1991 in spaceflight (January–June)

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This is a list of spaceflights launched between January and June 1991. For launches between July and December, see 1991 in spaceflight (July–December). For an overview of the whole year, see 1991 in spaceflight.

Launches[edit]

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Launch site LSP
Payload Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January[edit]

8 January
00:53:01
United States Delta II (7925) United States Cape Canaveral SLC-17B United States McDonnell Douglas
United States NATO-4A NATO Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Successful
14 January
14:50:27
Soviet Union Soyuz-U2 Soviet Union Baikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Progress M-6 MOM Low Earth, docked to Mir Resupply Mir 15 March 1991 Successful
15 January
23:10:49
European Union Ariane 4 (44L) France Kourou ELA-2 France Arianespace
Italy Italsat 1 ASI Geostationary Communication In orbit Successful
France Eutelsat 2F2 Eutelsat Geostationary Communication In orbit Successful
17 January
10:30
Soviet Union Soyuz-U Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 16/2 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2121 (Zenit-8) MOM Low Earth Reconnaissance 10 February 1991 Successful
17 January Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Israel 17 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
18 January
11:34
Soviet Union Tsyklon-2 Soviet Union Baikonur Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2122 (US-P) MO SSSR Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance 28 March 1993 Successful
19 January Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Israel 19 January 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Israel 19 January 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Israel 19 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
20 January
18:43
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Dhahran 20 January 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Dhahran 20 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
21 January
08:29
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Dhahran 21 January 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Dhahran 21 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
21 January
09:42
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 21 January 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 21 January 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 21 January 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 21 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
21 January
19:18
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Al Jubayl 21 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
22 January
00:41
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 22 January 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 22 January 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 22 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
Aimed at US Air Force base, intercepted by Patriot ABM, warhead fell on a civilian

neighbourhood.

22 January
04:10
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Dhahran 22 January 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Dhahran 22 January 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Dhahran 22 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
Aimed at US Air Force base. Intercepted by Patriot ABM, but still hit target.
22 January Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Israel 22 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
22 January China Zhinui China Haikou China CALT
CALT Sub-orbital Test flight 22 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 120 kilometres (75 mi)
23 January
19:54
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Dhahran 23 January 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Dhahran 23 January 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 23 January 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 23 January 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Israel 23 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
25 January
19:23
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 25 January 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 25 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
Aimed at Coalition headquarters, intercepted by Patriot ABM, hit Saudi Department of Interior.
25 January Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Israel 25 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
26 January
00:28
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Dhahran 26 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
26 January
06:25
Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands LC-36 United States NASA
NASA / JHU Sub-orbital Ultraviolet Astronomy 26 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 300 kilometres (190 mi)
26 January
19:46
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 26 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
26 January Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Israel 26 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
28 January
17:55
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 28 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
Aimed at downtown Riyadh, intercepted by Patriot ABM, debris damaged a farm.
28 January
18:24:24
United States ERIS Marshall Islands Meck Island, Kwajalein Atoll United States US Air Force
United States ERIS US Air Force Sub-orbital Interceptor test 28 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 270 kilometres (170 mi)
Intercepted Aries rocket
28 January
18:03:00
United States Minuteman IB United States Vandenberg LF-03 United States US Air Force
US Air Force Sub-orbital Target 28 January 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,300 kilometres (810 mi)
29 January
11:59:58
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 133/3 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Informator-1 MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful

February[edit]

2 February, 21:41 Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 2 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
2 February Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Israel 2 February 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Israel 2 February 1991 Successful
5 February
02:36
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 133/3 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2123 (Tsikada) MO SSSR Low Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
6 February
07:29
United States LCLV United States Wallops Island United States Orbital Sciences
NRL Sub-orbital Plasma research 6 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 510 kilometres (320 mi)
6 February
17:30
Soviet Union MR-12 Soviet Union Kapustin Yar Soviet Union MO SSSR
MO SSSR Sub-orbital Plasma research 6 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
7 February
08:15
Soviet Union RT-2PM Topol Soviet Union Plesetsk Soviet Union RVSN
RVSN Sub-orbital Test spacecraft 7 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
7 February
18:15
Soviet Union Soyuz-U Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 16 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2124 (Yantar-4K2) MOM Low Earth 7 April 1991 Successful
7 February
22:54
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 7 February 1991 Successful
11 February
19:20
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 11 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
11 February India Prithvi India Sriharikota India DRDL
DRDL Sub-orbital Test spacecraft 11 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
12 February
02:44
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 133/3 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2125 (Strela-1M) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2126 (Strela-1M) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2127 (Strela-1M) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2128 (Strela-1M) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2129 (Strela-1M) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2130 (Strela-1M) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2131 (Strela-1M) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2132 (Strela-1M) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
12 February
03:29
Japan S-520 Norway Andøya Japan ISAS
ISAS Sub-orbital Auroral 12 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 353 kilometres (219 mi)
12 February
09:11:54
Canada Black Brant XII United States Poker Flat United States NASA
United States TOPAZ-3 NASA Sub-orbital Plasma research 12 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
14 February
08:45
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack King Khalid Military City 14 February 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Hafir Al Batin 14 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi),
hit King Khalid Military City.
14 February
08:31:56
Soviet Union Proton-K / DM-2 Soviet Union Baikonur Site 200/39 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2133 (Prognoz) MOM Geosynchronous Missile defence In orbit Successful
15 February
09:30
Soviet Union Soyuz-U Soviet Union Baikonur Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2134 (Yantar-1KFT) MOM Low Earth Reconnaissance 1 April 1991 Successful
15 February
15:19
Soviet Union Molniya-M Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 43/3 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Molniya-1-80 MOM Molniya Communication In orbit Successful
15 February
23:01
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Al Jubayl 15 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
16 February
13:00
Japan S-520 Japan Kagoshima LA-K Japan ISAS
ISAS Sub-orbital Ultraviolet Astronomy 16 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 337 kilometres (209 mi)
18 February
14:30
United States Strypi-XI United States Barking Sands LC-1 United States SDIO
United States Bow Shock 2 SDIO Sub-orbital Reentry Test 18 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 120 kilometres (75 mi)
21 February
14:06
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack King Khalid Military City 21 February 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack King Khalid Military City 21 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
21 February
18:00
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack King Khalid Military City 21 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
21 February
23:31
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Bahrain 21 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
22 February
19:46
Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands LC-36 United States NASA
NASA Sub-orbital Solar research 22 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 300 kilometres (190 mi)
23 February
01:59
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Dhahran 23 February 1991 Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Dhahran 23 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
24 February
01:32
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 24 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
Aimed at Coalition headquarters, intercepted by Patriot ABM, debris fell on a school.
24 February
06:23
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 24 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
24 February
09:17
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Riyadh 24 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
24 February Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Israel 24 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
25 February
17:32
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Dhahran 25 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
Hit US Army barracks, killing 28 and injuring 110.
25 February
22:26
Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Qatar 25 February 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
26 February
04:53:06
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 133/3 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2135 (Parus) MO SSSR Low Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
28 February
05:30:00
Soviet Union Proton-K / DM-2 Soviet Union Baikonur Site 81/23 Soviet Union RVSN
MOM Geostationary Communication In orbit Successful
February Iraq Al Hussein Iraq Iraq Iraq IQAF
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Israel Within an hour of launch Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Israel Within an hour of launch Successful
Iraq High Explosive warhead IQAF Sub-orbital Attack Israel Within an hour of launch Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)

March[edit]

2 March
23:36:00
European Union Ariane 4 (44LP) France Kourou ELA-2 France Arianespace
Luxembourg Astra 1B SES Astra Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Successful
European Union Meteosat 5 ESA / EUMETSAT Geosynchronous Weather In orbit Successful
6 March
15:30
Soviet Union Soyuz-U Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 16 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2136 (Zenit-8) MOM Low Earth Reconnaissance 20 March 1991 Successful
8 March
12:03
United States Titan IVA (403A) United States Vandenberg SLC-4E United States US Air Force
United States USA-69 (Lacrosse-2) NRO Low Earth Radar Reconnaissance In orbit Successful
First Titan IV launch from Vandenberg AFB
Was one of the oldest operational reconnaissance satellite till 2008.
8 March
23:03
United States Delta II (6925) United States Cape Canaveral SLC-17B United States McDonnell Douglas
United States Inmarsat 2F2 Inmarsat Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Successful
12 March
19:29:04
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 133/3 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Nadezhda-3 MO SSSR Low Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
12 March United States LGM-118 Peacekeeper United States Vandenberg LF-02 United States US Air Force
US Air Force Sub-orbital Operational test flight 12 March 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
18 March
10:15
Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands LC-36 United States NASA
United States SXT NASA / University of Colorado, Boulder Sub-orbital X-ray astronomy 18 March 1991 Successful
Apogee: 300 kilometres (190 mi)
19 March
13:05:15
Soviet Union Soyuz-U2 Soviet Union Baikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Progress M-7 MOM Low Earth, docked to Mir Resupply Mir 7 May 1991 Successful
19 March
14:30
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 132/1 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2137 (Taifun-1) MO SSSR Low Earth Radar calibration 3 April 1995 Successful
19 March United States UGM-96 Trident I (Trident C-4) United States Submarine, WTR United States US Navy
US Navy Sub-orbital Operational test flight 19 March 1991 Successful
US Navy Sub-orbital Operational test flight 19 March 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
22 March
12:19:59
Soviet Union Molniya-M Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 43/4 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Molniya-3-55L MOM Molniya Communication In orbit Successful
23 March
07:00
Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands LC-36 United States NASA
United States MAMA NASA Sub-orbital Ultraviolet Astronomy 23 March 1991 Successful
Apogee: 300 kilometres (190 mi)
26 March
13:45
Soviet Union Soyuz-U Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 16 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2138 (Yantar-4K2) MOM Low Earth Reconnaissance 24 May 1991 Successful
30 March
02:27
Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands LC-36 United States NASA
NASA Sub-orbital Aeronomy 30 March 1991 Successful
Apogee: 300 kilometres (190 mi)
31 March
15:12:00
Soviet Union Proton-K Soviet Union Baikonur Site 200/40 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Almaz-1 MOM Low Earth Radar reconnaissance 17 October 1992 Successful

April[edit]

4 April
10:47:12
Soviet Union Proton-K / DM-2 Soviet Union Baikonur Site 200/39 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2139 (GLONASS) MOM Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2140 (GLONASS) MOM Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2141 (GLONASS) MOM Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
4 April
23:33:00
European Union Ariane 4 (44P) France Kourou ELA-2 France Arianespace
Canada Anik E2 Telesat Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Successful
5 April
14:22:45
United States Space Shuttle Atlantis United States Kennedy LC-39B United States United Space Alliance
United States STS-37 NASA Low Earth Manned orbital flight 11 April 1991 Successful
United States Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) NASA Low Earth Gamma ray astronomy 4 June 2000 Successful
5 April
14:05
Soviet Union RT-2PM Topol Soviet Union Plesetsk Soviet Union RVSN
RVSN Sub-orbital Test spacecraft 5 April 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
9 April
17:50
United KingdomSkylark 7 Sweden Esrange LA-S Germany DLR
United Kingdom SISSI-4 DLR Sub-orbital Aeronomy 9 April 1991 Successful
Apogee: 245 kilometres (152 mi)
9 April
18:18
Germany Viper 3A Sweden Esrange Germany DLR
United States PMSE DLR Sub-orbital Aeronomy 9 April 1991 Successful
Apogee: 110 kilometres (68 mi)
9 April
19:20
Germany Viper 3A Sweden Esrange Germany DLR
United States PMSE DLR Sub-orbital Aeronomy 9 April 1991 Successful
Apogee: 110 kilometres (68 mi)
12 April United States HPB United States Wallops Island United States Orbital Sciences
Orbital Sciences Sub-orbital Target 12 April 1991 Successful
Apogee: 400 kilometres (250 mi)
13 April
00:09
United States Delta II (7925) United States Cape Canaveral SLC-17B United States McDonnell Douglas
United States Spacenet 4 GE Americom Geostationary Communication In orbit Successful
15 April
22:10
United States UGM-133 Trident II (Trident D-5) United States USS West Virginia, ETR United States US Navy
United States DASO-6 US Navy Sub-orbital Operational test flight 15 April 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
16 April
07:21:42
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 132/1 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2142 (Parus) MO SSSR Low Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
17 April
07:46
Canada Black Brant 10CM1 United States Wallops Island United States SDIO
United States SPFE-2 SDIO Sub-orbital Technology demonstration 17 April 1991 Successful
Apogee: 300 kilometres (190 mi)
18 April
18:33
United States MGM-134 Midgetman United States Vandenberg TP-01 United States US Air Force
US Air Force Sub-orbital Test spacecraft 18 April 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
18 April
23:30
United States Atlas I United States Cape Canaveral LC-36B General Dynamics
Japan Yuri 3H General Dynamics Intended: Geosynchronous Communication T+361 seconds Failure
Destroyed by RSO after upper stage turbopump malfunction
Apogee: 175 kilometres (109 mi)
24 April
01:37:00
Soviet Union Tsyklon-3 Soviet Union Plesetsk Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Meteor-3-4 MO SSSR Low Earth Weather In orbit Successful
25 April
18:00
United States Nike Orion United States Poker Flat United States NASA
United States CWAS-19 NASA Sub-orbital Aeronomy 25 April 1991 Successful
Apogee: 140 kilometres (87 mi)
28 April
11:33:14
United States Space Shuttle Discovery United States Kennedy LC-39A United States United Space Alliance
United States STS-39 NASA Low Earth Manned orbital flight 6 May 1991 Successful
United States IBSS-SPAS SDIO Low Earth Scientific research 6 May 1991 Successful
United States USA-70 (MPEC) DARPA Low Earth Technology 13 May 1991 Successful
United States CRO-C SDIO Low Earth Chemical release 14 May 1991 Successful
United States CRO-B SDIO Low Earth Chemical release 12 May 1991 Successful
United States CRO-A SDIO Low Earth Chemical release 13 May 1991 Successful
29 April Brazil Sonda-3 Brazil Barreira do Inferno Brazil IAE
INPE Sub-orbital Ionosphere 29 April 1991 Successful
Apogee: 441 kilometres (274 mi)
30 April
19:19
United States Nike Orion United States Poker Flat United States NASA
United States CWAS-20 NASA Sub-orbital Aeronomy 30 April 1991 Failure
Apogee: 10 kilometres (6.2 mi)

May[edit]

4 May
04:10
Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands LC-36 United States NASA
United States JASPR-I NASA Sub-orbital Ultraviolet Astronomy 4 May 1991 Successful
Apogee: 300 kilometres (190 mi)
7 May
18:05
Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands LC-36 United States NASA
United States SERTS-4 NASA Sub-orbital Solar research 7 May 1991 Successful
Apogee: 300 kilometres (190 mi)
8 May
03:54:00
Sweden Maxus Sweden Esrange Sweden SSC
SSC Sub-orbital Microgravity 8 May 1991 Failure
Apogee: 157 kilometres (98 mi)
10 May United States UGM-96 Trident I (Trident C-4) United States USS Mariano G. Vallejo, ETR United States US Navy
United States FCET US Navy Sub-orbital Operational test flight 10 May 1991 Successful
FCET US Navy Sub-orbital Operational test flight 10 May 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
11 May
20:40
United States Minuteman IB United States Vandenberg LF-03 United States US Air Force
US Air Force Sub-orbital Target 11 May 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,300 kilometres (810 mi)
Interceptor launch scrubbed
13 May
19:03
Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands LC-36 United States NASA
United States MSSTA-I NASA Sub-orbital X-ray astronomy 13 May 1991 Successful
Apogee: 230 kilometres (140 mi)
14 May
15:52:03
United States Atlas-E United States Vandenberg SLC-3W United States US Air Force
United States NOAA-12 NOAA Low Earth (SSO) Weather In orbit Successful
16 May
21:40
Soviet Union Tsyklon-3 Soviet Union Plesetsk Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2143 (Strela-3) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2144 (Strela-3) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2145 (Strela-3) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2146 (Strela-3) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2147 (Strela-3) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2148 (Strela-3) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
18 May
12:50:28
Soviet Union Soyuz-U2 Soviet Union Baikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-12 MOM Low Earth, docked to Mir Manned orbital flight 10 October 1991 Successful
20 May
07:30
United States Aries United States White Sands LC-36 United States NASA
United States SXT (XOGS) NASA Sub-orbital X-ray astronomy 20 May 1991 Successful
Apogee: 300 kilometres (190 mi)
21 May
09:00:00
Soviet Union Soyuz-U Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 43/4 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Resurs-F-10 MOM Low Earth Remote sensing 20 June 1991 Successful
24 May
15:29
Soviet Union Soyuz-U Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 43/3 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2149 (Yantar-4K2) MOM Low Earth Reconnaissance 4 July 1991 Successful
28 May
12:05
Soviet Union R-36MUTTH (SS-18 Mod 4) Soviet Union Baikonur Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union RVSN Sub-orbital Operational test flight 28 May 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
29 May
22:55
United States Delta II (7925) United States Cape Canaveral SLC-17B United States McDonnell Douglas
United States Aurora 2 GE Alascom Geostationary Communication In orbit Successful
30 May
08:04:03
Soviet Union Soyuz-U2 Soviet Union Baikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Progress M-8 MOM Low Earth, docked to Mir Resupply Mir 16 August 1991 Successful
May North Korea Hwasong 6 North Korea Qom North Korea DPRK
North Korea DPRK Sub-orbital Test spacecraft Within an hour of launch Successful
Apogee: 200 kilometres (120 mi)

June[edit]

4 June
08:10:00
Soviet Union Tsyklon-3 Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 32/2 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Okean-3 MOM Low Earth Oceanography In orbit Successful
5 June
13:24:51
United States Space Shuttle Columbia United States Kennedy LC-39B United States United Space Alliance
United States STS-40 NASA Low Earth Manned orbital flight 14 June 1991 Successful
United States SLS-1 (Spacelab) ESA / NASA Low Earth Biological research In orbit Successful
11 June
05:41
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 133/3 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2150 (Strela-2M) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
11 June
17:47
United States LGM-118 Peacekeeper United States Vandenberg LF-08 United States US Air Force
US Air Force Sub-orbital Operational test flight 11 June 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
13 June
15:41
Soviet Union Tsyklon-3 Soviet Union Plesetsk Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2151 (Tselina-R) MO SSSR Low Earth ELINT In orbit Successful
18 June
09:09
Soviet Union Molniya-M Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 43/4 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Molniya-1-81 MOM Molniya Communication In orbit Successful
18 June
11:34
United States Prospector United States Cape Canaveral LC-20 United States Orbital Sciences
Orbital Sciences Sub-orbital Microgravity 18 June 1991 Failure
Apogee: 1 kilometre (0.62 mi)
21 June United States Minuteman IB United States Vandenberg LF-03 United States US Air Force
US Air Force Sub-orbital Re-entry vehicle test 21 June 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,300 kilometres (810 mi)
24 June France SSBS S3 France Biscarrosse BLB France DMA
DMA Sub-orbital Operational test flight 24 June 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
25 June
17:00
Soviet Union RT-2PM Topol Soviet Union Plesetsk Soviet Union RVSN
RVSN Sub-orbital Test spacecraft 25 June 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
25 June Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 132/1 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Taifun-2-28 MO SSSR Intended: Low Earth Radar calibration 25 June 1991 Failure
Second stage malfunction
26 June
02:39
United States Minuteman III United States Vandenberg LF-26 United States US Air Force
United States GT-144GB US Air Force Sub-orbital Operational test flight 26 June 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,300 kilometres (810 mi)
28 June
08:09:59
Soviet Union Soyuz-U Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 43/3 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Resurs-F-11 MOM Low Earth Remote sensing 21 July 1991 Successful
29 June
14:00
United States Scout G-1 United States Vandenberg SLC-5 NASA
United States REX-1 (P89-1A / ISES) US Air Force / STP Low Earth (Polar) Technology demonstration In orbit Successful

References[edit]

Generic references:

Footnotes[edit]