1992 Tour de France

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1992 Tour de France
Route of the 1992 Tour de France.png
Route of the 1992 Tour de France
Race details
Dates July 4–July 26, 1992
Stages 21+Prologue
Distance 3,975.0 km (2,470 mi)
Winning time 100h 49' 30" (39.504 km/h or 24.547 mph)
Palmares
Winner  Miguel Indurain (Spain) (Banesto)
Second  Claudio Chiappucci (Italy) (Carrera Jeans-Vagabond)
Third  Gianni Bugno (Italy) (Gatorade-Chateau d'Ax)

Points  Laurent Jalabert (France) (ONCE)
Mountains  Claudio Chiappucci (Italy) (Carrera Jeans-Vagabond)
Youth  Eddy Bouwmans (Netherlands) (Panasonic)
Team Carrera Jeans-Vagabond
1991
1993

The 1992 Tour de France was the 79th Tour de France, taking place between 4 and 26 July 1992. The total race distance was 21 stages and a prologue over 3975 km, with riders averaging 39.504 km/h.[1] In honor of the Maastricht Treaty, which created the European Union, the Tour visited a record seven countries: France, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg and Italy.

The 1992 race included one of the most remarkable stages of modern history. Claudio Chiappucci took off before the race left France and soloed to a glorious victory at Sestriere high in the Italian Alps. The tifosi's exuberance was unrestrained by barriers as Chiappucci overtook the motorbike escort which couldn't break through his adoring fans. LeMond abandoned. Miguel Indurain took his second overall win.

Participants[edit]

There were 22 teams in the 1992 Tour de France, each composed of 9 cyclists.[2] Sixteen teams qualified because they were the top 16 of the FICP ranking in May 1992;[3] six other teams were given wildcards in June 1992.[4]

dagger: wildcard team

Miguel Indurain, winner of the 1991 Tour de France, was the clear favourite, having won the 1992 Giro d'Italia with ease. His biggest rivals were expected to be Gianni Bugno (second in the 1991 Tour) and Claudio Chiappucci (second in the 1992 Giro).[5]

Stages[edit]

Stage results[2][6]
Stage Date Route Terrain Length Winner
P 4 July San Sebastián Individual time trial 8.0 km (5.0 mi)  Miguel Indurain (ESP)
1 5 July San SebastiánSan Sebastián Hilly stage 194.5 km (120.9 mi)  Dominique Arnould (FRA)
2 6 July San SebastiánPau Hilly stage 255.0 km (158.4 mi)  Javier Murguialday (ESP)
3 7 July PauBordeaux Plain stage 210.0 km (130.5 mi)  Rob Harmeling (NED)
4 8 July LibourneLibourne Team time trial 63.5 km (39.5 mi) Panasonic
5 9 July Nogent-sur-OiseWasquehal Plain stage 196.0 km (121.8 mi)  Guido Bontempi (ITA)
6 10 July RoubaixBruxelles Plain stage 167.0 km (103.8 mi)  Laurent Jalabert (FRA)
7 11 July BruxellesValkenburg Plain stage 196.5 km (122.1 mi)  Gilles Delion (FRA)
8 12 July ValkenburgKoblenz Plain stage 206.5 km (128.3 mi)  Jan Nevens (BEL)
9 13 July LuxembourgLuxembourg Individual time trial 65.0 km (40.4 mi)  Miguel Indurain (ESP)
10 14 July LuxembourgStrasbourg Plain stage 217.0 km (134.8 mi)  Jean-Paul van Poppel (NED)
11 15 July StrasbourgMulhouse Hilly stage 249.5 km (155.0 mi)  Laurent Fignon (FRA)
12 16 July DoleSt Gervais Hilly stage 267.5 km (166.2 mi)  Rolf Järmann (SUI)
13 18 July St GervaisSestriere Stage with mountain(s) 254.5 km (158.1 mi)  Claudio Chiappucci (ITA)
14 19 July SestriereAlpe d'Huez Stage with mountain(s) 186.5 km (115.9 mi)  Andrew Hampsten (USA)
15 20 July Le Bourg-d'OisansSaint-Étienne Hilly stage 198.0 km (123.0 mi)  Franco Chioccioli (ITA)
16 21 July Saint-ÉtienneLa Bourboule Hilly stage 212.0 km (131.7 mi)  Stephen Roche (IRE)
17 22 July La BourbouleMontluçon Plain stage 189.0 km (117.4 mi)  Jean-Claude Colotti (FRA)
18 23 July MontluçonTours Plain stage 212.0 km (131.7 mi)  Thierry Marie (FRA)
19 24 July ToursBlois Individual time trial 64.0 km (39.8 mi)  Miguel Indurain (ESP)
20 25 July BloisNanterre Plain stage 222.0 km (137.9 mi)  Peter De Clercq (BEL)
21 26 July La DéfenseParis (Champs-Élysées) Plain stage 141.0 km (87.6 mi)  Olaf Ludwig (GER)

Race details[edit]

The prologue was in San Sebastián, close to Indurain's home.[7] Indurain won the prologue, with debutant Alex Zülle in second place. In the first stage, Zülle won a time bonus in an intermediate sprint, and became the new race leader.[5] In the second stage, Richard Virenque, another debutant who was a late addition to his team, was part of a two-man escape that stayed away, and took over the lead.[5] The yellow jersey, worn by the leader in the general classification, changed owner again after the third stage, when a group of ten cyclists stayed away, and Pascal Lino, a team mate of Virenque at RMO, became the new leader.[5] In the team time trial of stage four, RMO lost time to the teams specialized in team time trials, but Lino's lead was large enough to remain leader.[5]

In the time trial in stage nine, Indurain took his chance to win back time on Lino and Virenque and his rivals: Indurain won the stage, three minutes faster than all other cyclists.[7] This time trial victory is sometimes seen as Indurain's career-defining moment.[8]

The major mountain stages were stages 13 and 14. Chiappucci won stage 13, and won back some time on Indurain who finished in third place; Chiappucci climbed to the second place in the general classification. In the fourteenth stage, Chiappucci and Indurain finished together. After this stage, Indurain lead the race with only Chiappucci within two minutes; all other cyclists were more than eight minutes behind. With no big mountain stages remaining, the only stage that was likely to create time differences between the favourites was the time trial in stage nineteen. Indurain, being a time trial specialist, won that stage, and increased his margin to more than four minutes.[5]

Indurain thus won his second Tour de France.

Results[edit]

There were several classifications in the 1992 Tour de France. The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour.[9]

Additionally, there was a points classification, which awarded a green jersey. In the points classification, cyclists got points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a green jersey.[9]

There was also a mountains classification. The organisation had categorized some climbs as either hors catégorie, first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorized climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a polkadot jersey.[9]

The fourth individual classification was the young rider classification, which was not marked by a jersey in 1992. This was decided the same way as the general classification, but only riders under 26 years were eligible.[9]

For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the leading team was the team with the lowest total time.[10]

In 1992, there was an additional classification because of the Maastricht Treaty, that created the European Union. In the 1992 Tour de France, a national border was crossed seven times, and every time there was a special sprint, where points could be earned. This classification was won by Viatcheslav Ekimov.[11]

The "Association Française pour un Sport sans violence et pour le Fair-play" awarded the Fair Play award in the Tour for the first time. It was given to Stephen Roche.[12]

General classification[edit]

Final general classification (1–10)[2]
Rank Name Team Time
1  Miguel Indurain (ESP) Banesto 100h 49' 30"
2  Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) Carrera Jeans-Vagabond +4' 35"
3  Gianni Bugno (ITA) Gatorade +10' 49"
4  Andrew Hampsten (USA) Motorola +13' 40"
5  Pascal Lino (FRA) RMO +14' 37"
6  Pedro Delgado (ESP) Banesto +15' 16"
7  Erik Breukink (NED) PDM +18' 51"
8  Giancarlo Perini (ITA) Carrera Jeans-Vagabond +19' 16"
9  Stephen Roche (IRE) Carrera Jeans-Vagabond +20' 23"
10  Jens Heppner (GER) Telekom +25' 30"

Points classification[edit]

Final points classification (1–10)[13][14]
Rank Name Team Points
1  Laurent Jalabert (FRA) ONCE 293
2  Johan Museeuw (BEL) Lotto 262
3  Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) Carrera Jeans-Vagabond 202
4  Olaf Ludwig (GER) Panasonic 193
5  Massimo Ghirotto (ITA) Carrera Jeans-Vagabond 177
6  Miguel Indurain (ESP) Banesto 128
7  Stephen Roche (IRE) Carrera Jeans-Vagabond 111
8  Gianni Bugno (ITA) Gatorade 109
9  Søren Lilholt (DEN) Tulip Computers 96
10  Jelle Nijdam (NED) Buckler 84

Mountains classification[edit]

Final mountains classification (1–10)[13]
Rank Name Team Points
1  Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) Carrera Jeans-Vagabond 410
2  Richard Virenque (FRA) RMO 245
3  Franco Chioccioli (ITA) GB-MG 209
4  Miguel Indurain (ESP) Banesto 152
5  Andrew Hampsten (USA) Motorola 140
6  Gianni Bugno (ITA) Gatorade 131
7  Franco Vona (ITA) GB-MG 122
8  Stephen Roche (IRE) Carrera Jeans-Vagabond 107
9  Javier Murguialday (ESP) Amaya 96
10  Eric Boyer (FRA) Z 93

Team classification[edit]

Final team classification (1–10)[13]
Rank Team Time
1 Carrera 302h 58' 12"
2 Banesto +18' 16"
3 Clas +49' 27"
4 Gatorade +1h 02' 46"
5 Z +1h 07' 19"
6 RMO +1h 22' 11"
7 TVM +1h 29' 22"
8 Castorama +1h 37' 18"
9 PDM +1h 41' 35"
10 Panasonic +1h 46' 46"

Young rider classification[edit]

Final young rider classification (1–6)[13]
Rank Name Team Time
1  Eddy Bouwmans (NED) Panasonic 102h 28' 05"
2  Richard Virenque (FRA) RMO +17' 26"
3  Jim Van De Laer (BEL) Tulip Computers +31' 54"
4  Arunas Cepele (LIT) Ryalcao-Postobón +40' 25"
5  Laurent Jalabert (FRA) ONCE +41' 33"
6  Dimitri Zhdanov (RUS) Panasonic +48' 29"

European sprints[edit]

Final European sprints classification[15]
Rank Name Team Time
1  Viatcheslav Ekimov (RUS) Panasonic 14
2  Herman Frison (BEL) Tulip Computers 6
3  Richard Virenque (FRA) RMO 5
4  Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) Carrera Jeans-Vagabond 4
4  Peter De Clercq (BEL) Lotto 4
6  Andrew Hampsten (USA) Motorola 2
6  Javier Murguialday (ESP) Amaya 2
8  Franco Vona (ITA) GB-MG 1
8  Olaf Ludwig (GER) Panasonic 1
8  Hendrik Redant (BEL) Lotto 1

Classification leadership[edit]

Stage Winner General classification
Jersey yellow.svg
Mountains classification
Jersey polkadot.svg
Points classification
Jersey green.svg
Young rider classification Team classification
Jersey yellow number.svg
P Miguel Indurain Miguel Indurain N/A Miguel Indurain Alex Zülle Banesto
1 Dominique Arnould Alex Zülle Franco Chioccioli Dominique Arnould
2 Javier Murguialday Richard Virenque Richard Virenque Richard Virenque Richard Virenque RMO
3 Rob Harmeling Pascal Lino
4 Panasonic
5 Guido Bontempi Johan Museeuw Carrera Jeans-Vagabond
6 Laurent Jalabert Laurent Jalabert
7 Gilles Delion
8 Jan Nevens Yvon Ledanois
9 Miguel Indurain
10 Jean-Paul van Poppel Claudio Chiappucci
11 Laurent Fignon
12 Rolf Jaermann
13 Claudio Chiappucci Miguel Indurain Eddy Bouwmans
14 Andrew Hampsten
15 Franco Chioccioli
16 Stephen Roche
17 Jean-Claude Colotti
18 Thierry Marie
19 Miguel Indurain
20 Peter De Clercq
21 Olaf Ludwig
Final Miguel Indurain Claudio Chiappucci Laurent Jalabert Eddy Bouwmans Carrera Jeans-Vagabond

References[edit]

  1. ^ Augendre, Jacques (2009). "Guide Historique, part 6" (PDF) (in French). Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 2009-10-09. Retrieved 30 September 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c "79ème Tour de France 1992" (in French). Memoire du cyclisme. Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  3. ^ "Tour: Les 16 premières équipes" (in French). Le Soir. 20 May 1992. Retrieved 3 April 2013. 
  4. ^ Deblander, Bruno (17 June 1992). "Les six équipes invitées au Tour de France sont connués 22, v'la ce qui se fait de mieux" (in French). Le Soir. Retrieved 3 April 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol (2008). The Story of the Tour de France: 1965-2007. Dog Ear Publishing. pp. 203–210. ISBN 1-59858-608-4. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  6. ^ Zwegers, Arian. "Tour de France GC Top Ten". CVCC. Archived from the original on 2009-06-10. Retrieved 15 Aug 2011. 
  7. ^ a b Boyce, Barry (2012). "The Spaniard is More Than a Climber". Cycling revealed. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  8. ^ "Grand Tour Doubles – Miguel Indurain". Cycle sport magazine. IPC Media Sports & Leisure. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c d Christian, Sarah (2 July 2009). "Tour de France demystified - Evaluating success". RoadCycling.co.nz Ltd. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  10. ^ Chauner, David; Halstead, Michael (1990). The Tour de France Complete Book of Cycling. Villard. ISBN 0679729364. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  11. ^ Mark, Eddy van der. "Tour Xtra: Other classification and awards". Chippewa Valley Cycling Club. 
  12. ^ Augendre, Jacques (2009). "Guide Historique, part 5" (PDF) (in French). Amaury Sport Organisation. Retrieved 18 April 2012. 
  13. ^ a b c d "Los Campos Elíseos rinden homenaje a Indurain". El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 27 July 1992. p. 50. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
  14. ^ "Tour in cijfers". Leidsch Dagblad (in Dutch) (Regionaal archief Leiden). 27 July 1992. p. 17. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
  15. ^ "ESF-sprint Klassement". Sports plaza. Retrieved 4 May 2013.