1994–95 Major League Baseball strike
The 1994–95 Major League Baseball strike was the eighth work stoppage in baseball history, as well as the fourth in-season work stoppage in 22 years. The 232-day strike, which lasted from August 12, 1994, to April 2, 1995, led to the cancellation of between 931 and 948 games overall, and the entire 1994 postseason and World Series. The cancellation of the 1994 World Series was the first since 1904; meanwhile, Major League Baseball became the first professional sport to lose its entire postseason due to a labor dispute. The strike has been considered one of the worst work stoppages in sports history.
- 1 Background
- 2 Strike
- 3 Strike ends
- 4 Post-strike
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
A response to a worsening financial situation in baseball, the owners of major league baseball teams collectively proposed a salary cap to their players. Ownership claimed that small-market clubs would fall by the wayside unless teams agreed to share local broadcasting revenues (to increase equity amongst the teams) and enact a salary cap, a proposal that the players adamantly opposed. On January 18, 1994, the owners approved a new revenue-sharing plan keyed to a salary cap, which required the players’ approval. The following day, the owners amended the Major League agreement by giving complete power to the commissioner on labor negotiations.
The dispute was played out with a backdrop of years of hostility and mistrust between the two sides. What arguably stood in the way of a compromise settlement was the absence of an official commissioner ever since the owners forced Fay Vincent to resign in September 1992. Vincent described the situation this way:
"The Union basically doesn’t trust the Ownership because collusion was a $280 million theft by Bud Selig and Jerry Reinsdorf of that money from the players. I mean, they rigged the signing of free agents. They got caught. They paid $280 million to the players. And I think that’s polluted labor relations in baseball ever since it happened. I think it’s the reason Fehr has no trust in Selig."
On February 11, 1994, the owners greatly reduced the commissioner's power to act in "the best interests of baseball."
Owner representative Richard Ravitch officially unveiled the ownership proposal on June 14, 1994. The proposal would guarantee a record $1 billion in salary and benefits. But the ownership proposal also would have forced clubs to fit their payrolls into a more evenly based structure. Salary arbitration would have been eliminated, free agency would begin after four years rather than six, and owners would have retained the right to keep a four or five year player by matching his best offer. Owners claimed that their proposal would raise average salaries from $1.2 million in 1994 to $2.6 million by 2001.
Major League Baseball Players Association executive director Donald Fehr rejected the offer from the owners on July 18. Fehr believed that a salary cap was simply a way for owners to clean up their own disparity problems with no benefit to the players.
On July 13, 1993, Fehr had said that if serious negotiations between the players and the owners did not begin soon, the players could have gone out on strike in September of that year, threatening the postseason. On December 31, 1993, Major League Baseball's collective bargaining agreement ran out with no new agreement yet signed.
As negotiations continued to heat up, the owners decided to withhold $7.8 million that they were required to pay per previous agreement into the players' pension and benefit plans. The final straw came on June 23 when the Senate Judiciary Committee failed to approve an antitrust legislation by a vote of 10–7. According to Donald Fehr, the action left the players with little choice but to strike. "We felt in '94 we were pushed into it," said Donald Fehr, executive director of the Major League Baseball Players Association. "I still think that's a justified conclusion."
On August 31, three-and-a-half hours of negotiations with federal mediators produced no progress in the strike, and no further talks were scheduled as the strike went into its 4th week. According to then-acting commissioner Bud Selig, September 9 was the tentative deadline for canceling the rest of the season if no agreement was reached between the owners and players. The MLBPA offered a counterproposal to ownership on September 8 calling for a two-percent tax on the 16 franchises with the highest payrolls to be divided among the other 12 clubs. Teams in both leagues would share 25% of all gate receipts under the MLBPA's plan. The owners responded by claiming that the measures wouldn't meet the cost.
The rest of the season, including the World Series, was called off by Bud Selig on September 14. Selig acknowledged that the strike had torn an irreparable hole in the game's fabric. The move to cancel the rest of the season meant the loss of $580 million in ownership revenue and $230 million in player salaries. In 1994, the average MLB salary was an estimated $1.2 million.
The Montreal Expos' best season in their history was stopped by the strike. They had the best record in baseball, 74–40, and were six games ahead of the Atlanta Braves in the NL East despite having the second-lowest payroll in MLB. Most baseball writers were considering the Expos as major World Series contenders. Coincidentally, the only time that the Expos actually made it to the postseason was in 1981, the last time that there was a significant players' strike in Major League Baseball.
Chicago White Sox star Frank Thomas, who wound up winning the American League's Most Valuable Player Award for the second year in a row in 1994, said "I've had a career year, but I'm not going to finish it." Tony Gwynn had a chance to be the first to finish a season over .400 since Ted Williams, as he was batting .394 at the time of the strike. The strike also cost Matt Williams of the San Francisco Giants a chance to beat Roger Maris' single season home run record. When the strike forced the cancellation of the remaining 47 games of the season, Williams had already hit 43 home runs, on pace to match Maris' single season record of 61 home runs. Cleveland Indians second baseman Carlos Baerga was unable to extend his record two-year streak of 20 home runs, 200 hits, and 100 RBI by a second baseman because of the strike. Seattle Mariners star Ken Griffey, Jr., who led the American League with 40 home runs at the time of the strike summed it up best by saying, "We picked a bad season to have a good year." Kevin Mitchell of the Cincinnati Reds, Julio Franco of the Chicago White Sox, and Shane Mack of the Minnesota Twins, all .325 hitters in 1994, opted during the strike to play in Japan in 1995.
By the third day of the strike, Cleveland Indians owner Richard Jacobs directed that all souvenirs being sold at the Indians' gift shop carrying the words "inaugural season at Jacobs Field" be sold at half price.
One of the few positive notes was that fans were spared from witnessing one of the worst division races in history. The Texas Rangers were leading the newly reformed AL West despite being 10 games under .500. The last-place California Angels were only 5 1⁄2 games out despite having the second-worst record in the majors at 21 games under .500—on pace for 96 losses. In fact, the two last place teams in the other American League divisions (namely, the Detroit Tigers of the AL East and Milwaukee Brewers of the AL Central) had better records than the Rangers.
The National League's MVP award was given to Jeff Bagwell. Jeff Bagwell's hand was broken by a pitch on August 10, just before the players' strike began; had the season continued, he would likely have missed the remainder of the year and might not have won the MVP. But because of the timing of his "lucky break," Bagwell became just the fourth player in National League history to win the award unanimously.
The strike also led to an absurdity: Minnesota traded Dave Winfield to the Cleveland Indians for a player to be named later before the season was officially canceled, so no player was named. To settle the deal, the executives of the teams went to dinner, and Cleveland picked up the tab, meaning Winfield had been dealt for dinner.
Arguably, the biggest storyline of the strike was the New York Yankees. In having the best record in the American League, which was also the second-best record in baseball, 70–43, and a 6 1⁄2 game lead over the Baltimore Orioles in the AL East, the largest division lead of any division leader, the strike cost their captain, Don Mattingly, his best chance at his postseason debut in his 13-year career. The Yankees had not been in the postseason since 1981. Because the Yankees were last in a postseason in a season cut short by a strike, the news media was quick to point out and constantly reminded the Yankees about the parallels between the two Yankee teams (1981 and 1994), which included both Yankee teams having division leads taken away by strike, both before and during the strike.
On December 5, it was announced that Richard Ravitch would step down as negotiator for the owners on December 31, 1994. Ravitch instead resigned on December 6, 1994. On December 14, labor talks headed by federal mediator Bill Usery broke down. The next day, the owners approved a salary cap plan by a vote of 25–3, but agreed to delay implementing it so that another round of talks with the players could be held. On December 23, with negotiations at a standstill, the owners unilaterally implemented a salary cap.
On January 4, 1995, five bills aimed at ending the baseball strike were introduced into Congress. The next day, Donald Fehr declared all 895 unsigned Major League players to be free agents in response to unilateral contract changes made by the owners. On January 10, arbitrator Thomas Roberts awarded 11 players a total of almost $10 million as a result of collusion charges brought against the owners. On January 26, both players and owners were ordered by President Bill Clinton to resume bargaining and reach an agreement by February 6. Unfortunately, President Clinton's deadline came and went with no resolution of the strike. Just five days earlier, the owners agreed to revoke the salary cap and return to the old agreement.
After the deadline passed with no compromises, the use of replacement players for spring training and regular season games was approved by baseball's executive council on January 13. Replacement players (among them, former Boston Red Sox pitcher Dennis "Oil Can" Boyd) were reportedly guaranteed US$5,000 for reporting to spring training and another $5,000 if they made the Opening Day roster. Declared Selig, "We are committed to playing the 1995 season and will do so with the best players willing to play."
Baltimore Orioles owner Peter Angelos, on the other hand, announced that his team wouldn't use replacement players (due in no small part to the fact that Cal Ripken, Jr. was going for Lou Gehrig's consecutive games record, but mainly due to Angelos's career as a union side attorney). On March 20, Angelos's Orioles canceled the remainder of their spring training games because of the team's refusal to use replacement players. The next day, the Maryland House of Delegates approved legislation to bar teams playing at Camden Yards from using replacement players.
On March 26, the MLB announced that the 1995 season would be reduced from 162 games per team to 144 games per team as a result of the use of replacement players.
In addition to Peter Angelos's problems, Detroit Tigers manager Sparky Anderson was put on an involuntary leave of absence as he refused to manage replacement players. Two days after Anderson's punishment, the Toronto Blue Jays assigned manager Cito Gaston and his coaching staff to work with minor league players so that they wouldn't have to deal with replacement players. On March 14, the players' union announced that it would not settle the strike if replacement players were used in regular season games, and if results were not voided. On March 28, the Ontario Labour Board announced that replacement umpires would not be allowed to work Blue Jays home games. Under the Ontario labor law then in force, replacement workers were not permitted to be used during a strike or lockout. The Blue Jays opted to play their home games at their Spring Training facility in Dunedin, Florida as long as replacement players were used. This would have made them the first American League team to play home games in Florida, 3 years before the now-Tampa Bay Rays (who play in the same division as the Blue Jays) began play.
Michael Jordan's baseball career shortened by strike
Following his first retirement following just prior to the start of the 1993-94 NBA season, former Chicago Bulls star Michael Jordan surprised the sports world by signing a minor league baseball contract with the Chicago White Sox. He reported to spring training at the White Sox facility, which was then located in Sarasota, Florida (the White Sox would eventually move their spring training to Tuscon, Arizona in 1998), and was assigned to the team's minor league system on March 31, 1994. Jordan has stated this decision was made to pursue the dream of his father James, who had always envisioned his son as a Major League Baseball player and whose murder had prompted Jordan's retirement from the NBA. The White Sox were another team owned by Bulls owner Jerry Reinsdorf, who continued to honor Jordan's basketball contract during the years he played baseball. In 1994, Jordan played for the Birmingham Barons, a Double-A minor league affiliate of the Chicago White Sox, batting .202 with three home runs, 51 runs batted in, 30 stolen bases, and 11 errors. He also appeared for the Scottsdale Scorpions in the 1994 Arizona Fall League, batting .252 against the top prospects in baseball.
On February 17, 1995 Jordan celebrated his 32nd birthday in Sarasota as the White Sox opened spring training. On March 2, 1995 Jordan, having vowed not to take the field as a replacement player, was left off the White Sox exhibition roster and left spring training. Shortly after he left speculation began that he would not be returning to baseball at all, even if the strike was to be settled, and would instead attempt to rejoin the Bulls. This speculation intensified a week later as Jordan was spotted at the Bulls' training facility. On March 18, 1995, Jordan confirmed the rumors and with a two-word press release reading "I'm back", he announced that his baseball career was over and that he would be returning to basketball. Jordan never tried baseball again, and retired from the Bulls for a second time in 1998.
Television deal collapses
Following the end of the 1993 season, CBS Sports lost the rights to broadcast baseball games on television. Production of nationally televised games was taken over by MLB itself, which sold the games as brokered programming to ABC and NBC as part of a joint venture that was referred to as The Baseball Network. Originally, the idea was for ABC and NBC to share a slate of games aired in prime time during the week at various points of the season, with ABC airing games mostly on Monday nights and NBC airing games on Friday nights, with the two networks alternating coverage of the All-Star Game and World Series and splitting the Division and League Championship Series between them.
Originally, the agreement was to run for six seasons and end in 1999, with ABC and NBC airing the World Series and All-Star Game three times each. The strike, however, resulted in ABC losing out on two weeks of coverage and the World Series and NBC losing out on all of its alloted regular season games. MLB and the local NBC and ABC stations lost a combined $595 million in advertising revenue, and both networks announced that they would be opting out of the deal after the shortened 1995 season with NBC in particular vowing to never again do business with MLB. Because of the strike, the 1995 World Series had to be split between the networks as per the contract, with ABC airing the first, third, and fifth games and NBC the second, fourth, and decisive sixth.
Following the 1995 season MLB entered into an agreement with Fox Sports that would restore the Saturday afternoon Game of the Week and give the network exclusive rights to over-the-air regular season broadcasts. NBC, after earlier expressing desires not to air any further baseball games, reconsidered and negotiated a contract similar to the one they had just broken. While NBC would not air any further regular season games, the network retained its rights to air the All-Star Game in even numbered years that it had before and kept the rights to air the World Series in odd numbered years. From 1996 until 2000, the League Championship Series would alternate between Fox and NBC, with the network airing the World Series carrying the National League Championship series as well. NBC and Fox were to share coverage of the Division Series with ESPN. This contract, as noted above, stayed in effect until the end of the 2000 season when Fox and its sibling networks gained exclusive coverage of the entire baseball season, but ESPN regained its Division Series rights in 2002 after Disney acquired Fox Family Channel, where the games were airing.
On March 28, the players voted to return to work if a U.S. District Court judge supported the National Labor Relations Board's unfair labor practices complaint against the owners (which was filed on March 27). By a vote of 27–3, owners supported the use of replacement players. The strike ended when future Supreme Court justice Sonia Sotomayor issued a preliminary injunction against the owners on March 31. On Sunday, April 2, 1995, the day before the season was scheduled to start with the replacement players, the strike came to an official end at 232 days. Judge Sotomayor's decision received support from a panel of the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, which denied the owners' request to stay the ruling.
As part of the terms of the injunction, the players and owners were to be bound to the terms of the expired collective bargaining agreement until a new one could be reached and the start of the season would be postponed three weeks, with teams playing an abbreviated 144-game season instead of a 162-game season.
On the first days of the 1995 season, the fans showed that they were angry and declared the strike as an act of war. Attendance at the games plummeted, as did television ratings, as was the case (to a lesser extent) during the last significant players strike in 1981.
Prior to Friday, August 12, 1994, a total of 50,010,016 fans had attended the 1,600 MLB regular season games played from Sunday, April 3 to Thursday, August 11, for an average of 31,256 per game. In the 2,016 games of the 1995 MLB regular season, only 50,416,880 fans attended, for an average attendance of just 25,008 per game. This represented a decline in attendance of 20% from 1994 to 1995.
Fans who showed up demonstrated their anger and frustration, and booed the players for their rusty fundamentals, shoddy defense, and also booed frequent high-scoring contests; the strike was seen as the worst work stoppage in sports history, leaving the game, the fans, and the sports world shaken and angry.
Among the major examples of fan protests:
- Three men wearing T-shirts emblazoned with "Greed" leaped onto the field at Shea Stadium to a standing ovation, and tossed $160 in $1 bills at the player's feet before being restrained by security, who were loudly booed as the men were escorted from the field.
- In Cincinnati, one fan paid for a plane to fly over Riverfront Stadium that carried a banner reading "Owners & Players: To hell with all of you!"
- Fans in Pittsburgh disrupted the Opening Day game between the Montreal Expos and the Pittsburgh Pirates by throwing various objects on the field, causing a 17 minute delay before being warned that the game would be declared a forfeit to the Expos; however, they continued to boo afterwards.
- In Detroit, fans hurled beer bottles, cans, baseballs, cigarette lighters, and a hubcap onto the field, causing a 12 minute delay, while also booing and holding up signs saying "Field of
DreamsGreed" and "Strike, Owner$ Win, Player$ Win, Fans Lose".
- While 50,425 fans showed up for the New York Yankees' home opener, it was the smallest opening day crowd at Yankee Stadium since 1990. MLBPA President Donald Fehr attended the game, angering many fans who blamed him for ruining their team's postseason chances and what would have been Don Mattingly's postseason debut; fans booed him and yelled "You ruined the game!" in response to Fehr having attended the last game played at Yankee Stadium before the strike, and also booed Fehr as he left the stadium; one fan also held up a sign saying "$HAME ON YOU!", to which Fehr responded by flipping off the fan.
- The opening games were played with replacement umpires, the first time since 1984 that replacement umpires were used.
On August 3, 1995, the Senate Judiciary Committee sent a bill calling for the partial repeal of baseball's antitrust exemption to the full Senate. The vote was just 9–8. On August 9, George Nicolau, baseball's impartial arbitrator since 1986, was fired by Major League owners. On September 29, 1995, a three-judge panel in New York voted unanimously to uphold the injunction that brought the end to the strike in April 1995. The owners had appealed the injunction issued on March 31, but the panel said the Players Relations Committee had illegally attempted to eliminate free agency and salary arbitration.
Replacement players on World Series championship teams
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In 1998-2002 and 2004, certain players who were part of the World Series-winning New York Yankees, Arizona Diamondbacks, Anaheim Angels and Boston Red Sox were not permitted to have their names or likenesses on commemorative merchandise because they had been declared replacement players for having participated in the 1995 spring training. The players who were noted are Shane Spencer of the 1998, 1999 and 2000 New York Yankees, Damian Miller of the 2001 Arizona Diamondbacks, Brendan Donnelly of the 2002 Anaheim Angels and Kevin Millar of the 2004 Boston Red Sox.
The names or likenesses of replacement players may also not be published in officially-licensed video and tabletop games.
Arguably the largest impact was to the Montreal Expos. Not only did their dream season (first in MLB, 6 games ahead of the Atlanta Braves in NL East) end abruptly, they were forced to lower payroll and sell off their four highest paid stars in the span of less than a week in spring training, even further because of losses due to the strike, and with the strike almost completely destroying its fan base, the Expos would never recover from the incident. Despite respectable performances in 1996, 2002 and 2003, the team never came close to contending again; the team was purchased by Major League Baseball after the 2001 season, and would become the focus of contraction rumors until the team was moved to Washington, D.C., to become the Washington Nationals after the 2004 season.
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- Gildea, William (August 7, 1994). "'We Picked a Bad Year to Have a Good Year'; Walkout May Halt Players' March On History Books". The Washington Post. p. D1.
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- Hohlfeld, Neil (August 11, 1994). "Jeff Bagwell hit by pitch, hand broken". The Houston Chronicle. p. A1.
- Keegan, Tom (September 11, 1994). "Owners try on global thinking cap". The Baltimore Sun. p. 2C.
- Jacobson, Steve (September 11, 1994). "Sympathy For Season Of Promise". Newsday. p. 17. "Look at the standings, penciled on the tombstone as an epitaph for this season. The Yankees had the biggest lead in any of the divisions. There was every chance in the world they were going to the World Series, which used to be their eminent domain. And now this. It's the great irony."
- Felser, Larry (August 21, 1994). "Yankee Fans Seeking Consolation". The Buffalo News. p. C2. "Of all the baseball fans saddened by the strike...none are quite as sad as those of the New York Yankees."
- Heyman, Jon (July 14, 1994). "Mr. October? Don has best chance yet to end drought". Newsday. p. 78. "Barring an October-devouring strike, this is Mattingly's best chance to reach the postseason."
- Heyman, Jon (September 16, 1994). "Mattingly: It Just Wasn't Meant to Be". Newsday. p. A110. "The...(strike)...canceled...his well-chronicled hopes to appear for the first time in a postseason game."
- Curry, Jack (September 15, 1994). "All the Magic Is Gone From the Yankees' Numbers". The New York Times. p. B11. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
- Curry, Jack (August 7, 1994). "Flashback to '81: Another Lead, Another Strike". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved August 19, 2010.
- Kawakami, Tim (August 10, 1994). "'81, '94 Yankees Both Winners but Worlds Apart in Personality". The Los Angeles Times. p. C2. "Those who followed the 1981 New York Yankees...can't help but notice potential similarities with this year's first-place Yankee club."
- Dodd, Mike (January 5, 1995). "Congress introduces antitrust-repeal bills". USA Today. p. 1C.
- Newhan, Ross (January 5, 1995). "Teams Prepare for Replacements Baseball: Committee discusses contingencies for playing in '95". The Los Angeles Times. p. C2. "Five bills pertaining to repeal of the game's antitrust exemption were introduced in Congress on the first day of the new session."
- Chass, Murray (January 6, 1995). "Unsigned Players Called Free Agents". The New York Times. p. B12.
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- Maske, Mark (April 30, 1995). "After the Strike, Baseball's Disgusted Fans Decide to Strike Back". The Washington Post. p. A1.
- Kornheiser, Tony (April 29, 1995). "Baseball Is Suffering A Silent Spring". The Washington Post. p. H1.
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- Associated Press (August 10, 2004). "1994 strike was a low point for baseball". ESPN.com. Retrieved September 21, 2012.
- Associated Press (April 27, 1995). "Smaller but Angrier Crowds See Openers Baseball". The Los Angeles Times. p. C8.
- Associated Press (April 29, 1995). "Mets Give Fans Their Money's Worth". The Buffalo News. p. C9.
- Weir, Tom (April 27, 1995). "Reds fans still love the game, hate losing". USA Today. p. 3C.
- Smizik, Bob (April 27, 1995). "Pirates give fans chance to spill venom". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. p. D1.
- Baseball's Darkest Days
- Chass, Murray (April 27, 1995). "BASEBALL; Ceremony, Circus Act And Even Some Fans Greet Game's Return". The New York Times. p. B11. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Justice, Richard (August 12, 1994). "With Baseball's Last Out, a Strike". The Washington Post. p. A1. "Fehr attended yesterday afternoon's New York Yankees-Toronto Blue Jays game at Yankee Stadium."
- Stark, Jayson (August 12, 1994). "Major League Baseball Goes on Strike". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A1. "Fehr went to Yankee Stadium, by invitation of Yankees broadcaster Tony Kubek, and spent time in both the Yankees' and Blue Jays' TV booths during the final pre-strike game in New York."
- Boswell, Thomas (April 27, 1995). "Fans Allow Yankees Leeway on Strike Zone". The Washington Post. p. B1.
- Sullivan, Paul (April 27, 1995). "This Time, Fans Make Statement". The Chicago Tribune. p. Sports.3.
- MacDonald, L. (September 30, 2004). "The Expos' demise was a decade in the making". The National Post. p. A17.
- Johnson, Chuck (September 13, 2004). "'94 Expos wonder what could have been". USA Today. p. 2C. Retrieved April 30, 2012.
- Lapointe, Joe (September 30, 2004). "To Fans, Expos' Goodbye Is More Bitter Than Sweet". The New York Times. p. D6.
- Sheinin, Dave (September 30, 2004). "For Fans, It's Time To Say Goodbye". The Washington Post. p. D15.
- Mnookin, Seth (2006). Feeding the Monster. How Money, Smarts, and Nerve Took a Team to the Top. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-8681-2.
- Boeck, Scott (September 30, 2004). "Expos relocation timeline". USA Today. p. 2C.
- Montgomery, Lori; Heath, Thomas (September 30, 2004). "Baseball's Coming Back to Washington". The Washington Post. p. A01.
- BW Online: A Business Week article from June 27, 1994 about the possibility of a baseball strike and its economic impact on the involved parties.
- YouTube: An episode of the Charlie Rose show from August 1, 1994 devoted entirely to the looming possibility of a baseball strike.
- CBC TV Archives: A news report from August 12, 1994 about the strike and its impact on the Montreal Expos (with a prediction that the 1994 World Series would still be held).
- Time.com: An article in Time from August 22, 1994 about the (then) ongoing strike.
- USMayors.org: A report by the United States Conference of Mayors from August 1994 about the financial impact of the strike on cities with baseball teams.
- CBC Radio Archives: A news report from September 14, 1994, covering MLB's announcement of the canceled postseason and its impact on the Montreal Expos.
- YouTube: An episode of the Charlie Rose show from September 14, 1994, in which guest Bob Costas discusses the cancellation of the postseason.
- Baseball Almanac: "The Strike of 1994", a poem by Don Angel written in February 1995.
- BLS.gov: An article in Monthly Labor Review from March 1997 by Paul Staudohar about the 1994 strike and its lingering problems for the league.
- SportsIllustrated.CNN.com: A Sports Illustrated article from August 26, 2002 about victims of the 1994 strike (written from the perspective of another possible strike in 2002).
- Cincinnati.com: A Cincinnati Enquirer article from August 12, 2004 providing a brief overview of the 1994 strike and its impact on baseball history.
- USAToday.com: A USA Today article from September 12, 2004 about baseball's recovery from the 1994 strike and the possibility for further conflict in the league.
- Baseball History – 1990 to 1999
- 1994-95 strike effects are still felt, at least on video games: By Scott Kendrick (February 3, 2010)
- Did the 1994-95 strike cost Fred McGriff the Hall of Fame?: By Matt Snyder | Baseball Writer (CBSSports.com)
- Millionaires vs. Billionaires: Major League Baseball Strike 1994-95