 5 – 6, 55 km/h (35 mph) 1002 mbar (hPa; 29.59 inHg)[99]
  • December 8 – 9, 55 km/h (35 mph) 1002 mbar (hPa; 29.59 inHg)[100]

1989 storm names[edit]

Western North Pacific tropical cyclones were named by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. The first storm of 1989 was named Winona and the final one was named Jack.

  • Lola (8912)
  • Mac (8913)
  • Nancy (8914)
  • Owen (8915)
  • Peggy (8916)
  • Roger (8917)
  • Irma (8931)
  • Jack (8932)

Philippines[edit]

The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) uses its own naming scheme for tropical cyclones within its area of responsibility. Lists are recycled every four years. This is the same list used for the 1985 season.

  • Tasing (8927)
  • Unsing (8930)
  • Walding (unused)
  • Yeyeng (unused)
  • Anding (unused)
  • Binang (unused)
  • Kadiang (unused)
  • Dinang (unused)
  • Epang (unused)
  • Gundang (unused)

Season effects[edit]

This is a table of all of the storms that have formed in the 1989 Pacific typhoon season. It includes their duration, names, affected areas, damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a wave, or a low, and all of the damage figures are in 1989 USD. Names listed in parentheses were assigned by PAGASA.

Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
windspeeds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs


Winona January 15 – 21 Tropical storm 65 (40) 1000 Wake Island, Saipan, Guam, Philippines None 0
Depression[nb 1] January 26 – 28 Tropical depression 55 (35) 1002 Philippines 5 35
Andy April 17 – 25 Typhoon 185 (115) 920 Guam, Northern Mariana Islands Minimal 0
Brenda (Bining) May 14 – 21 Typhoon 120 (75) 970 Philippines, China, Hong Kong >2.86 104
Cecil May 21 – 26 Severe tropical storm 110 (70) 975 Vietnam 71.7 751
Dot (Kuring) June 2 – 12 Typhoon 150 (90) 955 Philippines, China, Hong Kong, Vietnam 45.1 8
Ellis June 18 – 21 Severe tropical storm 95 (60) 985 Japan N/A 0
Depression[nb 1] June 24 – 27 Tropical depression 55 (35) 1002 Vietnam None 0
Faye (Elang) July 6 – 11 Severe tropical storm 100 (65) 980 Philippines, China, Hong Kong, Vietnam N/A 0
Gordon (Goring) July 9 – 19 Typhoon 185 (115) 915 Philippines, China, Hong Kong 380 299
Hope (Huling) July 16 – 21 Tropical storm 85 (50) 990 Ryukyu Islands, China 340 198
Irving July 18 – 24 Severe tropical storm 100 (65) 985 Philippines, Vietnam N/A 104
Judy July 22 – 29 Typhoon 155 (100) 940 Japan, South Korea, North Korea 30.7 46
12W July 27 – 31 Tropical depression 55 (35) 1000 Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan 47.52 16
Ken–Lola July 29 – August 7 Severe tropical storm 100 (65) 980 Ryukyu Islands, Japan, China 0.63 >3
Mac July 30 – August 8 Typhoon 150 (90) 950 Japan N/A 15
Depression[nb 1] August 9 – 12 Tropical depression 55 (35) 1000 None None 0
Nancy August 11 – 16 Typhoon 130 (80) 965 Japan N/A 0
Owen August 11 – 18 Typhoon 140 (85) 960 Japan N/A 0
Peggy August 16 – 18 Tropical storm 65 (40) 996 None None 0
19W August 16 – 19 Tropical depression 55 (35) 1000 China N/A 0
Depression[nb 1] August 18 – 22 Tropical depression 45 (30) 1002 None None 0
Depression[nb 1] August 19 – 23 Tropical depression 55 (35) 1005 None None 0
Roger August 24 – 28 Severe tropical storm 100 (65) 980 Japan N/A 3
Unnamed August 24 – 28 Tropical storm 65 (40) 1002 None None 0
Sarah (Openg) September 3 – 14 Typhoon 150 (90) 950 Philippines, Taiwan, China 175.3 71
Tip September 8 – 14 Severe tropical storm 95 (60) 985 None None 0
Vera September 11 – 16 Severe tropical storm 100 (65) 980 China, Japan 485 550
Wayne September 16 – 20 Typhoon 120 (75) 970 Japan N/A 8
Angela (Rubing) September 28 – October 10 Typhoon 175 (110) 925 Philippines, Vietnam 8 >119
Brian September 28 – October 3 Typhoon 120 (75) 970 China, Vietnam N/A 137
Colleen October 1 – 8 Typhoon 150 (90) 950 None None 0
Dan (Saling) October 6 – 13 Typhoon 140 (85) 960 Philippines, China, Vietnam 59.2 101
Elsie (Tasing) October 13 – 22 Typhoon 185 (115) 915 Philippines, China, Vietnam 35.4 47
Forrest October 18 – 30 Typhoon 155 (100) 940 Northern Mariana Islands N/A 0
Gay November 1 – 4 Typhoon 140 (85) 960 Thailand 496.51 833
Hunt (Unsing) November 16 – 23 Typhoon 140 (85) 960 Philippines 0.35 11
Irma November 21 – December 4 Typhoon 175 (110) 925 None None 0
35W December 4 – 9 Tropical depression 55 (35) 1000 None None 0
Depression[nb 1] December 5 – 6 Tropical depression 55 (35) 1002 None None 0
Depression[nb 1] December 8 – 9 Tropical depression 55 (35) 1002 Guam, Saipan None 0
Jack December 21 – 28 Typhoon 175 (110) 925 None None 0
Season Aggregates
42 cyclones January 15 – December 28   185 (115) 915 >2,133.27 >3,459

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g This system was not officially monitored by the Japan Meteorological Agency.

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c Joint Typhoon Warning Center (1990) (PDF). Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclones (1989 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report). United States Navy. pp. 22–26. http://www.usno.navy.mil/NOOC/nmfc-ph/RSS/jtwc/atcr/1989atcr.pdf. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  3. ^ "Weather Catastrophes in China 1980 – 2010" (PDF). Munich Reinsurance Company. January 2011. Retrieved February 28, 2013. 
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  5. ^ a b c Japan Meteorological Agency (October 10, 1992). "RSMC Best Track Data – 1980–1989" (.TXT). Retrieved March 2, 2013. 
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