1990 in spaceflight

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
1990 in spaceflight
Liftoff STS-31.jpg
Orbital launches
First 1 January
Last 27 December
Total 121
Successes 114
Failures 5
Partial failures 2
National firsts
Satellite  Pakistan
Space traveller  Japan
Rockets
Maiden flights Ariane 4 40
Ariane 4 42P
Atlas I
Commercial Titan III
Delta II 6920
Delta II 7925
Long March 2E
Pegasus
Retirements Delta 4925
Long March 4A
Manned flights
Orbital 9
Total travellers 39


Launches[edit]

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Launch site LSP
Payload Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January[edit]

1 January
00:07
United StatesCommercial Titan III United StatesCape Canaveral LC-40 United StatesMartin Marietta
United KingdomSkynet 4A MoD Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
JapanJCSAT 2 JSAT Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Maiden flight of Commercial Titan III
9 January
12:35
United StatesSpace Shuttle Columbia United StatesKennedy LC-39A United States
United StatesSTS-32 NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment and retrieval 20 January
06:35
Successful
United StatesLeasat 5 NASA Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
Manned orbital flight with 5 astronauts
Long Duration Exposure Facility retrieval mission
Leasat 5 retired in February 1998
17 January
14:38
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2055 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance 29 January Successful
18 January
12:57
Soviet UnionKosmos-3M Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 133/3 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2056 (Strela-2M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
22 January
01:35
European UnionAriane 4 (40) FranceKourou ELA-2 FranceArianespace
FranceSPOT 2 CNES Sun-synchronous Earth observation In orbit Operational
United KingdomUOSAT 3 University of Surrey Sun-synchronous Communications In orbit Operational
United KingdomUOSAT 4 University of Surrey Sun-synchronous Communications In orbit Spacecraft failure
United StatesPACSAT AMSAT Sun-synchronous Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesMicrosat 2 AMSAT Sun-synchronous Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesMicrosat 3 AMSAT Sun-synchronous Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesMicrosat 4 AMSAT Sun-synchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Maiden flight of Ariane 4 (40)
UOSAT 4 ceased transmitting after 5 hours
23 January
02:52
Soviet UnionMolniya-M/ML Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionMolniya 3-53L Molniya Communications 23 June 2003 Successful
24 January
11:46
JapanMu-3S-II JapanUchinoura JapanISAS
JapanHiten ISAS Lunar probe 11 April 1993 Successful
JapanHagoromo ISAS Selenocentric Lunar orbiter In orbit Spacecraft failure
First Japanese lunar mission
Hagoromo suffered a transmitter malfunction prior to selenocentric orbit injection
24 January
22:55
United StatesDelta II 6925 United StatesCape Canaveral LC-17A United StatesMcDonnell Douglas
United StatesGPS II-6 (USA-50) US Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
25 January
17:15
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2057 (Yantar-4K2) Low Earth Reconnaissance 19 March 1990 Successful
30 January
11:20
Soviet UnionTsyklon-3 Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 32 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2058 (Tselina-R) Low Earth ELINT In orbit Operational

February[edit]

4 February
12:27
ChinaLong March 3 ChinaXichang LC-1 China
ChinaDFH-2 A-4 Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
6 February
16:30
Soviet UnionKosmos-3M Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 132/2 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2059 (Taifun-2) Low Earth Radar calibration 12 November Successful
7 February
01:33
JapanH-I JapanTanegashima LA-N JapanMitsubishi
JapanMOS 1B NASDA Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
JapanDEBUT Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Successful
JapanJAS-1B Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
11 February
06:16
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionSoyuz TM-9 Low Earth (Mir) Mir EO-9 9 August
07:33
Successful
Manned orbital flight with 2 cosmonauts
14 February
16:15
United StatesDelta II 6920-8 United StatesCape Canaveral LC-17B United StatesMcDonnell Douglas
United StatesLACE (USA-51) DoD Low Earth Technology demonstration 24 May 2000 Successful
United StatesRME (USA-52) DoD Low Earth Technology demonstration 24 May 1992 Successful
Maiden flight of Delta II 6920
15 February
07:52
Soviet UnionProton-K/DM-2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 81/23 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionRaduga 25 Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
22 February
23:17
European UnionAriane 4 (44L) FranceKourou ELA-2 FranceArianespace
JapanSuperbird B SCC Intended: Geosynchronous transfer Communications T+ seconds Launch failure
JapanBS 2X Intended: Geosynchronous transfer Communications
Blocked water line caused rocket explosion
27 February
20:59
Soviet UnionKosmos-3M Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 132/2 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionNadezhda 2 Low Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
28 February
00:55
Soviet UnionTsyklon-3 Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 32/2 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionOkean 2 Low Earth Earth science In orbit Operational
28 February
07:50
United StatesSpace Shuttle Atlantis United StatesKennedy LC-39A United States
United StatesSTS-36 NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment 4 March
03:08
Successful
United StatesUSA-53 (Misty-1) NRO Low Earth Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
Manned orbital flight with 5 astronauts
28 February
23:10
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionProgress M-3 Low Earth (Mir) Logistics 28 April
00:52
Successful

March[edit]

14 March
11:52
United StatesCommercial Titan III United StatesCape Canaveral LC-40 United StatesMartin Marietta
United NationsIntelsat 603 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Partial launch failure
Due to non-separation of second stage Intelsat 603 was released from its perigee motor into a Low Earth orbit. Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-49 attached a new perigee motor which boosted the satellite to geosynchronous orbit.
14 March
15:27
Soviet UnionTsyklon-2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 90/20 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2060 (US-P) Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance 1 September 1991 Successful
20 March
00:25
Soviet UnionKosmos-3M Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 133/3 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2061 (Parus) Low Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
22 March
07:20
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2062 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance 28 April Successful
26 March
02:45
United StatesDelta II 6925 United StatesCape Canaveral LC-17A United StatesMcDonnell Douglas
United StatesGPS II-7 (USA-54) US Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Spacecraft failure
Signal anomaly on 21 May 1996 made the satellite unusable in the GPS constellation.
27 March
16:40
Soviet UnionMolniya-M/2BL Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2063 (Oko) Molniya Early warning In orbit Operational

April[edit]

3 April
12:02
IsraelShavit IsraelPalmachim Israel
IsraelOfeq-2 Low Earth (retrograde) Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
3 April Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 43 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionYantar-4K2 Intended: Low Earth Reconnaissance 3 April Launch failure
5 April
19:10
United StatesPegasus United StatesBalls 8 Edwards United StatesOrbital Sciences
United StatesPegsat NASA Low Earth Space Physics 14 November 1998 Successful
United StatesUSA-55 (SECS) DoD Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Maiden flight of Pegasus
6 April
03:13
Soviet UnionKosmos-3M Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 133/3 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2064 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2065 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2066 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2067 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2068 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2069 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2070 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2071 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
7 April
13:30
ChinaLong March 3 ChinaXichang LC-1 China
ChinaAsiaSat 1 AsiaSat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Originally launched as Westar 6 by Space Shuttle Challenger in February 1984 on mission STS-41-B. Was stranded in an incorrect orbit and was recovered in November 1984 by Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-51-A. Westar 6 was refurbished and sold to AsiaSat who renamed it AsiaSat 1.
11 April
15:00
United StatesAtlas-E/Altair-3A United StatesVandenberg SLC-3W United StatesLockheed
United StatesUSA-56 (POGS) DoD Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Successful
United StatesUSA-57 (TEX) DoD Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Successful
United StatesUSA-58 (SCE) DoD Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Successful
11 April
17:00
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 43/3 Soviet Union
France/Soviet UnionFoton 6 CNES Low Earth Microgravity research 27 April
06:15
Successful
13 April
18:53
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionBaikonur Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2072 (Yantar-4KS1) Low Earth Reconnaissance 22 November Successful
13 April
22:28
United StatesDelta II 6925-8 United StatesCape Canaveral LC-17B United StatesMcDonnell Douglas
IndonesiaPalapa B2R Telkom Indonesia Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Originally launched in February 1984 as Palapa B2 by Space Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-41-B. Was stranded in an incorrect orbit and was recovered in November 1984 by Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-51-A.
17 April
08:00
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2073 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance 28 April Successful
20 April
18:41
Soviet UnionKosmos-3M Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 133/3 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2074 (Parus) Low Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
24 April
12:33
United StatesSpace Shuttle Discovery United StatesKennedy LC-39B United States
United StatesSTS-31 NASA Low Earth HST deployment 29 April
13:49
Successful
United States/European UnionHubble Space Telescope NASA/ESA Low Earth Space Telescope In orbit Operational
Manned orbital flight with 5 astronauts
25 April
13:00
Soviet UnionKosmos-3M Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 132/2 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2075 (Taifun-2) Low Earth Target 20 February 1992 Successful
26 April
01:37
Soviet UnionMolniya-M/ML Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionMolniya 1-77 Molniya Communications 25 February 2005 Successful
28 April
11:37
Soviet UnionMolniya-M/2BL Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2076 (Oko) Molniya Early warning In orbit Operational

May[edit]

5 May
20:44
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionProgress 42 Low Earth (Mir) Logistics 27 May
12:27
Successful
Final flight of baseline Progress spacecraft
7 May
18:39
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2077 (Yantar-4K2) Low Earth Reconnaissance 4 July Successful
9 May
17:50
United StatesScout G-1 United StatesVandenberg SLC-5 United States
United StatesMacSat 1 DARPA Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
United StatesMacSat 2 DARPA Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
15 May
09:55
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionBaikonur Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2078 (Yantar-1KFT) Low Earth Reconnaissance 28 June Successful
19 May
08:32
Soviet UnionProton-K/DM-2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 200/40 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2079 (GLONASS) Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2080 (GLONASS) Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2081 (GLONASS) Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
22 May
05:14
Soviet UnionZenit-2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 45/2 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2082 (Tselina-2) Low Earth ELINT In orbit Operational
First launch from Site 45/2
29 May
07:19
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 43/4 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionResurs-F6 Low Earth Reconnaissance 14 June Successful
31 May
10:33
Soviet UnionProton-K Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 200/39 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKristall Low Earth (Mir) Mir module 23 March 2001
05:50
Successful

June[edit]

1 June
21:48
United StatesDelta II 6920-10 United StatesCape Canaveral LC-17A United StatesMcDonnell Douglas
GermanyROSAT Low Earth Astronomy 23 October 2011 Successful
8 June
05:21
United StatesTitan IVA (405) United StatesCape Canaveral LC-41 United StatesMartin Marietta
United StatesUSA-59 (SLDCOM) US Air Force Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesUSA-60 (NOSS-2) US Navy Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
United StatesUSA-61 (NOSS-2) US Navy Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
United StatesUSA-62 (NOSS-2) US Navy Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
12 June
05:52
United StatesDelta 4925 United StatesCape Canaveral LC-17B United StatesMcDonnell Douglas
IndiaINSAT 1D ISRO Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
Final flight of Delta 4925
13 June
01:07
Soviet UnionMolniya-M/ML Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionMolniya 3-47L Molniya Communications 26 February 2006 Successful
19 June
08:45
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2083 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance 3 July 1990 Successful
20 June
23:36
Soviet UnionProton-K/DM Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 200/40 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionGorizont 20 Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
21 June
20:45
Soviet UnionMolniya-M/2BL Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 43/3 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2084 (Oko) Intended: Molniya
Achieved: Low Earth
Early warning In orbit Partial Failure
Placed in an incorrect orbit and the satellite did not communicate with the ground.
23 June
11:19
United StatesCommercial Titan III United StatesCape Canaveral LC-40 United StatesMartin Marietta
United NationsIntelsat 604 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
27 June
22:30
Soviet UnionTsyklon-3 Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 32 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionMeteor-2-19 Low Earth Earth Sciences In orbit Successful

July[edit]

3 July Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 16/2 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionYantar-4K2 Intended: Low Earth Reconnaissance 3 July Launch failure
11 July
10:00
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
France/Soviet UnionGamma CNES Low Earth Astronomy 28 February 1992 Successful
16 July
00:40
ChinaLong March 2E ChinaXichang LC-2 China
PakistanBadr-1 SUPARCO Low Earth Communications 8 December Successful
United StatesHS-601 Low Earth Boilerplate spacecraft In orbit Successful
Maiden flight of Long March 2E
17 July
09:29
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 43/3 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionResurs-F7 Low Earth Reconnaissance 16 August Successful
18 July
21:46
Soviet UnionProton-K/DM-2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 200/39 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2085 (Geizer 17L) Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
20 July
08:40
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2086 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance 3 August Successful
24 July
22:25
European UnionAriane 4 (44L) FranceKourou ELA-2 FranceArianespace
FranceTDF-2 Telediffusion Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
GermanyDFS-2 Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
25 July
18:13
Soviet UnionMolniya-M/2BL Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2087 (Oko) Molniya Early warning In orbit Operational
25 July
19:21
United StatesAtlas I United StatesCape Canaveral LC-36B United States
United StatesCRRES US Air Force Geosynchronous transfer Space Physics In orbit Successful
Maiden flight of Atlas I
Contact with spacecraft lost on 12 October 1991 due to onboard battery failure.
30 July
00:06
Soviet UnionTsyklon-3 Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 32/1 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2088 (Geo-IK) Low Earth Earth Science In orbit Successful

August[edit]

1 August
09:32
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionSoyuz TM-10 Low Earth (Mir) Mir EO-7 10 December
06:08
Successful
Manned orbital flight with 2 cosmonauts
2 August
05:39
United StatesDelta II 6925 United StatesCape Canaveral LC-17A United StatesMcDonnell Douglas
United StatesGPS II-8 (USA-63) US Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
3 August
19:45
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2089 (Yantar-4K2) Low Earth Reconnaissance 1 October Successful
8 August
04:15
Soviet UnionTsyklon-3 Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 32 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2090 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2091 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2092 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2093 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2094 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2095 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
9 August
20:18
Soviet UnionProton-K/DM-2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 200/39 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionEkran-M Intended: Geosynchronous Communications 9 August Launch failure
10 August
20:18
Soviet UnionMolniya-M/ML Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionMolniya 1-78 Molniya Communications 6 July 2007 Successful
15 August
04:00
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionProgress M-4 Low Earth (Mir) Logistics 20 September
11:42
Successful
16 August
09:54
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 43/4 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionResurs-F8 Low Earth Reconnaissance 1 September Successful
18 August
00:42
United StatesDelta II 6925 United StatesCape Canaveral LC-17B United StatesMcDonnell Douglas
United KingdomMarco Polo 2 Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
23 August
16:17
Soviet UnionTsyklon-2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 90/20 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2096 (US-P) Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance 30 August 1992 Successful
28 August
07:49
Soviet UnionMolniya-M/2BL Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2097 (Oko) Molniya Early warning In orbit Operational
28 August
09:05
JapanH-1 JapanTanegashima LA-N JapanMitsubishi
JapanBS 3A Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
28 August
15:45
Soviet UnionKosmos-3M Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 133/3 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2098 (Taifun-1) Low Earth Earth Science In orbit Successful
30 August
22:46
European UnionAriane 4 (44LP) FranceKourou ELA-2 FranceArianespace
United KingdomSkynet 4C MoD Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
FranceEutelsat 2F1 Eutelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
31 August
08:00
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2099 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance 14 September Successful

September[edit]

3 September
00:53
ChinaLong March 4A ChinaTaiyuan LC-1 China
ChinaFeng Yun 1B Sun-synchronous Weather satellite In orbit Successful
ChinaQi Qiu Weixing 1 Sun-synchronous Atmospheric research 11 March 1991 Successful
ChinaQi Qiu Weixing 2 Sun-synchronous Atmospheric research 24 July 1991 Successful
Final flight of Long March 4A
7 September
11:59
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 16/2 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionResurs-F9 Low Earth Reconnaissance 21 September Successful
14 September
05:59
Soviet UnionKosmos-3M Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 133/3 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2100 (Parus) Low Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
20 September
20:16
Soviet UnionMolniya-M/ML Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionMolniya 3-54L Molniya Communications In orbit Operational
27 September
10:37
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionProgress M-5 Low Earth (Mir) Logistics 28 November
11:04
Successful
28 September
07:30
Soviet UnionTsyklon-3 Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 32 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionMeteor-2-20 Low Earth Earth Science In orbit Successful

October[edit]

1 October
11:00
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2101 (Ortlets-1) Low Earth Reconnaissance 30 November Successful
1 October
21:56
United StatesDelta II 6925 United StatesCape Canaveral LC-17A United StatesMcDonnell Douglas
United StatesGPS II-9 (USA-64) US Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
4 October Soviet UnionZenit-2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 45/2 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionTselina-2 Intended: Low Earth ELINT T+5 seconds Launch failure
First stage engine failure five seconds after launch. Subsequent explosion completely destroyed the launch pad, which was not rebuilt.
5 October
06:14
ChinaLong March 2C ChinaJiuquan LA-2B China
ChinaFSW-1-3 Low Earth Reconnaissance 13 October
03:59
Successful
6 October
11:47
United StatesSpace Shuttle Discovery United StatesKennedy LC-39B United States
United StatesSTS-41 NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment 10 October Successful
European Union/United StatesUlysses ESA/NASA Heliocentric Solar probe In orbit Successful
Manned orbital flight with 5 astronauts
12 October
22:58
European UnionAriane 4 (44L) FranceKourou ELA-2 FranceArianespace
United StatesSBS 6 SBS Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
United StatesGalaxy 6 PanAmSat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
16 October
19:00
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2102 (Yantar-4K2) Low Earth Reconnaissance 12 December Successful
30 October
23:16
United StatesDelta II 6925 United StatesCape Canaveral LC-17B United StatesMcDonnell Douglas
United KingdomInmarsat 2F1 Inmarsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational

November[edit]

3 November
14:40
Soviet UnionProton-K/DM-2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 81/23 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionGorizont 21 Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
13 November
00:37
United StatesTitan IVA (402)/IUS United StatesCape Canaveral LC-41 United StatesMartin Marietta
United StatesUSA-65 (DSP-15) US Air Force Geosynchronous Early warning In orbit Operational
14 November
06:33
Soviet UnionTsyklon-2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 90/20 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2103 (US-P) Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance 3 April 1991 Successful
15 November
23:48
United StatesSpace Shuttle Atlantis United StatesKennedy LC-39A United States
United StatesSTS-38 NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment 20 November
21:42
Successful
United StatesUSA-67 (SDS-2) NRO Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesProwler NRO Geosynchronous Satellite inspection
Technology
In orbit Successful
Manned orbital flight with 5 astronauts
16 November
16:30
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2104 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance 4 December Successful
20 November
02:33
Soviet UnionMolniya-M/2BL Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2105 (Oko) Molniya Early warning 16 January 2008 Successful
20 November
23:11
European UnionAriane 4 (42P) FranceKourou ELA-2 FranceArianespace
United StatesSatcom C1 GE Americom Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
United StatesGStar 4 Spacenet Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
Maiden flight of Ariane 4 (42P)
23 November
03:51
Soviet UnionMolniya-M/ML Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionMolniya 1-79 Molniya Communications 30 August 2005 Successful
23 November
13:22
Soviet UnionProton-K/DM-2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 200/39 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionGorizont 22 Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
26 November
21:39
United StatesDelta II 7925 United StatesCape Canaveral LC-17A United StatesMcDonnell Douglas
United StatesGPS IIA-1 (USA-66) US Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
Maiden flight of Delta II 7925
28 November
16:33
Soviet UnionTsyklon-3 Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 32 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2106 (Tselina-D) Low Earth ELINT 7 April 2000 Successful

December[edit]

1 December
15:57
United StatesAtlas-E/Star-37 United StatesVandenberg SLC-3W United StatesLockheed
United StatesUSA-68 (DMSP-5D2 F10) US Air Force Sun-synchronous Weather satellite In orbit Successful
2 December
06:49
United StatesSpace Shuttle Columbia United StatesKennedy LC-39B United States
United StatesSTS-35 NASA Low Earth Astronomy 23:54 Successful
Manned orbital flight with 7 astronauts
2 December
08:13
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionSoyuz TM-11 Low Earth (Mir) Mir EO-8 26 May 1991
10:04
Successful
Manned orbital flight with 3 cosmonauts including the first Japanese space traveler.
4 December
00:48
Soviet UnionTsyklon-2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 90/20 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2107 (US-P) Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance 6 April 1992 Successful
4 December
18:30
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2108 (Yantar-4K2) Low Earth Reconnaissance 28 January 1991 Successful
8 December
02:43
Soviet UnionProton-K/DM-2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 81/23 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2109 (GLONASS) Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2110 (GLONASS) Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2111 (GLONASS) Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
10 December
07:54
Soviet UnionKosmos-3M Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 133/3 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2112 (Strela-2M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
20 December
11:35
Soviet UnionProton-K/DM-2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 81/23 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionRaduga 26 Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
21 December
06:20
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionBaikonur Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2113 (Yantar-4KS1) Low Earth Reconnaissance 11 June 1991 Successful
22 December
07:28
Soviet UnionTsyklon-3 Soviet UnionPlesetsk Site 32 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2114 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2115 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2116 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2117 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2118 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Soviet UnionKosmos 2119 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
26 December
11:10
Soviet UnionSoyuz-U Soviet UnionPlesetsk Soviet Union
Soviet UnionKosmos 2120 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance 17 January 1991 Successful
27 December
11:08
Soviet UnionProton-K/DM-2 Soviet UnionBaikonur Site 200/39 Soviet Union
Soviet UnionRaduga-1-2 Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational

Deep-space rendezvous[edit]

Date (GMT) Spacecraft Event Remarks
10 February Galileo Flyby of Venus Gravity assist; Closest approach: 16,000 kilometres (9,900 mi)
19 March Hiten Flyby of the Moon
19 March Hagoromo Selenocentric orbit injection
10 August Magellan Cytherean orbit injection
8 December Galileo 1st flyby of the Earth Gravity assist; Closest approach: 960 kilometres (600 mi)

EVAs[edit]

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Remarks
8 January
20:23
2 hours
56 minutes
23:19 Mir EO-5 Soviet UnionAlexander Viktorenko
Soviet UnionAleksandr Serebrov
Installed new star tracker sensors launched in the Kvant-2 module onto Kvant-1.
11 January
18:01
2 hours
54 minutes
20:55 Mir EO-5 Soviet UnionAlexander Viktorenko
Soviet UnionAleksandr Serebrov
Closed out experimental racks, either retrieving for return to earth, or discarding into space. Modified the docking node for the arrival of the Kristall module.
26 January
12:09
3 hours
2 minutes
15:11 Mir EO-5
Kvant-2
Soviet UnionAlexander Viktorenko
Soviet UnionAleksandr Serebrov
Tested the new Orlan-DMA spacesuit. This spacewalk team was the first use of the EVA airlock hatch on the Kvant-2 module. During the spacewalk a mooring post was attached outside the airlock, and a Kurs antenna was removed to enable future EVAs.
1 February
08:15
4 hours
59 minutes
13:14 Mir EO-5
Kvant-2
Soviet UnionAlexander Viktorenko
Soviet UnionAleksandr Serebrov
Tested the SPK "flying armchair", analogous to NASA's MMU. The SPK did not fly free, but remained tethered to Kvant-2 during the tests.
5 February
06:08
3 hours
45 minutes
09:53 Mir EO-5
Kvant-2
Soviet UnionAlexander Viktorenko
Soviet UnionAleksandr Serebrov
Conducted more tests of the SPK. Viktorenko reached as far as 45 metres (148 ft) from Mir.
17 July
13:06
7 hours
15 minutes
20:22 Mir EO-6
Kvant-2
Soviet UnionAnatoly Solovyev
Soviet UnionAleksandr Balandin
At the start of their EVA to repair torn insulation on the Soyuz TM-9, Solovyev and Balandin damaged the hatch on Kvant-2 by opening it before the airlock was completely depressurized. The spacewalking team repaired the insulation on Soyuz, but time constraints required returning to Kvant-2 before they collected their tools and ladders. Unable to securely close the damaged hatch, they used the center section of Kvant-2 as a back-up airlock.
26 July
11:15
3 hours
31 minutes
14:46 Mir EO-6
Kvant-2
Soviet UnionAnatoly Solovyev
Soviet UnionAleksandr Balandin
Transmitted images of the damaged hatch to TsUP, recovered the ladders and tools left outside earlier and removed debris lodged in the hinge of the airlock hatch, allowing the hatch to close and seal for repressurization.
29 October
21:45
2 hours
45 minutes
30 October
00:30
Mir EO-7
Kvant-2
Soviet UnionGennadi Manakov
Soviet UnionGennady Strekalov
After removing insulation around the damaged Kvant-2 hatch, they found the hatch to be more heavily damaged than previously understood. Although unable to completely repair the hatch, they added hardware to the hatch.

References[edit]

Generic references:

Footnotes[edit]