1994 Pacific hurricane season

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1994 Pacific hurricane season
Season summary map
First system formed June 18, 1994
Last system dissipated October 26, 1994
Strongest storm Gilma – 920 mbar (hPa) (27.18 inHg), 160 mph (260 km/h) (1-minute sustained)
Total depressions 22
Total storms 20
Hurricanes 10
Major hurricanes (Cat. 3+) 5
Total fatalities 4 direct, 8 missing, 22 related
Total damage $735 million (1994 USD)
Pacific hurricane seasons
1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996

The 1994 Pacific hurricane season was the final season of the eastern north Pacific's most recent active string of hurricane seasons. The season officially started on May 15, 1994 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 1994 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1994. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The first tropical cyclone formed on June 18, while the last system dissipated on October 26.[1] This season, twenty-two tropical cyclones formed in the north Pacific Ocean east of the dateline, with all but two becoming tropical storms or hurricanes. A total of 10 hurricanes occurred, including five major hurricanes.

Of note in this season is an unusual spree of very intense storms. Hurricanes Emilia, Gilma, John, and Olivia all reached a pressure below 930 millibars. Longevity-wise, no tropical cyclone of any basin had previously persisted for as long as Hurricane John, which lasted 31 days. Elsewhere, Hurricane Rosa caused four casualties in Mexico as the basin's lone landfalling tropical storm or hurricane, and later was responsible for flooding in Texas.

Season summary[edit]

Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale
TD TS C1 C2 C3 C4 C5

This season, twenty-two tropical cyclones formed in the north Pacific Ocean east of the dateline. All but two of them became tropical storms or hurricanes. In the Eastern Pacific region (140°W to North America), nineteen tropical depressions formed, of which seventeen became tropical storms, nine further intensifying into hurricanes, and five ultimately reaching major hurricanes of Category 3 intensity or higher on the Saffir Simpson Scale.[1] These numbers are slightly above the long-term averages of fifteen tropical storms, nine hurricanes, and four major hurricanes.[2]

In the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility (140°W to the International Date Line), three depressions, two tropical storms, and one hurricane formed. Overall, there were eleven tropical cyclones, eight tropical storms, five hurricanes, and three major hurricanes that formed or entered the Central Pacific region.[3] These numbers are well above the long-term average of four tropical cyclones, two hurricanes, one tropical storm, and two depressions.[4] The exceptionally high activity was contributed to by an El Niño ongoing at the time.[5]

The only named storm to make landfall this year was Hurricane Rosa,[1] which killed four people i Western Mexico[6] and forced over 400 to be evacuated.[7] Other notable storms include Hurricane Olivia, a high-end Category 4 system,[1] the three Category 5 hurricanes Emilia, Gilma, and John. Both John and Hurricane Li existed in two of the three basins (East, and West) of the Pacific Ocean.[8]

This season marked the end of the Northeastern Pacific's most recent activity period, which began in 1982,[9] and includes the five most active Pacific hurricane seasons.[1][9] Beginning in 1995, mufti-decadal factors switched to a phase that suppresses Pacific hurricane activity.[10] Since then, Pacific hurricane seasons have generally been below normal;[11] the lone abnormally active season since then was in 1997, where a strong El Nino event was observed.[9]

The 1994 Pacific hurricane season set several records. First, three hurricanes reached Category 5 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale,[8] tying a record later set in 2002.[1] Hurricane John lasted longer and spent more time tropical than any other tropical cyclone on Earth in recorded history.[12] Eleven tropical cyclones entered or formed in the central Pacific, a record shared with the 1992 season.[5] Finally, of the four most intense hurricanes recorded in the Central Pacific, three of them occurred this season.[3]

Hurricane John (1994) Hurricane Gilma (1994) Hurricane Emilia (1994) Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale

The season began with the formation of Tropical Depression One-E on June 18 and ended with the dissipation of Tropical Depression Nona on October 26.[1] No named systems formed in May, three in June, four in July, five in August, six in September, two in October, and none in November.[1] The total length of the season, from the formation of the first depression to the dissipation of the last, was 130 days.[13]

Accumulated Cyclone Energy
Rank Name ACE Rank Name ACE
1 John 10.1 (43.9) 11 Ileana 3.16
2 Emilia 1.72 (31.4) 12 Hector 1.65
3 Gilma 5.80 (18.8) 13 Aletta 1.42
4 Olivia 16.5 14 Miriam 1.30
5 Lane 12.7 15 Paul 1.22
6 Carlotta 10.5 16 Mele (0.980)
7 Rosa 6.21 17 Fabio 0.65
8 Kristy 1.02 (5.16) 18 Norman 0.613
9 Daniel 2.91 (2.22) 19 Bud 0.565
10 Li (4.48) 20 Nona (0.123)
Total: 78.0 (107)

Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) is a measure of how active a hurricane season is. It is calculated by squaring the windspeed of a cyclone with at least tropical storm-force winds every six hours, summing the results, and dividing that total by 104. As a tropical cyclone does not have gale-force winds until it becomes a tropical storm, tropical depressions are not included in these tables. For all storms, ACE is given to three significant figures. The ACE in the east Pacific proper (140°W to North America) is given; the ACE in the central Pacific (the International Date Line to 140°W) is given in brackets. The table includes the ACE for Li and John only during those storm's time east of the dateline. Their ACE west of the dateline is part of the totals of the 1994 typhoon season.

The National Hurricane Center uses ACE to rank hurricane seasons as above-normal, near-normal, and below-normal. It defines below-normal as having an ACE less than 95*104 kt2 kt2; It defines above normal as having an ACE above 150*104 kt2 along with the numbers of any two of the following above average: tropical storms (15), hurricanes (9), or major hurricanes (4); It defines near-normal as having an ACE between 100*104 kt2 and 150*104 kt2, or an ACE above 150*104 kt2 with fewer than two of the numbers of the following above average: tropical storms (15), hurricanes (9), or major hurricanes (4).[2]

This season has a total of seventeen tropical storms, nine hurricanes, and five major hurricanes. The total ACE of this season is 185*104 kt2. This qualifies this season as above-normal.[2]

Storms[edit]

Tropical Storm Aletta[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration June 18 – June 23
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  999 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression One-E formed from an area of disturbed weather on June 18. It strengthened to Tropical Storm Aletta the next day. It continued intensifying and reached its peak intensity on June 20. Vertical wind shear began to weaken the storm thereafter. The weakening trend continued, weakening Aletta to a depression on June 21. The system dissipated June 23. Aletta's remnant low, however, could be tracked on satellite images for days following the storm. The low finally dissipated north of Hawaii.[14] Aletta never affected land, and no damage or casualties were reported.[15]

Tropical Storm Bud[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration June 27 – June 29
Peak intensity 45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1003 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Depression Two-E formed on June 27 about 575 miles (925 km) south-southwest of the tip of the Baja California Peninsula. The depression headed west-northwest, gradually turned to the northwest, and strengthened into Tropical Storm Bud on June 27. Early the next day, Bud peaked in intensity. Shear caused by a nearby upper level low slowly weakened Bud. Later on June 28, a second center of circulation developed. The two centers started a Fujiwhara interaction. The second center then became dominant and the first one vanished. This confused structure is similar to what happened to 1993's Tropical Storm Arlene. This confused structure also weakened Bud to a tropical depression on the afternoon of the same day the second center formed. Bud then headed westward over cool waters and dissipated on June 29.[16] Tropical Storm Bud spent its entire life over the open ocean far from land areas. No casualties or damage was reported.[16]

Hurricane Carlotta[edit]

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration June 28 – July 5
Peak intensity 105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min)  967 mbar (hPa)

The tropical depression that would be Carlotta formed on June 28. It quickly became Tropical Storm Carlotta, and a large eye became visible. Because of this, the NHC upgraded the storm to a hurricane. Carlotta peaked in intensity on July 1, as a 105 mph (169 km/h) hurricane. It gradually weakened as it moved into cooler waters, dissipating on July 5. Carlotta did not threaten land.[17]

Carlotta buffeted Socorro Island with sustained winds of 39 mph (63 km/h) on June 30.[17][18] Other than there, Carlotta caused no damage or deaths.[18]

Tropical Storm Daniel[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration July 8 – July 14
Peak intensity 65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  993 mbar (hPa)

On July 8, a disturbance located about 1,000 miles (1,600 km) southwest of the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula developed a circulation and became Tropical Depression Four-E. Convection increased, and the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Daniel. Upper-level outflow improved, and Daniel peaked in intensity on July 9. Daniel slowly declined as it continued westward. It entered the central Pacific on July 11. Wind shear weakened Daniel as it approached the Big Island, and by July 15 had degenerated into an open wave.[19]

When Daniel was approaching Hawaii, moderate surf of 4 to 6 feet (1.2 to 1.8 m) impacted the south and southeast shores of the Big Island on July 13 and 14. Daniel's remnants also passed about 100 miles (160 km) south of South Point, Hawaii on July 15. That day, they caused rainfall on windward slopes of the Big Island locally reaching 5 inches (130 mm).[8] No reports of damage or casualties were received.[19]

Hurricane Emilia[edit]

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration July 16 – July 25
Peak intensity 160 mph (260 km/h) (1-min)  926 mbar (hPa)

On July 16, an area of low pressure associated with a tropical wave organized into Tropical Depression Five-E. It strengthened into Tropical Storm Emilia later that day. It moved west-northwest and strengthened into a hurricane.[20] It entered the central Pacific on July 17. It continued intensifying, reaching Category 5 intensity on July 19,[8] the first Category 5 Pacific hurricane since Ava. Emilia started weakening quickly on July 21. It weakened to a tropical storm on July 23 and dissipated two days later.[8]

Emilia passed south of the Hawai’ian Islands, producing swells of 6 to 10 feet (1.8 to 3.0 m) in height near the Puna and Ka‘ū coasts. Winds caused minor damage, and rain was moderate.[8] No one was killed.[21]

Tropical Storm Fabio[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration July 19 – July 24
Peak intensity 45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1002 mbar (hPa)

A tropical depression formed on July 19. Later that day, it strengthened into Tropical Storm Fabio. Fabio headed generally west or northwestward.[22] It entered the central Pacific as a tropical depression, and dissipated on July 24.[8]

Fabio's remnants brought locally heavy rainfall to Hawaii, reaching 3 to 4 inches (76 to 102 mm).[8] No one was killed and there was no damage.[23]

Hurricane Gilma[edit]

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration July 21 – July 31
Peak intensity 160 mph (260 km/h) (1-min)  920 mbar (hPa)

Part of a tropical wave organized into a tropical depression on July 21. It headed westward and out to sea, strengthening into a tropical storm the next day. Gilma rapidly strengthened and became a hurricane exactly one day after it was named. It continued to intensify as it entered the central Pacific. Shortly after entering the central Pacific, Gilma reached Category 5 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, the second of the season.[24] It then suddenly weakened for unexplained reasons, and weakened into a tropical storm on July 27. It became a depression three days after that and dissipated on July 31.[8] Hurricane Gilma had minor impact on Johnston Atoll. That atoll received light rain, wind gusts to near gale force,[25] and surf.[8] No casualties or damage were reported.[25]

Hurricane Gilma was the second most-intense Pacific at the time. As of 2010, it remains the seventh-most intense. Gilma is also the strongest July storm in the eastern or central Pacific.[1]

Hurricane Li[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration July 31 – August 18
Peak intensity 75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min) ≤ 1007 mbar (hPa)

A tropical disturbance southwest of Cabo San Lucas organized into Tropical Depression Eight-E on July 31.[26] It headed west-northwest without strengthening much, and crossed into the central Pacific on August 2.[27] Eight-E developed a second center of circulation, which became dominant,[28] and then became bound up in the intertropical convergence zone.[29] Eight-E then became disorganized, with multiple centers of circulation,[30] and advisories were discontinued on August 5. The depression's remains continued their westward path well south of the Hawaiian Islands. The depression regenerated on August 8. It soon strengthened into a tropical storm and was named Li,[8] which is Hawaiian for "Lee".[31] Li approached the dateline on its generally westward heading. Just before crossing, it intensified into a minimal Category 1 hurricane. It crossed the dateline on August 12 and became a storm in the 1994 Pacific typhoon season.[8] Wind shear from a tropical upper-tropospheric trough weakened back into a tropical storm as it crossed the dateline, and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center downgraded Li with its first advisory.[32] Li stayed a tropical storm until August 16, where it weakened into a tropical depression. The system then began recurving, and dissipated on August 18.[33] A weakening Tropical Depression Li caused showers on Wake Island. Other than there, Li had no impact on any land, and no casualties or damage were reported.[8]

Hurricane Li is one of only six tropical cyclones to exist on all three tropical cyclone basins in the Pacific Ocean. It is also one of only four systems to form as a depression in the east Pacific but be named in the central; the others are Lala, Iniki, and Lana.[1] However, the question of whether Li actually did those two things is somewhat complicated. Although the National Hurricane Center issued advisories on Tropical Depression Eight-E,[26] Li's first data point in the official database has a longitude of 140°W, exactly on the boundary between the east and central Pacific.[1] However, in its preliminary report, the NHC includes a preliminary set of track data including several positions east of 140°W.[34] Hence, Li's status as an east Pacific tropical cyclone is debatable.

Tropical Storm Hector[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration August 7 – August 10
Peak intensity 65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  993 mbar (hPa)

On August 7, a tropical depression formed from a tropical wave a few hundred miles south of Baja California. It became Tropical Storm Hector quickly, and as it paralleled the coast of Mexico, it began to weaken, dissipating on August 10. No damage was reported anywhere.[35]

Tropical Storm Hector was forecast to approach the Baja California Peninsula. A tropical storm watch was issued for part of the peninsula on August 8. It was lifted later the same day.[36] Hector's most significant impact was rain. The tropical storm dumped rain along a discontinuous zone of coastal and inland Mexico. The highest point maxima were 7.87 inches (200 mm) at Cerro de Ortega/Ixtlahua and 7.60 inches (193 mm) at Caduano/Santiago.[37] No damage or casualties were reported.[36]

Tropical Depression One-C[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Duration August 9 – August 14
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 

An area of disturbed weather organized into a tropical depression on August 9 while located 740 miles (1,190 km) southeast of Hilo, Hawaii. The depression moved westward without organizing, and dissipated on August 14.[8]

Moisture from the system produced heavy rainfall over the island of Hawaii, totaling to over 15 inches (380 mm).[8] The flooding closed all major roads in Hilo, and was considered the worst flooding in 40 years. The rainfall destroyed two homes and damaged 214, 14 severely. It also damaged roads and businesses. Damage throughout the island totaled to $5 million (1994 USD; $7.96 million 2014 USD).[38] Flooding occurred in Maui as well, where landslides blocked portions of the Hana Highway.[39] One-C's point maximum of 15 in (380 mm) makes it Hawaii's seventh wettest known tropical cyclone.

Hurricane Ileana[edit]

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration August 10 – August 14
Peak intensity 75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  986 mbar (hPa)

A disturbance that was part of the intertropical convergence zone developed several centers of circulation. After it organized, it separated from the ITCZ and became Tropical Depression Eleven-E on August 10 while the system was about 690 miles (1,110 km) south-southeast of the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula.[40] It was upgraded to Tropical Storm Ileana at the second advisory,[41] at the same time as John, the next storm.[42] An eye appeared, and Ileana became a hurricane on August 12. It began weakening almost immediately thereafter, as it passed over cooler waters and encountered increasing wind shear. Ileana was a tropical storm on August 13, and the next day it was a dissipating swirl low-level clouds located about 520 miles (840 km) west of Punta Eugenia.[40] Although Ileana paralleled the coast of Mexico, watches and warnings were not issued because winds of tropical storm-force were not expected to affect land. No one was killed and there was no damage reported in association with this cyclone.[40]

Hurricane John[edit]

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration August 11 – September 10
Peak intensity 175 mph (280 km/h) (1-min)  929 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Hurricane John (1994)

Tropical Depression Ten-E formed on August 11 south of Mexico. It headed generally westward, and was upgraded into a tropical storm twelve hours after it formed and was named John. John fluctuated in strength as it headed west, always managing to stay at tropical storm strength. On August 20, steady intensification began, and John was a major hurricane when it entered the central Pacific. It continued westward, reaching Category 5 intensity on August 23. It passed around 245 miles (394 km) south of Hawaii, and passed just north of Johnston Atoll on August 26.[43] John stayed at hurricane intensity until it crossed the dateline on August 28, becoming a typhoon of the 1994 Pacific typhoon season.[8] After weakening into a tropical storm, John recurved, looped, and recurved again.[44] It reintensified, and was a hurricane when it recrossed the dateline to reenter the central Pacific. John headed north-northeast until it went extratropical on September 10,[8] thirty one days after it formed.[1]

Ahead of the hurricane, the 1100 people at Johnston Atoll evacuated. On the atoll, John caused $15 million (1994 USD; $23.9 million 2014 USD) in damage. No deaths were reported. Other than on Johnston, Hurricane John had minor effects in Hawaii. Its remnants also affected Alaska.[8]

Hurricane John was the longest lasting and farthest traveling tropical cyclone on Earth in recorded history.[12] It is also one of six tropical cyclones to exist in all three basins of the Pacific Ocean, an uncommon west-to-east dateline crosser, and one of the few tropical cyclone to cross the dateline more than once.[1]

Tropical Depression Twelve-E[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Duration August 12 – August 15
Peak intensity 35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1006 mbar (hPa)

On August 14, an area of convection organized enough to be considered a tropical depression. It was steered by John's circulation, and it was never expected to strengthen much because it was close to cool waters.[45] The cyclone drifted north, then northeast, north again, northwest, and then west.[46] The National Hurricane Center declared the depression dissipated on August 15.[47] The depression had no effects anywhere.[46]

Hurricane Kristy[edit]

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration August 28 – September 5
Peak intensity 105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min) ≤ 992 mbar (hPa)

On August 28, Tropical Depression Thirteen-E formed about 1,300 miles (2,100 km) southwest of Cabo San Lucas, Mexico. It was named Tropical Storm Kristy on August 30. As it crossed into the central Pacific, a banding-type eye formed and it became a hurricane.[48] Twelve hours later, it reached Category 2 intensity. Kristy weakened steadily from that point due to wind shear. It passed about 300 miles (480 km) south of Hawaii, and dissipated on September 5.[8] The lowest central pressure of Kristy is unknown. The last estimate was made when Kirsty was still a tropical storm.[1]

As it approached the Hawaiian Islands, a high surf advisory and a high wind warning were issued for the Big Island of Hawaii. No damage or deaths were reported in association with this system.[49] Its remnants crossed 180th meridian very early on September 7 and was absorbed by a tropical depression which became Typhoon Melissa in the Western Pacific basin.

Hurricane Lane[edit]

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration September 3 – September 10
Peak intensity 130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  948 mbar (hPa)

The same tropical wave that spawned Tropical Depression Five in the Atlantic became Tropical Depression Fourteen-E on September 3. It quickly became Tropical Storm Lane. A high pressure ridge centered itself north of Lane, keeping the storm on a westward track. This brought Lane into very favorable conditions, and Lane intensified. When the tropical storm reached hurricane strength, it entered a phase of rapid intensification, reaching winds of about 135 mph (217 km/h), making it a category four hurricane. The high pressure ridge shifted eastward, and allowed Lane to enter unfavorable conditions. Lane dissipated on September 10.[50]

Tropical Storm Mele[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration September 6 – September 9
Peak intensity 40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min) 

A tropical disturbance became Tropical Depression Two-C on September 6. It reached tropical storm strength the next day, being named Mele.[8] The name Mele means "song" in the Hawaiian language and is also the Hawaiian form of "Mary".[51] Mele headed west-northwest and weakened back into a tropical depression on September. It dissipated later that day without incident.[8]

Tropical Storm Miriam[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration September 15 – September 21
Peak intensity 45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1002 mbar (hPa)

Miriam formed from a weak disturbance on September 15. It strengthened slightly into Tropical Storm Miriam, and dissipated on September 21, having led an uneventful life without impact. In an interesting occurrence, the low-level remnants of Miriam were still visible for weeks after the storm dissipated near 140°W.[52]

Tropical Storm Norman[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration September 19 – September 22
Peak intensity 40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  1004 mbar (hPa)

A tropical depression formed on September 19, and became Tropical Storm Norman the next day. After tracking northwest, it began to turn north in response to a trough, and convection began to diminish. Norman dissipated on September 22 without having ever affected land.[53]

Hurricane Olivia[edit]

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration September 22 – September 29
Peak intensity 150 mph (240 km/h) (1-min)  923 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Olivia ultimately formed from a disturbance that had separated from the intertropical convergence zone and become distinct by September 19. The disturbance slowly headed westward and it organized into a tropical depression on September 22 while located about 720 miles (1,160 km) south of the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula. The depression headed west-northwestwards and strengthened into Tropical Storm Olivia on September 22. It steadily intensified and was a hurricane on September 24. It then rapidly strengthened into a powerful major hurricane. It slowly curled to the northwest as it was observed by NOAA research aircraft.[54] Olivia peaked in intensity on September 25. Meanwhile, a large cyclone off the extreme southern part of California induced a northward path. As Olivia started a small anticyclonic loop, wind shear began to weaken the hurricane. When Olivia was finished the loop, it had weakened to a tropical storm. It then headed westward. It weakened into a tropical depression on September 28 and dissipated the next day. No impact was reported.[55]

When it formed, Hurricane Olivia was the third most-intense Pacific hurricane ever recorded, and second most-intense in the east Pacific proper. Since then, several other hurricanes have reached a lower pressure, but Olivia remains the ninth most-intense Pacific hurricane, seventh-most in the east Pacific proper. Olivia was also the strongest September hurricane at the time. It held that record until Hurricane Linda broke it. Olivia is still the third strongest September hurricane. Olivia is also the most intense Pacific hurricane not to reach Category 5 intensity. Hurricane Olivia shares its intensity records and rankings with 2001's Juliette.[1]

Tropical Storm Paul[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration September 24 – September 30
Peak intensity 45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1003 mbar (hPa)

A nearly stationary cluster of thunderstorms and convection that had been hanging around since September 15 and escaped destruction by Tropical Storm Miriam organized into Tropical Depression Eighteen-E on September 24. It was located between Miriam's remnants and the developing Olivia. It became Tropical Storm Paul on the afternoon of September 25. It peaked in intensity on September 27. Then, upper outflow from the nearby Olivia started shearing the tropical cyclone. Paul had been completely destroyed by September 30.[56] The tropical cyclone never threatened land, and consequently, no damage or deaths were reported.[57]

Hurricane Rosa[edit]

Main article: Hurricane Rosa (1994)
Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Duration October 8 – October 15
Peak intensity 105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min)  974 mbar (hPa)

An area of disturbed weather organized into a tropical depression at midday on October 8. It had trouble organizing, and advisories were discontinued for a while. The cyclone finally became a tropical storm on October 11 and was named Rosa. It moved glacially, but eventually a trough steered Rosa north and then northeast. Rosa intensified quickly, peaking at Category 2 intensity just before landfall near La Concepción on the morning of October 14. Rosa quickly decayed over the mountains of Mexico, and its cloud shield rapidly accelerated northward through the United States, spreading moisture.[58]

On October 12, a hurricane watch was issued for the coast from Culiacán to Manzanillo and the Baja California Peninsula south of latitude 24°N. At the same time, a tropical storm warning was issued from Manzanillo to Tepic. On October 14, a hurricane warning was issued for the coast between Culiacán and Cabo Corrientes, and a tropical storm warning south of Cabo Corrientes to Manzanillo. All watches and warnings were lifted later that day.[59]

Four deaths, two in each of Nayarit and Durango, were reported. Four people were missing in Sinaloa. All of the deaths were due to drowning. More than 100,000 people had their homes damaged in Nayarit. Telephone poles and power lines were downed in Sinaloa. Rain caused landslides and flash-flooding in mountainous areas.[6] In Jalisco, mudslides forced the evacuation of 400 people from two coastal villages.[7] The highest rainfall total in Mexico was 14.09 inches (358 mm) at Mesa de Pedro Pablo.[60] The moisture Rosa sent into the United States was a contributing factor in record rains in parts of southeastern Texas from October 15 to 19. Those rains caused flooding that killed 22 people, destroyed over 3000 homes, and caused US$700 million in damage.[61]

Tropical Storm Nona[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration October 21 – October 26
Peak intensity 40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min) 

Tropical Depression Three-C formed on October 21 in the Central Pacific basin. It traveled westward for about 4 days before strengthening to Tropical Storm Nona on October 25.[8] The name "Nona" is Hawaiian for the Latin name spelled the same way.[62][63] Nona immediately weakened back into a tropical depression. Upper-level westerlies from a nearby trough destroyed the depression on October 26. No deaths or damage were reported.[8] Nona was a tropical storm for six hours,[1] the minimum possible time.[64]

Season statistics[edit]

1994 Pacific hurricane statistics
Storm
name
Dates active Storm category

at peak intensity

Max 1-min
wind

mph (km/h)

Min.
press.
(mbar)
Areas affected Damage
(millions USD)
Deaths


Aletta June 18 – June 23 Tropical storm 50 (80) 999 None None None
Bud June 27 – June 29 Tropical storm 45 (70) 1003 None None None
Carlotta June 28 – July 5 Category 2 hurricane 100 (160) 967 None None None
Daniel July 8 – July 14 Tropical storm 65 (105) 993 None None None
Emilia July 16 – July 25 Category 5 hurricane 160 (255) 926 None None None
Fabio July 19 – July 24 Tropical storm 45 (70) 1002 None None None
Gilma July 21 – July 31 Category 5 hurricane 160 (255) 920 None None None
Li July 31 – August 18 Category 1 hurricane 75 (120) 1007 None None None
Hector August 7 – August 10 Tropical storm 65 (105) 993 None Minimal None
One-C August 9 – August 14 Tropical depression 35 (55) Unknown None 5 None
Ileana August 10 – August 14 Category 1 hurricane 75 (120) 986 None None None
John August 11 – September 10 Category 5 hurricane 175 (280) 929 Johnston Atoll (direct hit, no landfall) 15 None
Twelve-E August 12 – August 15 Tropical depression 35 (55) 1006 None None None
Kristy August 28 – September 5 Category 2 hurricane 100 (160) 992 None None None
Lane September 3 – September 10 Category 4 hurricane 130 (210) 948 None None None
Mele September 6 – September 9 Tropical storm 40 (65) Unknown None None None
Miriam September 15 – September 21 Tropical storm 45 (75) 1002 None None None
Norman September 19 – September 22 Tropical storm 40 (65) 1004 None None None
Olivia September 22 – September 29 Category 4 hurricane 150 (240) 923 None None None
Paul September 24 – September 30 Tropical storm 45 (75) 1003 None None None
Rosa October 8 – October 15 Category 2 hurricane 100 (160) 974 La Concepción, Mexico Unknown 4–30
Nona October 21 – October 26 Tropical storm 40 (65) Unknown None None None
Season Aggregates
17 cyclones June 18 – October 26   175 (280) 920 20 4-30

Storm names[edit]

The following names were used for named storms that formed in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean during 1994. Names that were not assigned this season are marked in gray. No names were retired, so this same list was used again in the 2000 season. This is the same list used for the 1988 season except for Ileana, which replaced Iva and was used for the first time in 1994.

  • Ileana
  • John
  • Kristy
  • Lane
  • Miriam
  • Norman
  • Olivia
  • Paul
  • Rosa
  • Sergio (unused)
  • Tara (unused)
  • Vicente (unused)
  • Willa (unused)
  • Xavier (unused)
  • Yolanda (unused)
  • Zeke (unused)

For storms that form in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility, encompassing the area between 140 degrees west and the International Date Line, all names are used in a series of four rotating lists. The next four names that were slated for use in 1994 are shown below. Three of them, Li, Mele, and Nona, were used throughout the course of the year.

  • Li
  • Mele
  • Nona
  • Oliwa (unused)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Eastern North Pacific Tracks File 1949–2007" (Plaintext). National Hurricane Center. March 21, 2008. Archived from the original on August 22, 2008. Retrieved September 23, 2008. 
  2. ^ a b c "Background Information: East Pacific Hurricane Season". Climate Prediction Center. May 22, 2008. Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved September 23, 2008. 
  3. ^ a b "Previous Tropical Systems in the Central Pacific". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on 16 September 2008. Retrieved September 23, 2008. 
  4. ^ Andy Nash, Tim Craig, Sam Houston, Roy Matsuda, Jeff Powell, Ray Tanabe, & Jim Weyman (July 2007). "2006 Tropical Cyclones Central North Pacific". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 23, 2008. 
  5. ^ a b Benjamin Hablutzel, Hans Rosendal, James Weyman, & Jonathan Hoag. "The 1997 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on 20 October 2008. Retrieved September 23, 2008. 
  6. ^ a b Lixion Avila (November 22, 1994). "Preliminary Report Hurricane Rosa" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. p. 2. Retrieved September 23, 2008. 
  7. ^ a b "Mexican West Coast Survives Hurricane". Chicago Daily Herald. 1994-10-15. p. 3. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "The 1994 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 23, 2008. 
  9. ^ a b c Gary Padgett. "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary April 2004". Retrieved September 23, 2008. 
  10. ^ "NOAA: 2008 Eastern Pacific Hurricane Season Outlook". Climate Prediction Center. May 22, 2008. Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved September 23, 2008. 
  11. ^ "Historical East Pacific Seasonal Activity" (GIF). Climate Prediction Center. Archived from the original on 25 September 2008. Retrieved September 23, 2008. 
  12. ^ a b Neal Dorst. "Subject: E6) Which tropical cyclone lasted the longest?". FAQ: Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Tropical Cyclones. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Archived from the original on 24 September 2008. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 
  13. ^ National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division; Central Pacific Hurricane Center (July 7, 2014). "The Northeast and North Central Pacific hurricane database 1949-2013". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved July 10, 2014. 
  14. ^ Richard Pasch (October 25, 1994). "Preliminary Report Tropical Storm Aletta" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. p. 1. Retrieved September 23, 2008. 
  15. ^ Richard Pasch (October 25, 1994). "Preliminary Report Tropical Storm Aletta" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. p. 2. Retrieved September 23, 2008. 
  16. ^ a b Edward Rappaport (July 22, 1994). "Preliminary Report Tropical Storm Bud" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. p. 1. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 
  17. ^ a b Lixion Avila (July 21, 1994). "Preliminary Report Hurricane Carlotta" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. p. 1. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 
  18. ^ a b Lixion Avila (July 21, 1994). "Preliminary Report Hurricane Carlotta" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. p. 2. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 
  19. ^ a b Max Mayfield (October 14, 1994). "Preliminary Report Tropical Storm Daniel" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. p. 1. Retrieved 25 September 2008. 
  20. ^ Miles Lawrence (August 13, 1994). "Preliminary Report Hurricane Emilia" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. p. 1. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 
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  22. ^ Max Mayfield (October 15, 1994). "Preliminary Report Tropical Storm Fabio" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. p. 1. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 
  23. ^ Max Mayfield (October 15, 1994). "Preliminary Report Tropical Storm Fabio" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. p. 2. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 
  24. ^ Richard J. Pasch (January 20, 1995). "Preliminary Report Hurricane Gilma" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. p. 1. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 
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  26. ^ a b Pasch (July 31, 1994). "Tropical Depression Eight-E Discussion 1". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 
  27. ^ Rappaport (August 2, 1994). "Tropical Depression Eight-E Discussion Number 10". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 
  28. ^ Hablutzel (August 3, 1994). "Tropical Depression Eight Special Discussion Number 13" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 
  29. ^ Farrell (August 4, 1994). "Tropical Depression Eight E Discussion 16" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 
  30. ^ Rosendal (August 4, 1994). "Tropical Depression Eight-E Discussion 18" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 
  31. ^ Hablutzel (August 8, 1994). "Tropical Storm Li Special Discussion Number 22" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 14, 2008. 
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  35. ^ Lixion Avila (September 20, 1994). "Preliminary Report Tropical Storm Hector" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. p. 1. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 
  36. ^ a b Lixion Avila (September 20, 1994). "Preliminary Report Tropical Storm Hector" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. p. 2. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 
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  39. ^ "Flood Report: Kauai Leeward". National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved March 8, 2007. 
  40. ^ a b c Max Mayfield (October 17, 1994). "Preliminary Report Hurricane Ileana" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. p. 1. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 
  41. ^ Rappaport (August 11, 1994). "Tropical Storm Ileana Discussion Number 2". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 
  42. ^ Rappaport (August 11, 1994). "Tropical Storm John Discussion Number 3". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 24, 2008. 
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External links[edit]