1990 FIFA World Cup
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2012)|
|Coppa del Mondo FIFA Italia '90|
1990 FIFA World Cup official logo
|Dates||8 June – 8 July 1990 (31 days)|
|Teams||24 (from 5 confederations)|
|Venue(s)||12 (in 12 host cities)|
|Champions||West Germany (3rd title)|
|Goals scored||115 (2.21 per match)|
|Attendance||2,516,348 (48,391 per match)|
|Top scorer(s)||Salvatore Schillaci (6 goals)|
|Best player||Salvatore Schillaci|
The 1990 FIFA World Cup was the 14th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament. It was held from 8 June to 8 July 1990 in Italy, the second country to host the event twice. Teams representing 116 national football associations from all six populated continents entered the competition, with its qualification process beginning in April 1988. 22 teams qualified from this process, along with host nation Italy and defending champion Argentina. The official match ball was the Adidas Etrusco Unico. The 1990 FIFA World Cup was the first World Cup that was officially recorded and transmitted in HDTV by the Italian broadcaster RAI in association with the Japanese NHK broadcaster.
The tournament was won by West Germany, who claimed their third World Cup title by defeating reigning champions Argentina 1–0 in the final, a rematch of the previous final four years earlier. Hosts Italy beat England 2–1 to finish third after both lost their semi-finals in penalty shootouts. It would be the last tournament to feature a German side representing the divided Germany, with the country being reunified later in 1990. The only team not to lose to the champions were Colombia, who tied in dramatic fashion during overtime in their final first-round match.
The 1990 World Cup is widely regarded as one of the poorest World Cups ever. It generated a record low goals-per-game average of just 2.21- a record that still stands to date- and a then-record 16 red cards were handed out, including the first ever dismissal in a final. Despite this, the 1990 World Cup stands as one of the most watched events in television history, garnering an estimated 26.69 billion non-unique viewers, compiled over the course of the tournament. At the time it was the most watched World Cup in history in non-unique viewers, but was subsequently bettered by the 1994 and 2002 FIFA World Cups.
Following the 1990 World Cup, the back-pass rule was introduced in 1992 to discourage time-wasting and overly defensive play, and wins were awarded three points in the group stage of the 1994 World Cup to encourage more aggressive offensive tactics and discourage the strategy of playing for a draw.
The vote to choose the hosts of the 1990 tournament was held on 19 May 1984 in Zürich, Switzerland. Here, the FIFA Executive Committee chose Italy ahead of the only rival bid, the USSR, by 11 votes to 5. This awarding made Italy only the second nation to host two World Cup tournaments, after Mexico had also achieved this with their 1986 staging. Italy had previously had the event in 1934, where they had won their first championship.
Austria, England, France, Greece, West Germany and Yugoslavia also submitted initial applications for the 31 July 1983 deadline. A month later, only England and Greece remained in the hunt with Italy and the Soviet Union after the other contenders all withdrew. All four bids were assessed by FIFA in late 1983, with the final decision overrunning into 1984 due to the volume of paperwork involved. In early 1984, England and Greece also withdrew, leading to a two-horse race in the final vote. The Soviet boycott of the 1984 Olympic Games announced on the eve of the World Cup decision was speculated to have been a major factor behind Italy winning the vote so decisively, although this was dismissed by FIFA President João Havelange.
116 teams entered the 1990 World Cup, with 114 being required to qualify (due to rejected entries and withdrawals, 103 teams eventually participated in the qualifying stages). Italy as host nation and Argentina as reigning World Cup champions were granted automatic qualification, with the remaining 22 finals places divided among the continental confederations.
Thirteen places were contested by UEFA teams (Europe), three by CONMEBOL teams (South America), two by CAF teams (Africa), two by AFC teams (Asia), and two by CONCACAF teams (North and Central America and Caribbean). The remaining place was decided by a play-off between CONMEBOL and OFC (Oceania).
Both Mexico and Chile were disqualified during the qualification process; the former for fielding an overage player in a prior youth tournament, the latter after goalkeeper Roberto Rojas faked injury from a firework thrown from the stands, which caused the match to be abandoned. Chile were also banned from the 1994 qualifiers for this offence.
Returning after long absences were Egypt, who appeared for the first time since 1934; the United States, who competed for the first time since 1950, Colombia who appeared for the first time since 1962; and Romania, who last appeared at the Finals in 1970.
Among the teams who failed to qualify were Hungary, France, Poland, and Portugal.
Twelve stadiums were selected to host the World Cup matches in twelve different cities. The Stadio San Nicola in Bari and Turin's Stadio delle Alpi were completely new venues opened for the World Cup.
The remaining ten venues all underwent extensive programmes of improvements in preparation for the tournament, forcing many of the club tenants of the stadia to move to temporary homes. Additional seating and roofs were added to most stadia, with further redevelopments seeing running tracks removed and new pitches laid. Due to structural constraints, several of the existing stadia had to be virtually rebuilt in order to implement the changes required.
Most of the works cost in excess of their original estimates, and total costs ended up being over £550 million (approximately $935 million). Rome's Stadio Olimpico which would host the final was the most expensive project overall, while Udine's Stadio Friuli, the newest of the existing stadia (opened 14 years prior), cost the least to redevelop.
|Stadio Olimpico||San Siro||Stadio San Paolo||Stadio delle Alpi|
|Capacity: 72,698||Capacity: 85,700||Capacity: 74,000||Capacity: 68,000|
|Stadio San Nicola||Stadio Marc'Antonio Bentegodi|
|Capacity: 56,000||Capacity: 42,000|
|Stadio Artemio Franchi||Stadio Sant'Elia|
|Capacity: 41,000||Capacity: 40,000|
|Stadio Renato Dall'Ara||Stadio Friuli||Stadio La Favorita||Stadio Luigi Ferraris|
|Capacity: 39,000||Capacity: 38,000||Capacity: 36,000||Capacity: 36,000|
Squads for the 1990 World Cup consisted of 22 players, as for the previous tournament in 1986. Replacement of injured players was permitted during the tournament at FIFA's discretion. Two goalkeepers – Argentina's Ángel Comizzo and England's Dave Beasant – entered their respective squads during the tournament to replace injured players (Nery Pumpido and David Seaman).
41 match officials from 34 countries were assigned to the tournament to serve as referees and assistant referees. Officials in italics were only used as assistants during the tournament. Referees dressed only in traditional black jerseys for the final time at a World Cup (a red change shirt was used for two Group C games in which Scotland wore their navy blue shirts).
The six seeded teams for the 1990 tournament were announced on 7 December 1989. The seeds were then allocated to the six groups in order of their seeding rank (1st seed to Group A, 2nd seed to Group B, etc.).
The seeds were decided by FIFA based on the nations' performance in, primarily, the 1986 World Cup with the 1982 World Cup also considered as a secondary influence. Six of the final eight in 1986 had qualified for the 1990 tournament. Italy – who were seeded first as hosts – had not reached the final eight in 1986, and this left FIFA needing to exclude one of the three (qualified) nations who were eliminated in the 1986 quarter finals: Brazil, England or Spain.
Owing to their performance in 1982 but also to their overall World Cup record, Brazil were seeded third and not considered to drop out of the seedings. FIFA opted to seed England ahead of Spain. Spain had only been eliminated in 1986 on penalties, while England had been defeated in 90 minutes; both countries had also reached the second stage in the 1982 event, but Spain had also appeared in the 1978 event, while England had failed to qualify. FIFA President João Havelange had reportedly earlier stated that Spain would be seeded.
Spain believed the seeding was contrived to ensure England would be placed in Group F, the group to be held off the Italian mainland, in a bid to contain England's hooliganism problems. Spanish coach Luis Suárez said, "We feel we've been cheated...they wanted to seed England and to send it to Cagliari at all costs. So they invented this formula". FIFA countered that "the formula was based on the teams' respective showings during the previous two World Cups. England merited the sixth position. This is in no way a concession to English hooliganism".
|Pot 1||Pot 2||Pot 3||Pot 4|
On 9 December 1989 the draw was held at the Palazzetto dello Sport in Rome, where the group lineups and order of matches was determined. The ceremony was hosted by Italian television presenter Pippo Baudo, with Italian actress Sophia Loren and opera singer Luciano Pavarotti conducting the draw alongside FIFA general secretary Sepp Blatter.
The draw show was FIFA's most ambitious yet with Pelé, Bobby Moore and Karl-Heinz Rummenigge, as well as a performance of the tournament's official song, "Un'estate italiana" being performed by Edoardo Bennato and Gianna Nannini.
The finals tournament of the 1990 World Cup began on 8 June and concluded on 8 July. The format of the 1990 competition remained the same as in 1986: 24 qualified teams were divided into six groups of four. The top two teams and four best third place finishers from the six groups advanced to the knockout stage, which eliminated the teams until a winner emerged. In total, 52 games were played.
The tournament generated a record low goals-per-game average and a then-record of 16 red cards were handed out. In the knockout stage, many teams would "play it safe" for 120 minutes and try their luck in the penalty shoot-out, rather than risk going forward. There were four penalty shootouts, a record subsequently equalled in the 2006 tournament.
Ireland and Argentina were prime examples of this trend of cautious defensive play; the Irish scored just twice in five games in drawing all their matches until their defeat to Italy in the quarter-finals. Losing finalists Argentina, meanwhile, scored only five goals in the entire tournament (a record low for a finalist that, as of 2010, still stands). Argentina also became the first (and so far only) team to advance twice on penalty shootouts, the first team to fail to score in a World Cup final, and the first to have a player sent off in a World Cup final.
Largely as a result of this trend FIFA introduced the back-pass rule in time for the 1994 tournament in order to make it harder for teams to time-waste by repeatedly passing the ball back for their goalkeepers to pick up. Three, rather than two, points would be awarded for victories at future tournaments to help further encourage attacking play.
Emergence of Cameroon
Cameroon reached the quarter-finals, where they were narrowly defeated by England. They opened the tournament with a shock victory over reigning champions Argentina, before topping the group ahead of both them and European Championship runners-up the Soviet Union. Their success was fired by the goals of Roger Milla, a 38-year-old forward who came out of international retirement to join the national squad at the last moment after a personal request from Cameroonian President Paul Biya. Milla's four goals and flamboyant goal celebrations made him one of the tournament's biggest stars as well as taking Cameroon to the last eight. In reaching this stage, they had gone further than any African nation had ever managed in a World Cup before; a feat only equalled twice since (by Senegal in 2002 and Ghana in 2010). Their success was African football's biggest yet on the world stage, and FIFA subsequently decided to offer the CAF qualifying zone an additional place for the next World Cup tournament.
All-champion final four
Despite the performances of nations such as Cameroon, Colombia and Costa Rica, the semi-finalists consisted of Argentina, England, Italy and West Germany, all previous World Cup winners, with a total of eight previous titles between them. After the 1970 tournament, this is only the second time in the history of the World Cup this has occurred. The teams which finished first, second and third had also contested both the two previous World Cup Finals between themselves.
The first round, or group stage, saw the twenty-four teams divided into six groups of four teams. Each group was a round-robin of six games, where each team played one match against each of the other teams in the same group. Teams were awarded two points for a win, one point for a draw and none for a defeat. The teams coming first and second in each group qualified for the Round of 16. The four best third-placed teams would also advance to the next stage.
If teams were level on points, they were ranked on the following criteria in order:
- Greatest total goal difference in the three group matches
- Greatest number of goals scored in the three group matches
- If teams remained level after those criteria, a mini-group would be formed from those teams, who would be ranked on:
- Most points earned in matches against other teams in the tie
- Greatest goal difference in matches against other teams in the tie
- Greatest number of goals scored in matches against other teams in the tie
- If teams remained level after all these criteria, FIFA would hold a drawing of lots
|Key to colours in group tables|
|Group winners, runners-up, and best four third-placed teams advance to the Round of 16|
Hosts Italy won Group A with a 100 per cent record. They beat Austria 1–0 thanks to substitute Salvatore 'Totò' Schillaci, who had played only one international before but would become a star during the tournament. A second 1–0 victory followed against a United States team already thumped 5–1 by Czechoslovakia. The Czechoslovaks ended runners-up in the group, while the USA's first appearance in a World Cup Finals since 1950 ended with three consecutive defeats.
|9 June 1990|
|Italy||1–0||Austria||Stadio Olimpico, Rome|
|10 June 1990|
|United States||1–5||Czechoslovakia||Stadio Comunale, Florence|
|14 June 1990|
|Italy||1–0||United States||Stadio Olimpico, Rome|
|15 June 1990|
|Austria||0–1||Czechoslovakia||Stadio Comunale, Florence|
|19 June 1990|
|Austria||2–1||United States||Stadio Comunale, Florence|
|Italy||2–0||Czechoslovakia||Stadio Olimpico, Rome|
Cameroon defeated reigning champions Argentina. Despite ending the match with only nine men, the African team held on for a shock 1–0 win, with contrasting fortunes for the brothers Biyik: François Omam scoring the winning goal, shortly after seeing Andre Kana sent off for a serious foul. In their second game the introduction of Roger Milla was the catalyst for a 2–1 win over Romania, Milla scoring twice from the bench (making him the oldest goalscorer in the tournament). With progression assured, Cameroon slumped to a 4–0 defeat in their final group game to a Soviet Union side striving to stay in the tournament on goal difference after successive 2–0 defeats. A 1–1 draw between Romania and Argentina sent both through, the latter as one of the best third-placed teams.
|8 June 1990|
|Argentina||0–1||Cameroon||San Siro, Milan|
|9 June 1990|
|Soviet Union||0–2||Romania||Stadio San Nicola, Bari|
|13 June 1990|
|Argentina||2–0||Soviet Union||Stadio San Paolo, Naples|
|14 June 1990|
|Cameroon||2–1||Romania||Stadio San Nicola, Bari|
|18 June 1990|
|Argentina||1–1||Romania||Stadio San Paolo, Naples|
|Cameroon||0–4||Soviet Union||Stadio San Nicola, Bari|
Costa Rica beat Scotland 1–0 in their first match, lost 1–0 to Brazil in their second, then saw off Sweden 2–1 to claim a place in the second round. Brazil took maximum points from the group. They began with a 2–1 win over Sweden, then beat both Costa Rica and Scotland 1–0. Scotland's 2–1 win over Sweden was not enough to save them from an early return home as one of the two lowest-ranked third-placed teams.
|10 June 1990|
|Brazil||2–1||Sweden||Stadio Delle Alpi, Turin|
|11 June 1990|
|Costa Rica||1–0||Scotland||Stadio Luigi Ferraris, Genoa|
|16 June 1990|
|Brazil||1–0||Costa Rica||Stadio Delle Alpi, Turin|
|Sweden||1–2||Scotland||Stadio Luigi Ferraris, Genoa|
|20 June 1990|
|Brazil||1–0||Scotland||Stadio Delle Alpi, Turin|
|Sweden||1–2||Costa Rica||Stadio Luigi Ferraris, Genoa|
Group D featured the most goals of all the groups, due in part to the defensive inadequacies of a United Arab Emirates team that lost 2–0 to Colombia, 5–1 to West Germany and 4–1 to Yugoslavia. All three of the UAE's first round opponents reached the last 16, with West Germany topping the group after a 4–1 opening victory over group runners-up Yugoslavia.
|United Arab Emirates||3||0||0||3||2||11||−9||0|
|9 June 1990|
|United Arab Emirates||0–2||Colombia||Stadio Renato Dall'Ara, Bologna|
|10 June 1990|
|West Germany||4–1||Yugoslavia||San Siro, Milan|
|14 June 1990|
|Yugoslavia||1–0||Colombia||Stadio Renato Dall'Ara, Bologna|
|15 June 1990|
|West Germany||5–1||United Arab Emirates||San Siro, Milan|
|19 June 1990|
|West Germany||1–1||Colombia||San Siro, Milan|
|Yugoslavia||4–1||United Arab Emirates||Stadio Renato Dall'Ara, Bologna|
The winners of Group E were Spain, for whom Michel hit a hat-trick as they beat South Korea 3–1 in an unbeaten group campaign. Belgium won their first two games against South Korea and Uruguay to ensure their progress; Uruguay's advance to the second round came with an injury time winner against South Korea to edge them through as the weakest of the third-placed sides to remain in the tournament.
|12 June 1990|
|Belgium||2–0||South Korea||Stadio Marc'Antonio Bentegodi, Verona|
|13 June 1990|
|Uruguay||0–0||Spain||Stadio Friuli, Udine|
|17 June 1990|
|Belgium||3–1||Uruguay||Stadio Marc'Antonio Bentegodi, Verona|
|South Korea||1–3||Spain||Stadio Friuli, Udine|
|21 June 1990|
|Belgium||1–2||Spain||Stadio Marc'Antonio Bentegodi, Verona|
|South Korea||0–1||Uruguay||Stadio Friuli, Udine|
Group F was one of the tightest groups in World Cup history. In its six games, featuring European champions the Netherlands, England, the Republic of Ireland and Egypt, no team managed to score more than once in a match, and only one match failed to end in a draw. England's bright start against Ireland – including an early goal from Lineker – faded rapidly, and their lead was cancelled out 20 minutes from time by Kevin Sheedy's low strike. The Netherlands, highly rated following their European Championship victory in 1988, conceded a late penalty to allow an Egyptian equalizer. England largely dominated their match against the Netherlands – despite, for the second World Cup in succession, losing their captain Bryan Robson to an injury which would keep him out of the rest of the tournament – but the closest they came was a Stuart Pearce free-kick which went directly into the net, but was disallowed because the referee had in fact awarded an indirect free kick. (Goalkeeper Van Breukelen was also apparently unaware the freekick was supposed to be indirect, and came very close to touching the ball in attempting to save it, which would have made it a goal if he had touched it but failed to keep it out.) Gary Lineker also had a goal ruled out earlier in the game. Ireland and Egypt failed to have a single shot on target between them in the 90 minutes of their 0–0 draw. The decisive result was England's 1–0 victory over Egypt, thanks to a headed goal by Mark Wright, which won them the group and eliminated the Africans: meanwhile the Netherlands, for the second time, conceded a late equalizer, this time to Niall Quinn after Hans van Breukelen spilled the ball to him in front of goal. For the first time in World Cup Finals history, the drawing of lots was required to divide two teams, as Ireland and the Netherlands ended with identical results.
|Republic of Ireland||3||0||3||0||2||2||0||3|
The Republic of Ireland and the Netherlands finished with identical records. With both teams assured of progressing, they were split by the drawing of lots to determine second and third place.
|11 June 1990|
|England||1–1||Republic of Ireland||Stadio Sant'Elia, Cagliari|
|12 June 1990|
|Netherlands||1–1||Egypt||Stadio La Favorita, Palermo|
|16 June 1990|
|England||0–0||Netherlands||Stadio Sant'Elia, Cagliari|
|17 June 1990|
|Republic of Ireland||0–0||Egypt||Stadio La Favorita, Palermo|
|21 June 1990|
|England||1–0||Egypt||Stadio Sant'Elia, Cagliari|
|Republic of Ireland||1–1||Netherlands||Stadio La Favorita, Palermo|
Ranking of third-placed teams
The knockout stage involved the sixteen teams that qualified from the group stage of the tournament. There were four rounds of matches, with each round eliminating half of the teams entering that round. The successive rounds were: round of 16, quarter-finals, semi-finals, final. There was also a play-off to decide third/fourth place. For each game in the knockout stage, any draw at 90 minutes was followed by thirty minutes of extra time; if scores were still level there would be a penalty shootout (at least five penalties each, and more if necessary) to determine who progressed to the next round. Scores after extra time are indicated by (a.e.t.), and penalty shoot outs are indicated by (pen.).
|Round of 16||Quarter-finals||Semi-finals||Final|
|24 June – Milan|
|1 July – Milan|
|23 June – Bari|
|4 July – Turin|
|West Germany (pen.)||1 (4)|
|26 June – Bologna|
|1 July – Naples|
|23 June – Naples|
|8 July – Rome|
|25 June – Rome|
|30 June – Rome|
|25 June – Genoa|
|Republic of Ireland||0|
|Republic of Ireland (pen.)||0 (5)|
|3 July – Naples|
|Italy (pen.)||1 (3)|
|26 June – Verona|
|Argentina||1 (4)||Third place|
|30 June – Florence||7 July – Bari|
|Yugoslavia (pen.)||0 (2)||Italy||2|
|24 June – Turin|
Round of 16
Two of the ties – Argentina vs Brazil and Italy vs Uruguay – pitted former champion countries against each other, and West Germany met the Netherlands in a rematch of the 1974 World Cup Final.
The all-South American game was won for Argentina by a goal from Claudio Caniggia with ten minutes remaining after a run through the Brazilian defence by Diego Maradona and an outstanding performance from their goalkeeper Sergio Goycochea. A strong second half showing from Italy saw them beat Uruguay 2–0, thanks to another goal from Schillaci and one from Aldo Serena.
The West Germany–Netherlands clash was held in Milan, and both sides featured several notable players from the two Milanese clubs (interestingly, three from each side, both in clubs and in national teams: Germans Andreas Brehme, Lothar Matthäus and Jürgen Klinsmann for Inter, Dutchmen Marco van Basten, Ruud Gullit and Frank Rijkaard for AC Milan). After 22 minutes Rudi Völler and Frank Rijkaard were both dismissed after a goalmouth incident. As the players walked off the pitch together, Rijkaard spat at Völler. Early in the second half, Jürgen Klinsmann put the West Germans ahead and Andreas Brehme added a second with eight minutes left. A Ronald Koeman penalty for the Netherlands in the 89th minute narrowed the score to 2–1 but the Germans saw the game out to gain some revenge for their exit to the Dutch in the previous European Championship.
Meanwhile, the heroics of Cameroon and Roger Milla continued in their game with Colombia. Milla was introduced as a second half substitute with the game goalless, eventually breaking the deadlock midway in extra time. Three minutes later he netted a second after Colombian goalkeeper, René Higuita was dispossessed by Milla while well out of his goal, leaving the striker free to slot the ball into the empty net. Though the deficit was soon reduced to 2–1, Cameroon held on to become the first African team ever to reach the World Cup quarter-finals. Costa Rica were comfortably beaten 4–1 by Czechoslovakia, for whom Tomáš Skuhravý scored the tournament's second and final hat-trick.
The Republic of Ireland's match with Romania remained goalless after extra time, and the Irish side won 5–4 on penalties. David O'Leary converted the penalty that clinched Ireland's place in the quarter-finals. Ireland thus became the first team since Sweden in 1938 to reach the last eight in a World Cup finals tournament without winning a match outright. Yugoslavia beat Spain 2–1 after extra time, with Dragan Stojković scoring both the Yugoslavs' goals. England were the final qualifier against a largely dominating Belgium, but midfielder David Platt's swivelling volley broke the stalemate with the game moments away from a penalty shootout.
|23 June 1990
|Cameroon||2–1 (a.e.t.)||Colombia||Stadio San Paolo, Naples
Referee: Tullio Lanese (Italy)
|Milla 106', 109'||Report||Redín 115'|
|23 June 1990
|Czechoslovakia||4–1||Costa Rica||Stadio San Nicola, Bari
Referee: Siegfried Kirschen (East Germany)
|Skuhravý 12', 63', 82'
|24 June 1990
|Brazil||0–1||Argentina||Stadio Delle Alpi, Turin
Referee: Joël Quiniou (France)
|24 June 1990
|West Germany||2–1||Netherlands||San Siro, Milan
Referee: Juan Carlos Loustau (Argentina)
|Report||R. Koeman 89' (pen.)|
|25 June 1990
|Republic of Ireland||0–0 (a.e.t.)||Romania||Stadio Luigi Ferraris, Genoa
Referee: José Roberto Wright (Brazil)
|25 June 1990
|Italy||2–0||Uruguay||Stadio Olimpico, Rome
Referee: George Courtney (England)
|26 June 1990
|Spain||1–2 (a.e.t.)||Yugoslavia||Stadio Marc'Antonio Bentegodi, Verona
Referee: Aron Schmidhuber (West Germany)
|Julio Salinas 83'||Report||Stojković 78', 92'|
|26 June 1990
|England||1–0 (a.e.t.)||Belgium||Stadio Renato Dall'Ara, Bologna
Referee: Peter Mikkelsen (Denmark)
The first game of the last 8 saw Argentina and a Yugoslav side, reduced to 10 men after only half an hour, play out a goalless stalemate. The holders reached the semi-finals after winning the penalty shoot-out 3–2, despite Maradona having his penalty saved. A second Argentine miss (by Pedro Troglio) looked to have eliminated them until goalkeeper Sergio Goycochea – playing because first choice Nery Pumpido broke his leg during the group stage – rescued his side by stopping the Yugoslavs' final two spotkicks.
The Republic of Ireland's World Cup run was brought to an end by a single goal from Schillaci in the first half of their quarter-final with hosts Italy. West Germany beat Czechoslovakia with a 25th minute Lothar Matthäus penalty.
In the last quarter-final Cameroon came to within seven minutes of reaching the semi-finals. After Platt headed England ahead in the 25th minute of their quarter-final fixture, the half time introduction of Roger Milla turned the game in the space of five second-half minutes. First, Cameroon were awarded a penalty, from which Emmanuel Kundé equalised, before Eugène Ekéké put them ahead, then they conceded a penalty, which Gary Lineker converted to equalise. Midway through extra time, England were awarded another penalty that Lineker again converted to send them through to the semi-finals.
|30 June 1990
|Yugoslavia||0–0 (a.e.t.)||Argentina||Stadio Artemio Franchi, Florence
Referee: Kurt Röthlisberger (Switzerland)
|30 June 1990
|Italy||1–0||Republic of Ireland||Stadio Olimpico, Rome
Referee: Carlos Silva Valente (Portugal)
|1 July 1990
|West Germany||1–0||Czechoslovakia||San Siro, Milan
Referee: Helmut Kohl (Austria)
|Matthäus 25' (pen.)||Report|
|1 July 1990
|England||3–2 (a.e.t.)||Cameroon||Stadio San Paolo, Naples
Referee: Edgardo Codesal (Mexico)
Lineker 83' (pen.), 105' (pen.)
|Report||Kundé 61' (pen.)
The first semi-final pitted the host nation, Italy, against the world champion, Argentina. 'Totò' Schillaci scored to put Italy ahead in the 17th minute, but Claudio Caniggia equalised midway through the second half, the first player to breach the Italian defence in a World Cup record 517 minutes' play. There were no further goals, but a series of serious fouls saw five yellow cards and a red issued, largely to Argentina: the game went to a shootout which Argentina won 4–3, after Roberto Donadoni and Aldo Serena both had their kicks saved by Sergio Goycochea. Argentina's decisive penalty had been converted by Diego Maradona, who playing in his club "home city" of Naples had urged locals to support him rather than their homeland, creating a more muted atmosphere than Italy's previous games in Rome. Argentina reached the final having scored only five goals in the tournament, an all-time record low.
The second semi-final was between West Germany and England. Neither side was able to fashion a clear-cut chance in the first half. The deadlock was broken on the hour mark when a free kick from Andreas Brehme was heavily deflected by the on-rushing Paul Parker, sending the ball into the net. With 10 minutes left, Gary Lineker shot low to the corner to equalise for England, forcing extra-time. In the 99th minute, England's Paul Gascoigne received his second yellow card of the competition and the English player openly wept at the realisation that he would not be allowed to play in the final were England to advance. Extra-time ended without any further scoring, although both sides hit the post, and England had another Platt goal ruled out for off-side, the game went to penalty kicks, where West Germany won their third straight World Cup shoot-out, 4–3, to take them to a third consecutive final.
|3 July 1990
|Italy||1–1 (a.e.t.)||Argentina||Stadio San Paolo, Naples
Referee: Michel Vautrot (France)
|Schillaci 17'||Report||Caniggia 67'|
|4 July 1990
|West Germany||1–1 (a.e.t.)||England||Stadio delle Alpi, Turin
Referee: José Roberto Wright (Brazil)
|Brehme 60'||Report||Lineker 80'|
Third place match
The game saw three goals in a fifteen-minute spell. Roberto Baggio opened the scoring after a rare mistake by England's goalkeeper Peter Shilton, in his final game before international retirement, presented a simple opportunity. A header by David Platt levelled the game 10 minutes later but Schillaci was fouled in the penalty area five minutes later, leading to a penalty. Schillaci himself got up to convert the kick to win him the tournament's Golden Shoe for his six goal tally. Nicola Berti had a goal ruled out minutes later, but the hosts claimed third place. England had the consolation prize of the Fair Play award, having received no red cards and the lowest average number of yellows per match.
|7 July 1990
|Italy||2–1||England||Stadio San Nicola, Bari
Referee: Joël Quiniou (France)
Schillaci 86' (pen.)
FIFA announced that the final of this edition will undergo a temporary change: if after 90 minutes and extra-time the match was tied a replay will be played 48 hours. This is due to the negative approach reached by teams in the knockout stage. However, the final between West Germany and Argentina has been cited as the most cynical and lowest quality of all World Cup Finals. In the 65th minute, Argentina's Pedro Monzon was sent off for a foul on Jürgen Klinsmann, the first player ever to be sent off in a World Cup Final.
Argentina, weakened by suspension and injury, offered little attacking threat throughout a contest dominated by the West Germans, who struggled to create many clear goalscoring opportunities. The only goal of the contest arrived in the 84th minute when Mexican referee Edgardo Codesal awarded a penalty to West Germany, after a foul on Rudi Völler by Roberto Sensini. Andreas Brehme, who later said there was no foul, converted the spot kick to settle the contest. In the closing moments, Argentina were reduced to nine after Gustavo Dezotti received the second red card of the game when he hauled Jürgen Kohler to the ground during a stoppage in play. The 1–0 scoreline provided another first: Argentina were the first team to fail to score in a World Cup Final.
With its third title (and three second-place finishes) West Germany – in its final tournament before national reunification – became the most successful World Cup nation, until Brazil won their fourth title in 1994. West German manager Franz Beckenbauer became the only man to both captain (in 1974) and manage a World Cup winning team, and only the second man (after Mário Zagallo of Brazil) to win the World Cup as a player and as team manager. It was also the first time a team from UEFA won the final against a non-European team.
|8 July 1990
|West Germany||1–0||Argentina||Stadio Olimpico, Rome
Referee: Edgardo Codesal (Mexico)
|Brehme 85' (pen.)||Report|
|Golden Boot Winner||Golden Ball Winner||FIFA Fair Play Trophy|
|Salvatore Schillaci||Salvatore Schillaci||England|
Salvatore Schillaci received the Golden Shoe award for scoring six goals in the World Cup. This made him the second Italian footballer to have this honour, after Paolo Rossi won the award in 1982. In total, 115 goals were scored by 75 different players (none credited as own goals).
- There were no own goals scored in the tournament.
- Players who were red-carded during the tournament
- Gustavo Dezotti
- Ricardo Giusti
- Pedro Monzón
- Peter Artner
- Eric Gerets
- Ricardo Gomes
- André Kana-Biyik
- Benjamin Massing
- Ľubomír Moravčík
- Rudi Völler
- Yoon Deuk-Yeo
- Frank Rijkaard
- Volodymyr Bezsonov
- Khalil Ghanim
- Eric Wynalda
- Refik Šabanadžović
FIFA Final ranking
After the tournament, FIFA published a ranking of all teams that competed in the 1990 World Cup finals based on progress in the competition, overall results and quality of the opposition.
3rd and 4th place
Eliminated in the quarter-finals
Eliminated in the round of 16
Eliminated at the group stage
- Most wins: Italy (6)
- Most defeats: Korea Republic, Sweden, UAE, United States (3)
- First goal: François Omam Biyik (for Cameroon vs Argentina; Group B, 8 June)
- Fastest goal in a match: 3 minutes 59 seconds – Safet Sušić (for Yugoslavia vs UAE; Group D, 19 June)
- Latest goal scored in a match (apart from penalty shoot-outs): 119 minutes – David Platt (for England vs Belgium; Round of 16, 16 June)
- Biggest win: 5–1 – by Czechoslovakia vs United States, and by West Germany vs UAE
- Most goals in the tournament (team): West Germany (15)
- Most goals in the tournament (player): Salvatore Schillaci (Italy) (6)
- Least goals in the tournament (team): Egypt and Korea Republic (1)
- Most goals in a game: 6 (United States 1 Czechoslovakia 5; West Germany 5 UAE 1)
- Most goals in a game (player): 3, by Míchel (for Spain vs Korea Republic) and Tomáš Skuhravý (for Czechoslovakia vs Costa Rica)
- Fewest goals conceded: Brazil, Egypt and Italy (2)
- Total goals scored: 115 (average 2.21 goals per game, a record low in World Cup history)
- Most clean sheets: Italy (5)
- Number of penalties awarded: 18 (13 scored, 5 missed)
- Most yellow cards in a game: 9 – Austria vs United States (Group A, 19 June)
- Most yellow cards in the tournament: Argentina (22)
- Total yellow cards: 162
- Most red cards in the tournament: Argentina (3)
- Total red cards: 16 (a record high for a 24 team World Cup)
- Highest attendance: 74,765 – West Germany vs Yugoslavia (Group D, 10 June)
- Lowest attendance: 27,833 – Yugoslavia vs UAE (Group D, 19 June)
- Average attendance: 48,391 (5th highest in World Cup history)
- Oldest player: Peter Shilton (England) (40 years 292 days)
- Youngest player: Rónald González Brenes (Costa Rica) (19 years 307 days)
- Italy's performance of 6 wins, 1 draw and 0 losses is the highest ever winning percentage for a team that did not win the World Cup.
- The Republic of Ireland became the second team in World Cup history to reach the last eight without winning a match (Sweden progressed to the last eight by default in 1938 when Austria withdrew).
- Sir Bobby Robson Trophy match, a 2009 replay of the 1990 England Germany semi-final in honour of the England manager Bobby Robson
References and footnotes
- "L'Alta Definizione a Torino 1986 – 2006 di Marzio Barbero e Natasha Shpuza". Crit.rai.it. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- "Italy 1990". BBC Sport. 17 April 2002. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- "World Cup 1990". ESPN Soccernet. 9 November 2009. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- Glanville, Brian (2005). The Story of the World Cup. Faber. ISBN 0-571-22944-1.
- Freddi, Cris (2006). Complete Book of the World Cup. HarperSport. ISBN 978-0-00-722916-1.
- "FIFA World Cup™ Record – Organisation". Retrieved 14 June 2012.
- "World Cup and Television" (PDF). FIFA. 2006. Archived from the original on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
- "The FIFA World Cup TV viewing figures" (PDF). FIFA. Archived from the original on 27 November 2007. Retrieved 31 October 2007.
- "Italy gain vote over Soviet rival". The Times (London). 21 May 1984. p. 21.
- "Sports in brief". The Times (London). 3 August 1983. p. 17.
- "Sports in brief". The Times (London). 2 September 1983. p. 20.
- "World Cup formats". The Times (London). 12 November 1983. p. 18.
- "Romania could join the boycott". The Times (London). 22 May 1984. p. 30.
- "England Is Seeded Sixth in 1990 World Cup in Italy". New York Times. 8 December 1989. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- "Cup seedings revealed". New York Times. 30 November 1989. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- Gardner, Paul (10 December 1989). "U.S. must face Italy in cup". New York Times. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- "The FIFA World Cup Final Draw history". FIFA. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- "Mascots". FIFA. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- "Extra Time! Sunday final WON'T go to penalty shootout (page 29)". Evening Times. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- Glanville, Brian (2005). The Story of the World Cup. Faber. p. 303. ISBN 0-571-22944-1.
- Vecsey, George (9 July 1990). "Winning Ugly, Losing Ugly, Just Plain Ugly". New York Times. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- "A poor display bare of class". The Times (London). 9 July 1990.
- "All-time FIFA World Cup Ranking 1930-2010" (PDF). Fédération Internationale de Football Association. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- Figure does not include shootouts; penalties were missed during games by: Michal Bílek (Czechoslovakia v USA), Rubén Sosa (Uruguay v Spain), Faruk Hadžibegić (Yugoslavia v Colombia), Gianluca Vialli (Italy v USA) and Enzo Scifo (Belgium v Spain)
- Figure does not include second yellow cards that led to a red card
- Italia 90 on the FIFA website
- Details at RSSSF
- History of the World Cup-1990
- Planet World Cup – Italy 1990