1995 in paleontology

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Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because mankind has encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred in the year 1995.

Molluscs[edit]

Bivalves[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Camya[2]

gen et sp nov

valid

Hinz-Schallreuter

Early Cambrian

Bornholm

 Denmark

type and only species Camya asy

Pojetaia ostseensis[2]

sp nov

nomen dubium

Hinz-Schallreuter

Early Cambrian

Bornholm

 Denmark

Probable synonym of P. runnegari

Arthropods[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Arachnids[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Uintascorpio[3]

gen et sp nov

valid

Perry

Middle Eocene

Green River Formation

 USA

only scorpion from the Green River Formation

Insects[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Aphaenogaster amphioceanica[4]

Sp nov

Valid

De Andrade

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

A myrmicin ant

Aphaenogaster praerelicta[4]

Sp nov

Valid

De Andrade

Burdigalian

Mexican amber

 Mexico

A myrmicin ant

Baltimartyria[5]

gen nov

valid

Skalski

Early Eocene

Baltic amber

new genus for Micropterix proavitella

Dryinus grimaldii[6]

sp nov

valid

Olmi

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

first fossil Dryinus lamellatus group species

Electrinocellia[7]

subfam, gen et sp nov

Valid

Engel

Eocene

Baltic amber

sister taxon to the rest of Inocelliidae

Fish[edit]

Newly named bony fish[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Asiamericana[8]

Gen et sp nov

dubious

Nesov

Turonian

Bissekty Formation

 Uzbekistan

A possible Ichthyodectid.
Originally described as possibe Spinosurid teeth

Archosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named dinosaurs[edit]

  • Fossil hunters working on behalf of the Royal Saskatchewan Museum discover a large coprolite from a theropod dinosaur in Maastrichtian strata. In 1997 it is sent to coprolite specialist Karen Chin, who determines that this specimen of fossilized feces was attributable to Tyrannosaurus rex. One year later, in 1998, Karen Chin and others publish a joint paper in Nature announcing the finding.
  • Paul Sereno lead an expedition to the Kem Kem region of southeastern Morocco. Among the fossils discovered is a partial skull of Carcharodontosaurus saharicus. Significantly, it preserves a "complete and undistorted braincase" which would later be described in detail along with the structure of the inner ear of C. saharicus by Hans C. E. Larsson in 2001.[9]

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list[10] and Dr. Jeremy Montague's dinosaur genus database.[11]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Achelousaurus[12]

Gen et sp nov

valid

Sampson

Campanian

Two Medicine Formation

 USA

A centrosaurin ceratopsian

Ampelosaurus[13]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Le Loeuff

Maastrichtian

Marnes Rouges Inferieures Formation

 France

A titanosaur

"Brontoraptor"

nomen nudum

Redman

Bugenasaura[14]

Gen et sp nov

Junior Synonym of Thescelosaurus[15]

Galton

Lancian

Hell Creek Formation

 USA

Chindesaurus[16]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Long & Murry

"Dinotyrannus"[17]

Gen et sp nov

Junior Synonym of Tyrannosaurus

Olshevsky

Lancian

Hell Creek Formation

 USA

Einiosaurus[12]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Sampson

Campanian

Two Medicine Formation

 USA

A centrosaurin ceratopsian

Genusaurus[18]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Accarie et al

Giganotosaurus[19]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Coria & Salgado

Jainosaurus[20]

Valid

Hunt, Lockley, Lucas, & Meyer

"Jenghizkhan"[21]

Junior Synonym

Olshevsky

Junior Synonym of Tarbosaurus

Jingshanosaurus[22]

Valid

Zhang & Yang

Kulceratops[8]

Valid

Nesov

"Liassaurus"[23]

nomen nudum

Welles, Powell, & Pickering

"Merosaurus"[23]

nomen nudum

Welles, Powell, & Pickering

Niobrarasaurus[24]

Valid

Carpenter, Dilkes, & Weishampel

Coniacian-Santonian

Niobrara Formation

 United States

A nodosaurid.

Saurophaganax[25]

Valid

Chure

Kimmeridgian-Tithonian

Morrison Formation

 United States

An allosaurid.

"Stygivenator"[17]

Gen nov

junior synonym

Olshevsky

Lancian

Hell Creek Formation

 USA

Junior synonym of Tyrannosaurus

Texasetes[26]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Coombs

late Albian-early Cenomanian

Paw Paw Formation

 United States

A nodosaurid.

"Walkersaurus"[23]

nomen nudum

Welles, Powell & Pickering vide: Pickering

Bajocian

 England

material later named Duriavenator

Pterosaurs[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Plataleorhynchus

gen et sp nov

Valid

Howse and Milner

Early Cretaceous

Purbeck Limestone

 England

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716. 
  2. ^ a b Elicki, O.; Gürsu, S. (2009). "First record of Pojetaia runnegari Jell, 1980 and Fordilla Barrande, 1881 from the Middle East (Taurus Mountains, Turkey) and critical review of Cambrian bivalves". Paläontologische Zeitschrift 83 (2): 267–291. doi:10.1007/s12542-009-0021-9. 
  3. ^ Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Soleglad, Michael E.; Fet, Victor (2004). "A redescription and family placement of Uintascorpio Perry, 1995 from the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation (middle Eocene) of Colorado, USA (Scorpiones: Buthidae)". Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 10: 7–16. ISSN 1576-9518. 
  4. ^ a b De Andrade, M. L. (1995). "The ant genus Aphaenogaster in Dominican and Mexican amber (Amber Collection Stuttgart: Hymenoptera, Formicidae. IX: Pheidolini)". Stuttgarter Beitrage zur Naturkunde (B) 223: 1–11. 
  5. ^ Mey, Wolfram (2011). "On the systematic position of Baltimartyria Skalski, 1995 and description of a new species from Baltic amber (Lepidoptera, Micropterigidae)". ZooKeys 130: 331–342. doi:10.3897/zookeys.130.1480. 
  6. ^ Olmi, Massimo; Guglielmino, Adalgisa (2011). Revision of fossil species of Dryinus belonging to lamellatus group, with description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Dryinidae) 130. pp. 505–514. doi:10.3897/zookeys.130.133. 
  7. ^ Engel, M.S. (1995). "A new fossil snake-fly species from Baltic amber (Raphidioptera: Inocelliidae)". Psyche 102 (3-4): 187–193. doi:10.1155/1995/23626. 
  8. ^ a b Nesov, L.A. (1995). "Dinosaurs of northern Eurasia: new data about assemblages, ecology and palaeogeography (in Russian)". University of Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg: 156. 
  9. ^ "Introduction," Chure (2001). Pg. 20.
  10. ^ Olshevsky, George. "Dinogeorge's Dinosaur Genera List". Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  11. ^ Montague, Jeremy. "Dr. Montague's Database". Retrieved 2008-10-29. 
  12. ^ a b Sampson, S.D. (1995). "Two new horned dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana, with a phylogenetic analysis of the Centrosaurinae (Ornithischia: Ceratopsidae)". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15 (4): 743–360. 
  13. ^ Le Loeuff, J. (1995). "Ampelosaurus atacis (nov. gen., nov. sp), un nouveau Titanosauridae (Dinosauria, Saurpoda) du Crétacé Supérieur de la haute vallée de l'Aude (France)". C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris. 321 (sér. II a): 693–696. 
  14. ^ Galton, P.M. 1995. The species of the basal hypsilophodontid dinosaur Thescelosaurus Gilmore (Ornithischia; Ornithopoda) from the Late Cretaceous of North America. Neues Jahrbuch fuer Geologie und Palaeontologie. Abhandlungen 198 (3): pp. 297-311.
  15. ^ Boyd, C. A.; Brown, C. M.; Scheetz, R. D.; Clarke, J. A. (2009). "Taxonomic revision of the basal neornithischian taxa Thescelosaurus and Bugenasaura". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29 (3): 758–770. doi:10.1671/039.029.0328. 
  16. ^ Long, R.A. and P.A. Murry. 1995. Late Triassic (Carnian and Norian) tetrapods from the Southwestern United States. New Mexico Museum Nat. History Sci. Bull. 4: pp. 1-254.
  17. ^ a b Olshevsky vide Olshevsky, G. 1995. The Origin and Evolution of the Tyrannosaurids. Kyoryugaku Saizensen [Dino-Frontline] 9: 92-119 (part 1); 10:75-99 (part 2)
  18. ^ Accarie, H., B. Beaudoin , J. Dejax, G. Fries, J.-C. Michard, and P. Taquet. 1995. Decouverte d’un Dinosaure Theropode nouveau (Genusaurus sisteronis n. g., n. sp.) dans l’Albien marin de Sisteron (Alpes de Haute-Provence, France) et extension au Cretace inferieur de la lignee ceratosaurienne. Compte rendu hebdomadaire des seances de l’Academie des Sciences Paris, tomo 320, 2nd series : pp. 327-334.
  19. ^ Coria, R.A. and L. Salgado. 1995. A new giant carnivorous dinosaur from the Cretaceous of Patagonia. Nature. 377: pp. 224-226.
  20. ^ Hunt, A.P., M.G. Lockley, S.G. Lucas, and C.A. Meyer. 1995 [George Olshevsky notes 1995, not 1994]. The global sauropod fossil record. In:Aspects of sauropod paleobiology (M.G. Lockley, V.F. dos Santos, C.A. Meyer, and A. Hunt, eds,). Revista de Geociencias, Gaia 10: pp. 261-279.
  21. ^ Olshevsky vide Olshevsky, G [with illustrations by T.L. Ford and S. Yamamoto]. 1995. The Origin and Evolution of the Ornithopods. Kyoryugaku Saizensen [Dino-Frontline] 11: 98-119 (part 1); 12: 96-117 (part 2); 13: 97-109 (part 3, 1996);
  22. ^ Zhang, Y., and Z. Yang. 1994 [George Olshevsky notes 1995, not 1994]. A new complete ostology of Prosauropoda in Lufeng Basin Yunnan China, Jingshanosaurus. Yunnan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Kunming, China: pp. 1-100.
  23. ^ a b c Welles, H. P. Powell & Pickering vide Pickering, S. 1995. A fractal scaling in dinosaurology project (2nd revised printing). Capitola, California: 478 pages;
  24. ^ Carpenter, K., D. Dilkes, and D.B. Weishampel. 1995. The Dinosaurs of the Niobrara Chalk Formation (Upper Cretaceous, Kansas). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 15 (2): pp. 275-297.
  25. ^ Chure, D.J. 1995. A reassessment of the gigantic theropod Saurophagus maximus from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Oklahoma, USA. Sixth Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota: pp. 103-106.
  26. ^ Coombs, W.P. 1995. A nodosaurid ankylosaur (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Lower Cretaceous of Texas. J. Vert. Paleontol. 15 (2):pp. 298-312.