1993 Rugby World Cup Sevens

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1993 Rugby World Cup Sevens
1993RugbyWorldCup.png
Tournament details
Host nation  Scotland
Dates 16 April – 18 April
No. of nations 24
Champions Gold medal blank.svg  England
1997

The inaugural 1993 Rugby World Cup Sevens was held at Murrayfield in Edinburgh, Scotland, in April 1993. The International Rugby Board invited the established rugby union nations but also were keen to involve emerging nations in the event, recognising the fact that Sevens was providing the bridge between the developed rugby nations and those whose rugby union traditions were less well established. England defeated Australia 21-17 to become the first team to hold the Melrose Cup and claim the title world champions.

Background

Prior to 1993, Rugby Sevens had already built up a substantial international presence. The relative ease with which the rules could be learnt and applied, combined with the ability to quickly organise teams due to fewer players, as well as providing a fast paced game for spectators enticed many nations to set up domestic tournaments, and appealed to a large international audience outside of the established power houses of the traditional 15-a-side game. Such was the international popularity of the game that the Scottish Rugby Union were able to organise a well attended International Tournament in 1973 to celebrate the centenary of the Scottish Rugby Union.[1] England came away victorious from that first international event.

Soon after, in early 1975 the Chairman of the Hong Kong Rugby Football Union, A.D.C. "Tokkie" Smith, was talking with tobacco company executive Ian Gow. Gow had been a spectator at the 1973 event and had proposed to Smith to sponsor a Rugby tournament with top teams from throughout the world competing. This gave rise to the inaugural Hong Kong Sevens on March 28, 1976.[2] This tournament grew throughout the 1970s and 1980s in both supporter popularity and the number of participating teams. Sevens was proving to be the bridge between the established international rugby elite and those nations with less resources and less developed professional infrastructures.

In the early 1990s, The Scottish Rugby Union made a proposal to the International Rugby Football Board for the creation of a Rugby Sevens World Cup. The World Cup for the 15-a-side game had been staged successfully in 1987 and 1991 and had proved the worth of such an event. The IRB, which had a duty to involve and help to develop the rugby of the new member unions, recognised the value of Sevens to further this end, and their chairman, Vernon Pugh, enthusiastically agreed. Thus, the IRB organised the first officially sanctioned Rugby World Cup Sevens to be held at Murrayfield in April 1993. The ultimate prize of the competition was to be called the Melrose Cup, named after the small Scottish town of Melrose where the Sevens format had been born in 1883. A butchers apprentice and Melrose 20-a-side quarterback, Ned Haig, suggested having a rugby tournament as part of a sports day to raise funds at the end of the rugby season and his boss David Sanderson proposed playing in a tournament that required reduced numbers of players in each team. On 28 April 1883, the Melrose seven-a-side tournament began, with the time of each match limited to 15 minutes. The first World Cup was held 12 days shy of the 110th anniversary of that first tournament.

Venue[edit]

The IRB appropriately situated the tournament in the spiritual home nation of Rugby Sevens, Scotland, and therefore the games in the World Cup were played at the home of Scottish Rugby Union, Murrayfield Stadium.

Qualification[edit]

Of the twenty-four nations involved, nineteen were invited and five had to go through pre-tournament qualification. Four of the qualification places were won by Namibia, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Spain who booked their places by reaching the semi-finals of one qualifying event in Sicily. Latvia won their place by beating Russia in the final of a mini-tournament staged in Moscow to decide who would replace the USSR, which had broken up since its invite to the world cup. The other participants were Argentina, Australia, Canada, England, Fiji, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Romania, Scotland, Tonga, South Africa, South Korea, USA, Wales and Western Samoa.

Sicily - 1992[edit]

Seventeen nations came to Catania, Sicily, in May 1992 (from 29th to 31st) to battle for four qualifying spots in the finals in 1993. They were divided into three groups, five in one and six in the other two. Taiwan, Namibia, Spain and Hong Kong were the successful qualifiers after three group stages and three knockout rounds.[3] The affair was complicated and confused. The group stages produced a situation where, by the transition from the second to the third groups, the lower ranked teams were better off losing to one another in order to face weaker opposition in stage 3. Also, the two teams with the best records leading into the quarter-finals, Namibia (played 8 won 8) and Zimbabwe (played 9 won 7, drawn 1, lost 1) ended up playing each other. Meanwhile a Czechoslovakian side that had won just one match made it to the quarterfinals at the expense of Tunisia that had won 5 of 9.[4]

Determination of Pool Winners: All matches in the tournament carry the following points A Win 3 points, A Draw 2 points, A Loss 1 point. The team with the greatest number of points at the end of preliminary rounds would declared the winner. if teams at this stage are level on points then the winner shall be: (a) the winner of the match in which tied teams played. (b) the team that scored the most tries throughout the Round . (c) the team which has conceded the least number of tries throughout the Round. (d) the total points scored by each team in all matches in the Round shall be divided by total points scored against each team and the team with the higher quotient shall be the winner.

The original groups were as follows:

Group Stage 1[edit]

( 29 May 1992)

Pool A

Results

Classification

Pool B

Results

Classification

Pool C

Results

Classification

Source:[4]

The teams that placed in the top four qualified for the second group stage, whilst those eliminated played in the Etna Cup, with the Sicily side making up the numbers for this mini knockout competition.

Group Stage 2[edit]

(30 May 1992)

The second stage groupings grouped the three winners together, the three second place teams together etc. Thus:

Pool D

Results

Classification

Pool E

Results

Classification

Pool F

Results

Classification

Pool G

Results

Classification

Group Stage 3[edit]

(30 May 1992)

No team was eliminated from stage 2, just rearranged on new seedings that went into Pools H, I, L and M. These four pools of three teams each meant that each team had to play a further two matches and this process resulted in eight teams given a new seeding for the quarterfinals, with four teams eliminated, to play in the Etna Cup.

Pool H

Results

Classification

Pool I

Results

Classification

Pool L

Results

Classification

Pool M

Results

Classification

The end result of Group Stage 3, taking into account all games in the tournament to date was as follows:

Key to colours in group tables
Team that progressed to the semi-finals and so qualified for world cup (also indicated in bold type)
Teams eliminated into Etna Cup (also indicated in italics)
Team Seed Pld W D L
 Namibia 1 8 8 0 0
 Taiwan 2 9 6 1 2
 Hong Kong 3 9 7 1 1
 Spain 4 9 7 0 2
 Portugal 5 8 4 0 4
 Czech Republic 6 9 1 3 5
 Sweden 7 8 4 0 4
 Zimbabwe 8 9 7 1 1
 Tunisia Elim 9 5 2 2
 Germany Elim 9 4 0 5
 Belgium Elim 9 3 0 6
 Poland Elim 8 1 1 6

Knockout Results[edit]

(31 May 1992)

Quarter-finals Semi-finals Final
                   
31 May 1992 - Catania, Sicily        
  Namibia  16
31 May 1992 - Catania, Sicily
  Zimbabwe  10  
  Namibia  24
31 May 1992 - Catania, Sicily
      Taiwan  06  
  Taiwan  20
31 May 1992 - Catania, Sicily
  Sweden  12  
  Namibia  26
31 May 1992 - Catania, Sicily    
    Hong Kong  10
  Hong Kong  26
31 May 1992 - Catania, Sicily
  Czech Republic  06  
  Hong Kong  14
31 May 1992 - Catania, Sicily
      Spain  12  
  Spain  10
  Portugal  06  
 

Etna Cup[edit]

Hosts

Stage 1 Eliminated Teams

Stage 2 Eliminated Teams

Round 1 Etna Cup (30 May 1992)

Pool A

Results

Classification

Pool B

Results

Classification

Round 2 Etna Cup (31 May 1992)

Quarter Finals

 Kenya won  Poland lost

 Tunisia won  Morocco lost

 Sicily won  Germany lost

 Malaysia 10 - 10  Belgium (extra time 14-10)

Semi Finals

 Sicily won  Malaysia lost

 Tunisia won  Kenya lost

Final

 Sicily won  Tunisia lost


The Sicilian team were completely fresh and faced opponents who in some cases had played nine draining games. Sicily entered Sunday having played a total of two games. The final was contested by Sicily and Tunisia. Although Tunisia led by 2 points when normal time expired, the Italian referee allowed play to continue until, in the fourteenth minute of the second half, the Sicilians scored.

Former USSR representative[edit]

Although the Soviet Union had originally been an invited team, it had subsequently collapsed and the former constituent nations, demanded their own qualifying event. This was held in Moscow where the Latvia team, in their first ever sporting event, overcame Ukraine and Kazakhstan to reach the final where they beat Russia to claim the last place in Edinburgh.[3]

Semi Finals

 Latvia 20 - 05  Georgia

 Russia15 - 00  Lithuania

3/4 Places

 Georgia 19 - 00  Lithuania

Final

 Latvia 12 - 10  Russia

Format[edit]

The Official Programme of the 1993 Rugby World Cup Sevens in Edinburgh showing the flags of the competing nations

The 24 nations were drawn into four pools of six teams with the top two progressing to the Melrose Cup, the third to the Plate and the fourth-placed teams contesting the Bowl competition. The groups were arranged thus:

Pool A

Pool B

Pool C

Pool D

Summary[edit]

First Round[edit]

As expected, the leading nations all made it through. However, only South Africa, New Zealand and Western Samoa could boast unbeaten records at this stage. Fiji, Australia, Tonga, Ireland and England all lost one match in their respective pools. In Pool A Wales, lost to South Africa but distinguished themselves against the powerhouse of sevens rugby, Fiji, coming back from 21-0 down to lose narrowly 21-17. South Africa managed to overcome Fiji in their pool match. In Pool B Ireland had an excellent first round, beating United States 38-0. They lost to New Zealand, who won the group, but finished second. Korea defeated France 14-0 and the French struggled to beat the Netherlands in an earlier tie. However, the French managed to qualify for the Bowl in fourth place, with the surprise being Korea making the Plate competition in third. In Pool C, the hosts Scotland finished fourth behind Argentina in third (although they ended with the same number of match points as the South Americans and had a better points difference they had lost to the Argentinians). The Scots managed to beat eventual group winners Tonga but lost to Australia and Argentina. Both Tonga and Australia lost one match each, and crucially Tonga beat the decider between the two sides meaning that Australia ended second in that group. In Pool D, eventual tournament winners England progressed well but were beaten by the Samoans but 28-10. Samoa went on to win the pool. Despite heavy defeats to England and Samoa, Spain managed to gain third spot just ahead of Canada.

Quarter-Finals[edit]

The quarter finals were not knockout but took the form of another round robin with the teams split into two groups. Fiji emerged as the only nation with an unbeaten record after overcoming Ireland, Tonga and Western Samoa in the first. The second group was more fiercely contested with each nation claiming at least one victory. Australia and England who progressed to the semi finals despite their respective defeats by New Zealand and Australia. England had assumed they would top their group and avoid Fiji, even with a defeat to Australia in the final pool game. They opted to rest some first team players but expressed dismay in finding themselves placed second in the group behind Australia. The England team had thought that table placings in the event of a tied points tally were decided on tries scored. However, tournament rules stated that the first differentiator was results between the tied teams.

Knock-out stage and the Moment of the Tournament[edit]

Although England lost to Australia in the quarters, they qualified for the semi-finals against the favourites, Fiji. Dave Scully produced what was awarded the "Moment of the Tournament" prize with a tackle on Mesake Rasari that turned a certain Fiji try into an England score. England won 21-7.[5] In the other semi-final Ireland were narrowly beaten 21-19 by the Australians, setting up a final between teams that had already met in the quarterfinal pools.

Final[edit]

The final was contested by England and Australia. Just before half time, England led 21-0 through tries from Andrew Harriman, Lawrence Dallaglio and Tim Rodber, all converted by Nick Beal. Michael Lynagh scored a try before haf time, but failed to convert his own try. In the second half Australia hit back strongly and first David Campese and then Semi Taupeaafe scored further tries, the latter also converted by Michael Lynagh. However, time ran out on the Australians and it was England captain "Prince" Andrew Harriman who was presented with the Melrose Cup by the Princess Royal. Adedayo Adebayo, a member of that victorious side later recalled how surprising the victory had been to the players involved in it. He said "We were basically a scratch side. We got together for the first time as a team the week before, played one practice match and went on to win! But there were a lot of quality players in that side and looking back that's why we were able to wing it slightly - the talent came through. Looking back though we had no expectations of winning at the start. We didn't know how far we would go. It just happened."[6]

Other Prizes[edit]

Wales had gone into the Plate competition as favourites based on their rousing display against Fiji. However, they were stunned by the Spanish side who beat them 10-7. Argentina meanwhile displayed impressive dominance against South Korea and came through 24 point to nil. They went on to win the final 19-12 against a Spanish side that had distinguished themselves enormously, coming from the position of one of the four pre-tournament qualifiers to reaching the final of the Plate competition.

Of the four teams contesting the Bowl, Scotland and France were the established nations but met each other in the semi-final Scotland overcame the lacklustre French side 14-7 and Japan posted 14 points to Canada's nil to reach the final. Japan beat the hosts in the final in an impressive fashion winning 33 points to 19. Princess Anne awarded the prizes and Scotland received tankards.

Results[edit]

Source for the results below: www.imgmediaarchive.com

Group Stage[edit]

Key to colours in group tables
Teams that progressed to the Quarter Final Groups (also indicated in bold type)
Team that progressed to the Plate competition (also indicated in bold italics)
Team that progressed to the Bowl competition (also indicated in plain italics)

All times British time (UTC+1)

Pool A[edit]

Team Pld W D L PF PA +/- Pts
 South Africa 5 5 0 0 175 43 132 15
 Fiji 5 4 0 1 150 60 90 13
 Wales 5 3 0 2 135 78 57 11
 Japan 5 2 0 3 67 118 -51 9
 Romania 5 1 0 4 44 133 -89 7
 Latvia 5 0 0 5 29 168 -139 5
16 Apr 1993
Time:10:00
Fiji  42 – 0  Latvia

16 Apr 1993
Time:10:18
South Africa  28 – 5  Japan

16 Apr 1993
Time:10:34
Wales  33 – 7  Romania

16 Apr 1993
Time:11:45
Fiji  28 – 17  Japan

16 Apr 1993
Time:12:02
Romania  22 – 5  Latvia

16 Apr 1993
Time:12:20
South Africa  36 – 14  Wales

16 Apr 1993
Time:13:28
Fiji  40 – 0  Romania

16 Apr 1993
Time:13:44
Wales  35 – 7  Japan

16 Apr 1993
Time:14:00
South Africa  47 – 5  Latvia

17 Apr 1993
Time:15:05
Fiji  21 – 17  Wales

17 Apr 1993
Time:15:25
South Africa  38 – 0  Romania

17 Apr 1993
Time:15:41
Japan  21 – 12  Latvia

17 Apr 1993
Time:16:49
Fiji  19 – 26  South Africa

17 Apr 1993
Time:17:04
Wales  36 – 7  Latvia

17 Apr 1993
Time:17:20
Romania  15 – 17  Japan

Pool B[edit]

Team Pld W D L PF PA +/- Pts
 New Zealand 5 5 0 0 157 24 133 15
 Ireland 5 4 0 1 128 45 83 13
 South Korea 5 3 0 2 80 98 -18 11
 France 5 2 0 3 62 71 -9 9
 United States 5 1 0 4 62 105 -43 7
 Netherlands 5 0 0 5 33 179 -146 5
16 Apr 1993
Time:10:53
New Zealand  49 – 7  Netherlands

16 Apr 1993
Time:11:10
France  22 – 7  United States

16 Apr 1993
Time:11:28
Ireland  21 – 12  South Korea

16 Apr 1993
Time:12:36
New Zealand  19 – 5  United States

16 Apr 1993
Time:12:53
South Korea  28 – 12  Netherlands

16 Apr 1993
Time:13:12
Ireland  17 – 9  France

17 Apr 1993
Time:14:12
New Zealand  46 – 0  South Korea

17 Apr 1993
Time:14:30
Ireland  38 – 0  United States

17 Apr 1993
Time:14:47
France  26 – 14  Netherlands

17 Apr 1993
Time:15:58
Ireland  7 – 24  New Zealand

17 Apr 1993
Time:16:15
France  0 – 14  South Korea

17 Apr 1993
Time:16:32
Netherlands  0 – 31  United States

17 Apr 1993
Time:17:38
Ireland  45 – 0  Netherlands

17 Apr 1993
Time:17:55
New Zealand  19 – 5  France

17 Apr 1993
Time:18:12
South Korea  26 – 19  United States

Pool C[edit]

Team Pld W D L PF PA +/- Pts
 Tonga 5 4 0 1 117 34 83 13
 Australia 5 4 0 1 143 29 114 13
 Argentina 5 3 0 2 67 81 -14 11
 Scotland 5 3 0 2 96 64 32 11
 Italy 5 1 0 4 41 123 -82 7
 Taiwan 5 0 0 5 24 157 -133 5
16 Apr 1993
Time:14:17
Australia  28 – 0  Taiwan

16 Apr 1993
Time:14:33
Scotland  15 – 7  Tonga

16 Apr 1993
Time:14:50
Argentina  17 – 7  Italy

16 Apr 1993
Time:16:00
Australia  7 – 10  Tonga

16 Apr 1993
Time:16:17
Italy  15 – 14  Taiwan

16 Apr 1993
Time:16:34
Argentina  14 – 10  Scotland

16 Apr 1993
Time:17:44
Australia  40 – 0  Italy

16 Apr 1993
Time:18:02
Argentina  5 – 17  Tonga

16 Apr 1993
Time:18:21
Scotland  36 – 5  Taiwan

17 Apr 1993
Time:10:51
Argentina  5 – 42  Australia

17 Apr 1993
Time:11:08
Scotland  21 – 12  Italy

17 Apr 1993
Time:11:26
Tonga  52 – 0  Taiwan

17 Apr 1993
Time:12:31
Australia  26 – 14  Scotland

17 Apr 1993
Time:12:47
Argentina  26 – 5  Taiwan

17 Apr 1993
Time:13:05
Tonga  31 – 7  Italy

Pool D[edit]

Team Pld W D L PF PA +/- Pts
 Samoa 5 5 0 0 193 31 162 15
 England 5 4 0 1 138 38 100 13
 Spain 5 2 0 3 59 114 -55 9
 Canada 5 2 0 3 75 87 -12 9
 Hong Kong 5 1 0 4 43 161 -118 7
 Namibia 5 1 0 4 55 132 -77 7
16 Apr 1993
Time:15:08
England  40 – 5  Hong Kong

16 Apr 1993
Time:15:27
Samoa  47 – 0  Spain

16 Apr 1993
Time:15:44
Canada  21 – 7  Namibia

16 Apr 1993
Time:16:51
England  31 – 0  Spain

16 Apr 1993
Time:17:09
Namibia  17 – 19  Hong Kong

16 Apr 1993
Time:17:26
Samoa  28 – 14  Canada

17 Apr 1993
Time:10:00
England  24 – 5  Namibia

17 Apr 1993
Time:10:17
Canada  5 – 12  Spain

17 Apr 1993
Time:10:34
Samoa  43 – 7  Hong Kong

17 Apr 1993
Time:11:43
England  33 – 0  Canada

17 Apr 1993
Time:11:59
Spain  26 – 5  Hong Kong

17 Apr 1993
Time:12:16
Samoa  47 – 0  Namibia

17 Apr 1993
Time:13:22
England  10 – 28  Samoa

17 Apr 1993
Time:13:39
Canada  35 – 7  Hong Kong

17 Apr 1993
Time:13:56
Spain  21 – 26  Namibia

Melrose Cup - Quarter Finals[edit]

Pool E[edit]

Team Pld W D L PF PA +/- Pts
 Fiji 3 3 0 0 66 26 40 9
 Ireland 3 2 0 1 38 43 -5 7
 Samoa 3 1 0 2 54 38 16 5
 Tonga 3 0 0 3 26 77 -51 3
18 Apr 1993
Time:10:00
Samoa  0 – 17  Ireland

18 Apr 1993
Time:10:16
Tonga  7 – 21  Fiji

18 Apr 1993
Time:11:04
Fiji  14 – 12  Samoa

18 Apr 1993
Time:11:20
Tonga  12 – 14  Ireland

18 Apr 1993
Time:12:09
Tonga  7 – 42  Samoa

18 Apr 1993
Time:12:26
Fiji  31 – 7  Ireland

Pool F[edit]

Team Pld W D L PF PA +/- Pts
 Australia 3 2 0 1 28 59 -31 7
 England 3 2 0 1 47 40 7 7
 South Africa 3 1 0 2 43 35 8 5
 New Zealand 3 1 0 2 68 52 16 5
18 Apr 1993
Time:10:33
South Africa  5 – 7  Australia

18 Apr 1993
Time:10:49
England  21 – 12  New Zealand

18 Apr 1993
Time:11:36
South Africa  7 – 14  England

18 Apr 1993
Time:11:53
New Zealand  42 – 0  Australia

18 Apr 1993
Time:12:43
South Africa  31 – 14  New Zealand

18 Apr 1993
Time:13:00
Australia  21 – 12  England

Knockout[edit]

Semi-finals Final
  Ireland 19  
  Australia 21  
 
      Australia 17
    England 21
  England 21
  Fiji 7  
Semi-Finals - Match details[edit]
18 Apr 1993
Time:14:31
Fiji  7 – 21  England
Tries:Seru-c


Con:Serevi
Tries:Harriman-c
Dallaglio-c
Harriman-c
Con:Beal (3)

18 Apr 1993
Time:14:48
Australia  21 – 19  Ireland
Tries:Taupeaafe-c
Taupeaafe-c
Ofahengaue-c
Con:Lynagh (3)
Tries:Wallace-c
Cunningham-c
McBride-m
Con:Elwood (2)

Final - Match details[edit]
18 Apr 1993
Time:16:12
Australia  17 – 21
(HT:5 – 21)
 England
Tries:Lynagh-m
Campese-m
Taupeaafe-c
Con:Lynagh (1)
Tries:Harriman-c
Dallaglio-c
Rodber-c
Con:Beal (3)


 1993 Rugby World Cup Sevens Champions 

England
First title

Bowl[edit]

Semi-finals Final
  France 7  
  Scotland 14  
 
      Scotland 19
    Japan 33
  Japan 14
  Canada 0  

Bowl Semi-Finals - Match details[edit]

18 Apr 1993
Time:13:17
Scotland  14 – 7  France
Tries:Hogg-c
Kerr-c
Con:Appleson (2)
Tries:Faugeron-c

Con:Bodeval

18 Apr 1993
Time:13:33
Japan  14 – 0  Canada
Tries:Ono-c
Motoki-c
Con:Nagatomo (2)

Bowl Final - Match details[edit]

18 Apr 1993
Time:15:05
Scotland  19 – 33
(HT:5 – 21)
 Japan
Tries:Kerr-m
Moncrief-c
Corcoran-c


Con:Appleson (2)
Tries:Nawalu-c
Kato-c
Yoshida-c
Ono-c
Nagatomi-m
Con:Ono (1)
Nagatomi (1)
Yoshida (1)
Nagatomi (1)

Plate[edit]

Semi-finals Final
  Wales 7  
  Spain 10  
 
      Spain 12
    Argentina 19
  Argentina 24
  South Korea 0  

Plate Semi-Finals - Match details[edit]

18 Apr 1993
Time:13:50
Wales  7 – 10  Spain
Tries:Jenkins-c

Con:Williams
Tries:Rivero-m
Guttierrez-m

18 Apr 1993
Time:14:06
Argentina  24 – 0  South Korea
Tries:Baraldi-c
Baraldi-c
Arbizu-c
Con:Meson (3)
Pen:Meson

Plate Final - Match details[edit]

18 Apr 1993
Time:15:34
Argentina  19 – 12
(HT:7 – 7)
 Spain
Tries:Meson-c
Jorge-c
Jorge-m
Con:Meson (2)
Tries:Diaz-c
Azkargorta-m

Con:Puertas (3)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Scotland.org - September 2007 Try and Try again". Archived from the original on 2009-07-21. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 
  2. ^ "Hong Kong Sevens Official site history". Archived from the original on 2009-07-21. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 
  3. ^ a b "Sevens Explosion - World Cup History Part I: Dallaglio and co sweep to inaugural win". Archived from the original on 2009-06-22. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
  4. ^ a b "The 1993 Rugby World Cup Sevens Qualifier Sevens Tournament from Hell by Doppo Domani, June 1992". Archived from the original on 2009-06-22. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
  5. ^ Caught in Time: England win the first rugby sevens World Cup, 1993
  6. ^ IRB.com. "RWC Sevens 1993 at www.rwcsevens.com". Archived from the original on 2009-06-20. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 

External links[edit]