1991 in paleontology

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   In science: 1988 1989 1990 -1991- 1992 1993 1994     
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Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because mankind has encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred in the year 1991.

Arthropods[edit]

Newly named insects[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Anochetus brevidentatus[2]

Sp nov

Valid

MacKay

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

A ponerin ant

Mollusca[edit]

Newly named bivalves[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Similodonta wahli[3]

Sp nov

Valid

Isakar

Late Ordovician

Arina Formation

 Estonia

Archosauromorphs[edit]

  • Sankar Chatterjee's discovery of a possible Triassic bird, Protoavis, if genuine, would push avian origins back almost 70 million years. The find ignites controversy over the connection between dinosaurs and birds.

Newly named dinosaurs[edit]

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list.[4]

Name Status Authors Notes Images
Alvarezsaurus[5] Valid taxon
Amargasaurus[6] Valid taxon
  • Salgado
Amurosaurus[7] Valid taxon
  • Bolotsky
  • Kurzanov
Andesaurus[8] Valid taxon
  • Calvo
Becklespinax[9] Previously known as Acrocanthosaurus altispinax
"Eureodon"[9] Junior synonym of Tenontosaurus

Brown vide:

Euronychodon[10] Valid taxon
  • Telles-Antunes
  • Sigogneau-Russell
Janenschia[11] Valid taxon
  • Wild
"Nuoersaurus" Nomen nudum
  • Li X.M.
"Paraiguanodon"[9] Junior synonym of Bactrosaurus

Brown vide:

Protognathosaurus[9] Valid taxon
"Rioarribasaurus"[12] Nomen rejectum synonymous with Coelophysis
  • Hunt
  • S.G. Lucas
"Seismosaurus"[13] Junior synonym of Diplodocus
  • Gillette
Tarascosaurus[14] Valid taxon
  • Le Loeuff
  • Buffetaut
Taveirosaurus[10] Valid taxon
  • Telles-Antunes
  • Sigogneau-Russell
Tochisaurus[15] Valid taxon
  • Kurzanov
"Ultrasauros"[9] Chimera of Brachiosaurus and Supersaurus
Valdoraptor[9] Valid taxon
Velocisaurus[5] Valid taxon

Newly named birds[edit]

Name Status Novelty Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Aidemedia chascax [16]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Oahu

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Aidemedia lutetiae [16]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Molokai

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Aidemedia zanclops [16]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Oahu

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Apteribis brevis [17]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Maui

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Threskiornithidae.

Asiahesperornis bazhanovi [18]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Lev A. Nessov

B. V. Prizemlin

Late Cretaceous

Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian, Eginsai Formation

 Kazakhstan

A Hesperornithiformes Fürbringer, 1888, Hesperornithidae Marsh, 1872.

Branta hylobadistes [17]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Maui

 USA:

 Hawaii

An Anatidae.

Chelychelynechen quassus [17]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Kauai

 USA:

 Hawaii

An Anatidae, a Moa-Nalo, this is the type species of the genus.

Chloridops regiskongi [16]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Oahu

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Chloridops wahi [16]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Oahu

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Circus dossenus [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Molokai

 USA:

 Hawaii

An Accipitridae.

Ciridops tenax [16]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Kauai

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Corvus impluviatus [16]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Oahu

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Corvidae.

Corvus viriosus [16]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Oahu

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Corvidae.

Dendroscansor decurvirostris [19]

Valid

Gen. nov et Sp. nov.

Philip R. Millener

Trevor H. Worthy

Late Pleistocene

Otira Glacial Age

 New Zealand

An Acanthisittidae.

Grallistrix auceps [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Kauai

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Strigidae.

Grallistrix erdmani [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Maui

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Strigidae.

Grallistrix geleches [17]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Molokai

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Strigidae, the type species of the new genus.

Grallistrix orion [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Oahu

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Strigidae.

Hemignathus upupirostris [16]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Kauai

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae, transferred to the genus Akialoa Olson et James, 1995 by Olson et James, 1995.[20]

Horusornis vianeyliaudae [21]

Valid

Gen. nov et Sp. nov.

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Late Eocene

Quercy

MP 17

 France

An Accipitriformes, Horusornithidae Mourer-Chauviré, 1991, this is the type species of the new genus.

Orthiospiza howarthi [16]

Valid

Gen. nov et Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Maui

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Palaeocryptonyx hungaricus [22]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Dénes Jánossy

Late Miocene

MN 13

 Hungary

A Phasianidae, transferred to the genus Plioperdix Kretzoi, 1955 as Plioperdix hungarica Comb. nov. by Nikita V. Zelenkov & Andrey V. Panteleyev.[23]

Phalacrocorax kuehneanus [24]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Thomas Schlüter

Late Pliocene

Minjingu

 Tanzania

A Phalacrocoracidae.

Phoeniconaias siamensis [25]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Jacques Cheneval

Léonard Ginsburg

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Benjavun Ratanasthien

Late Early Miocene

Li Mae

 Thailand

A Phoenicopteridae.

Porzana keplerorum [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Maui

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Rallidae.

Porzana menehune [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Molokai

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Rallidae.

Porzana ralphorum [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Oahu

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Rallidae.

Porzana severnsi [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Maui

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Rallidae.

Porzana ziegleri [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Oahu

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Rallidae.

Protoavis texensis [26]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Sankar Chatterjee

Late Trias

Late Carnian-Early Norian

 USA:

 Texas

A Protoaviformes Chatterjee, 1991, Protoaviformes Chatterjee, 1991, the type and only species of the genus, no longer considered a bird.

Pseudodontornis tshulensis [27]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Aleksandr O. Averianov

Andrei V. Panteleyev

Olga R. Potapova

Lev A. Nessov

Late Paleocene

Landenian

 Kazakhstan

A Pseudodontornithidae Lambrecht, 1933.

Pseudoseisuropsis nehuen [28]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Jorge I. Noriega

Early Pleistocene

Miramar Formation

 Argentina

A Furnariidae, Philydorinae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Ptaiochen pau [17]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Maui

 USA:

 Hawaii

An Anatidae, a Moa-Nalo, this is the type species of the genus.

Pterodroma jugabilis [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Oahu

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Procellariidae.

Rallicrex polgardiensis [22]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Dénes Jánossy

Late Miocene

MN 13

 Hungary

A Rallidae.

Telespiza persecutrix [16]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Oahu, Kauai

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Telespiza ypsilon [16]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Molokai, Maui

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Thambetochen xanion [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Oahu

 USA:

 Hawaii

An Anatidae, a Moa-Nalo.

Tyto campiterrae [22]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Dénes Jánossy

Late Miocene

MN 13

 Hungary

A Tytonidae.

Vangulifer mirandus [16]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Maui

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Vangulifer neophasis [16]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Maui

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Xestospiza conica [16]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Kauai

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Xestospiza fastigialis [16]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Oahu, Molokai, Maui

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae, the type species of the new genus.

Genera no longer considered to be birds[edit]

  • Protoavis. The avian status of Protoavis has since been almost universally rejected by paleontologists.

Pterosaurs[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Status Authors Notes

Bennettazhia

Valid

Nesov

Valid

Synapsids[edit]

Non-mammalian[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Apsisaurus[29]

Valid

  • Laurin

Lower Permian

Archer City Formation

 USA

Formerly assigned as an eosuchian diapsid, was restudied an classified as a varanopid synapsid.[30]

Ctenorhachis[31]

Valid

  • Hook
  • Hotton

Upper Permian

 USA

A sphenacodontid synapsid.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716. 
  2. ^ MacKay, W. P. (1991). "Anochetus brevidentatus, new species, a second fossil Odontomachiti ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Journal of the New York Entomological Society 99: 138–140. 
  3. ^ Hints, L.; Oraspõld, A.; Kaljo, D. (2000). "Stratotype of the Porkuni Stage with comments on the Röa Member (Uppermost Ordovician, Estonia)". Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology 49 (3): 177–199. 
  4. ^ Olshevsky, George. "Dinogeorge's Dinosaur Genera List". Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  5. ^ a b Bonaparte, J.F. 1991. Los vertebrados fosiles de la Formacion Rio Colorado de Neuquen y cercanias, Cretacico Superior, Argentina. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Revidadia" Paleontologia 4 (3): pp. 17- 123.
  6. ^ Salgado, L. and J.F. Bonaparte. 1991. Un nuevo sauropodo Dicraeosauridae, Amargasaurus gen. et sp. nov., de la Formacion La Amarga, Neocomiano de la Provincia del Nuequen, Argentina. Ameghiniana 28: pp. 333-346.
  7. ^ Bolotsky, Yu. L. and S.K. Kurzanov. 1991. The hadrosaurs of the Amur region. In: Geology of the Pacific Border: pp.94-103.
  8. ^ Calvo, J.O. and J.F. Bonaparte, J.F. 1991. Andesaurus delgadoi gen. et sp. nov. (Saurischia- Sauropoda), dinosaurio Titanosauridae de la Formación Río Limay (Albiano-Cenomaniano), Neuquén, Argentina. Ameghiniana 28: pp. 303- 310.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Olshevsky, G. 1991. A Revision of the Parainfraclass Archosauria Cope, 1869, Excluding the Advanced Crocodylia. Mesozoic Meanderings 2 (1st printing): iv + 196 pages.
  10. ^ a b Telles-Antunes, M. and D. Sigogneau-Russell. 1991. Nouvelles donnees sur les Dinosaures du Cretae superieur du Portugal. Compte rendu hebdomadaire des seances de l’Academie des Sciences Paris, tomo 313, seire 2: pp. 113-119.
  11. ^ Wild, R. 1991. Janenschia n. g. robusta (E. Frass 1908) pro Tornieria robusta (E. Fraas 1908) (Reptilia, Saurischia, Sauropodomorpha). Stuttgarteer Beitrage zur Naturkude Serie B (Geologie und Paleontologie) 173: pp. 1-4.
  12. ^ Hunt, A.P. and S.G. Lucas. 1991. Rioarribasaurus, a new name for a Late Triassic dinosaur from New Mexico (USA). Palaontologische Zeitschrift 65 (3/4): pp. 191- 198.
  13. ^ Gillette. D.D. 1991. Seismosaurus halli, gen. et sp. nov., a new sauropod dinosaur from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous) of New Mexico, USA. J. Vert. Paleontol. 11 (4): pp. 417-433.
  14. ^ Le Loeuff, J. and E. Buffetaut. 1991. Tarascosaurus salluvicus, new genus new species, a theropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of southern France. GEOBIOS (Lyon) 24 (5): pp. 585-594.
  15. ^ Kurzanov, S.M. and H. Osmolska. 1991. Tochisaurus nemegtensis gen. et sp. n., a new troodontid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from Mongolia. Acta Palaeont. Polonica. 36 (1): pp. 69- 76.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Helen F. James & Storrs L. Olson (1991). "Descriptions of Thirty-Two New Species of Birds From the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes". Ornithological Monographs 46: 1–88. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Storrs L. Olson & Helen F. James (1991). "Descriptions of Thirty-Two New Species of Birds From the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes". Ornithological Monographs 45: 1–88. 
  18. ^ Lev A. Nessov & B. V. Prizemlin (1991). "Krupnyye evolyutsionno prodvinutyye neletayushchiye morskiye ptitsy odryada gesperornisoobraznykh pozdnego senona Turgayskogo proliva: pervyye nakhodki gruppy v SSSR [Large, Evolutionarily Advanced, Flightless Marine Birds of the Order Hesperornithiformes from the Late Senonian of the Turgai Strait: The first Finds of this Group in the USSR.] [in Russian, with English summ.]". Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, Akademiya Nauk SSSR 239: 85–107. 
  19. ^ Philip R. Millener & Trevor H. Worthy (1991). "Contribution to New Zealand’s Late Quaternary Avifauna. II: Dendroscansor decurvirostris, a New Genus and Species of Wren (Aves: Acantisittidae)". Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 21 (2): 179–200. 
  20. ^ Storrs L. Olson & Helen R. James (1995). "Nomenclature of the Hawaiian Akialoas and Nukupuus (Aves: Drepanidini)". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 108 (3): 373–387. 
  21. ^ Cécile Mourer-Chauviré (1991). "Les Horusornithidae Nov. Fam., Accipitriformes (Aves) A Articulation Intertarsienne Hyperflexible de l’Éocène du Quercy". Géobios, Mémoire spécial 24 (supplement 1): 183–192. 
  22. ^ a b c Dénes Jánossy (1991). "Late Miocene Bird Remains from Polgárdi (W-Hungary)". Aquila 98: 13–35. 
  23. ^ Nikita V. Zelenkov and Andrey V. Panteleyev (2014). "Three bird taxa (Aves: Anatidae, Phasianidae, Scolopacidae) from the Late Miocene of the Sea of Azov (Southwestern Russia)". Paläontologische Zeitschrift. in press. doi:10.1007/s12542-014-0238-0. 
  24. ^ Thomas Schlüter (1991). "Systematik, Palökologie und Biostratonomie von Phalacrocorax kuehneanus nov. spec., einem Fossilen Kormoran (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae) aus Mutmasslich Oberpliozänen Phosporiten N-Tansanias". Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Reihe A: Geologie und Paläontologie 134: 279–309. 
  25. ^ Jacques Cheneval, Léonard Ginsburg, Cécile Mourer-Chauviré, and Benjavun Ratanasthien (1991). "The Miocene Avifauna of the Li Mae Long Locality, Thailand: Systematics and Palaeoecology". Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences 6 (2): 117–126. 
  26. ^ Sankar Chatterjee (1991). "Cranial Anatomy and Relationships of A New Triassic Bird from Texas". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 332 (1265): 277–342. 
  27. ^ Aleksandr O. Averianov, Andrei V. Panteleyev, Olga R. Potapova & Lev A. Nessov (1991). "Lozhnozubyye ptitsy (Aves: Pelecaniformes: Odontopterygia) pozdnego paleotsena i eotsena zapadnoy okrainy drevney Azii. [Bony-toothed Birds (Aves: Pelecaniformes: Odontopterygia) of the Late Paleocene and Eocene of the Western Margin of Ancient Asia.] [in Russian, with English summ.]". Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, Akademiya Nauk SSSR 239: 3–12. 
  28. ^ Jorge I. Noriega (1991). "Un Nuevo Género de Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) del Pleistoceno Inferior-Medio de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina". Ameghiniana 28: 317–323. 
  29. ^ Laurin, M. (1991). "The osteology of a Lower permian eosuchian from Texas and a review of diapsid phylogeny". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 101: 59–95. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1991.tb00886.x. 
  30. ^ Reisz, R.R.; Laurin, M. & Marjanovic, D. (2010). "Apsisaurus witteri from the Lower Permian of Texas: yet another small varanopid synapsis, not a diapsid". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30 (5): 1628–1631. doi:10.1080/02724634.2010.501441. 
  31. ^ Hook, R.W. & Hotton, N. (1991). "A New Sphenacodontid Pelycosaur (Synapsida) from the Wichita Group, Lower Permian of North-Central Texas". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 11 (1): 37–44. doi:10.1080/02724634.1991.10011374.