1996 Manchester bombing

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Manchester bombing
Part of The Troubles
Fire engine with extended ladder in a street full of rubble
Corporation Street after the bombing
Location Corporation Street,
Manchester, England
Date 15 June 1996
11:17[1] (BST)
Target Manchester city centre
Attack type
Van bomb
Deaths 0
Non-fatal injuries
212[1]
Perpetrators Provisional IRA

The 1996 Manchester bombing was an attack carried out by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) on Saturday 15 June 1996 in Manchester, England. The 3,300-pound (1,500 kg) bomb, placed in a van on Corporation Street in Manchester city centre, targeted the city's infrastructure and economy and caused widespread damage, estimated by insurers at £700 million (£1.1 billion as of 2014). The IRA had sent telephoned warnings about 90 minutes before the bomb detonated. The area was evacuated, but the bomb squad were unable to defuse the bomb in time. Two hundred and twelve people were injured, but there were no fatalities.

Since 1970 the Provisional IRA had been waging a campaign with the ultimate goal of a united Ireland. Although Manchester had been the target of IRA bombs before 1996, it had not been subjected to an attack on this scale; the biggest bomb detonated in Great Britain during peacetime.[2] The bombing was condemned by the British and Irish governments, along with the US President, Bill Clinton. Five days after the blast the IRA issued a statement in which it claimed responsibility, but regretted causing injury to civilians.

Several buildings near the explosion were damaged beyond repair and had to be demolished, while many more were closed for months for structural repairs. Most of the rebuilding work was completed by the end of 1999, at a cost of £1.2 billion, although redevelopment continued until 2005. At the time of the explosion England was playing host to the Euro 96 football championships; a match between Russia and Germany was scheduled for the following day at Old Trafford, and the city had the year before won its bid to host the 2002 Commonwealth Games. The perpetrators of the attack have not been caught, and Greater Manchester Police have conceded it is unlikely that anyone will be charged in connection with the bombing.[3]

Background[edit]

Following the 12th century Norman invasion of Ireland and the Tudor conquest of Ireland beginning in the 1530s, Ireland was largely under English rule by the end of the Nine Years' War in 1603.[4] The Irish revolutionary period of the early 20th century resulted in Ireland being partitioned in 1921 under the terms of the Government of Ireland Act 1920.[5] The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) was formed from the old Irish Republican Army between 1969 and 1971, with the aim of achieving the reunification of Ireland. It was supported by arms and funding from Libya[6] and from groups in the United States.[7][8] The IRA used violence to achieve its aims until 1994, despite intermittent truces.[9] The Downing Street Declaration of 1993 allowed Sinn Féin, the IRA's political arm,[10][11] to participate in talks about the future of Northern Ireland on condition that it called a cease-fire. On 31 August 1994, the IRA announced its "complete cessation of military operations", but that ended on 9 February 1996, when it detonated a bomb in Canary Wharf, killing two people.[12] The IRA then planted five other devices in London within the space of 10 weeks.[13]

Manchester had been the target of earlier IRA bombs. A man was imprisoned for 15 years in 1975 for placing two firebombs in Manchester city centre in 1973–1974. In February 1974, a bomb exploded in Manchester Magistrates' Court, injuring twelve people. IRA bomb factories were discovered in Fallowfield and Salford and five men were imprisoned for planned attacks in North West England.[12] Manchester may have been chosen because the city was one of the hosts for the Euro 96 football championships, attended by visitors and media organisations from all over Europe, guaranteeing the IRA what Margaret Thatcher called the "oxygen of publicity". A match between Russia and Germany was scheduled to take place at Old Trafford just over 24 hours after the bomb exploded,[14] and Manchester had the previous year won its bid to host the 2002 Commonwealth Games,[15] at the time the biggest multi-sport event ever to be staged in Britain.[16]

Details of the bombing[edit]

Discovery[edit]

Three photographs arranged one on top of the other, taken from the air. The first shows a white truck parked outside a tall building. The second shows a sheet of flame, and the third, taken from further away than the first, shows a tall mushroom-shaped cloud rising into the sky above the surrounding buildings.
Stills taken from India 99, a Greater Manchester Police helicopter, showing the Ford Cargo truck moments before the blast, the explosion taking place, and the resulting smoke plume over the city, dwarfing the adjacent 23-storey high-rise, Arndale House.

At about 9:20 am on Saturday 15 June 1996, a red and white Ford Cargo truck was parked on Corporation Street, outside the Marks & Spencer store, near the Arndale Centre.[1] CCTV footage shows the truck abandoned on yellow lines by two hooded men. Within three minutes a traffic warden had issued the vehicle with a parking ticket and called for its removal.[17] At about 9:40 am, Granada Studios on Quay Street received a telephone call claiming that there was a bomb at the corner of Corporation Street and Cannon Street and that it would explode in one hour. The caller had an Irish accent and gave an IRA codeword so that police would know the threat was genuine.[1][18] Four other telephoned warnings were sent to television/radio stations, newspapers and a hospital.[19][20]

The first policeman to arrive on the scene noticed wires running from the truck's dashboard through a hole into the back and reported that he had found the bomb. Forensic experts later estimated that the truck contained a 3,300-pound (1,500 kg) mixture of semtex, a military-grade plastic explosive, and ammonium nitrate fertiliser,[21] a cheap and easily obtainable explosive used extensively by the IRA.[22] Components of what may have been a tremble trigger were also found later, designed to detonate the bomb if it was tampered with.[23]

Evacuation[edit]

At 10:00 am, there were an estimated 75,000–80,000 people shopping and working in the vicinity. An evacuation of the area was undertaken by police officers from Bootle Street police station, supplemented by officers drafted into Manchester to control the football crowds. The police forces were helped by security guards from local shops.[1][24]

One group worked to move people away from the bomb while another, assisted by firefighters and security guards, established a continuously expanding cordon around the area to prevent entry.[1][25] By 11:10 am the cordon was at the maximum extent that available manpower would permit, about a quarter of a mile (0.40 km) from the truck and 1.5 miles (2.4 km) in circumference.[26]

Explosion[edit]

The bomb squad arrived from their Liverpool base at 10:46 am and attempted to defuse the bomb using a remote-controlled device, but they ran out of time. The bomb exploded at 11:17 am, causing an estimated £700 million (£1.1 billion as of 2014)[27] of damage and affecting a third of the city centre's retail space. Marks & Spencer, the sky bridge connecting it with the Arndale Centre, and neighbouring buildings were destroyed.[1] It was the largest peacetime bomb ever detonated in Great Britain,[12] and the blast created a mushroom cloud which rose 300 metres (1,000 feet) from the ground.[28] Glass and masonry were thrown into the air, and behind the police cordon – up to 0.5 mi (0.80 km) away, people were showered by falling debris.[29] There were no fatalities, but 212 people were injured. A search of the area for casualties was confused by mannequins blasted from shop windows, which were sometimes mistaken for bodies. Hospitals across Greater Manchester were made ready to receive those injured in the blast.[1] The police commandeered a Metrolink tram to take 50 of the casualties to North Manchester General Hospital, which treated 79 in total; a further 80 were cared for at the Manchester Royal Infirmary, and many others were treated in the streets by ambulance crews assisted by doctors and nurses who happened to be in the city centre that morning.[30]

Reaction[edit]

The bombing was condemned by John Major's government, the opposition, and by individual members of parliament (MPs) as a "sickening", "callous" and "barbaric" terrorist attack.[31][32] Sinn Féin was criticised by Taoiseach John Bruton for being "struck mute" on the issue in the immediate aftermath. Bruton described the bombing as "a slap in the face to people who've been trying, against perhaps their better instincts, to give Sinn Féin a chance to show that they could persuade the IRA to reinstate the ceasefire".[33] Early on, Major stated that, "This explosion looks like the work of the IRA. It is the work of a few fanatics and ... causes absolute revulsion in Ireland as it does here".[33] The President of the United States, Bill Clinton, stated he was "deeply outraged by the bomb explosion" and joined Bruton and Major in "utterly condemning this brutal and cowardly act of terrorism".[34] On 20 June 1996, the IRA claimed responsibility for the bombing, though it stated that it "sincerely regretted" causing injury to civilians.[10]

In an effort to allay fears that Manchester's considerable Irish community might be subjected to reprisal attacks, Councillors Richard Leese and Martin Pagel – leader and deputy leader of Manchester City Council respectively – made a public visit to the Irish World Heritage Centre in Cheetham Hill. In the event there were only a few incidents, the most serious of which occurred on the evening of the bomb when a gang of 10 men rampaged through an Irish-themed bar in the centre of Middleton shouting "No Surrender" and smashing furniture and windows.[35] Seven days after the explosion Manchester Council held a family fun day in front of the Town Hall in Albert Square to encourage shoppers and visitors back into the city centre, the first of a "series of events and entertainments".[36] The scheduled Euro 96 football match between Russia and Germany at Old Trafford on the day following the bombing went ahead as planned after the stadium had been heavily guarded overnight and carefully searched; the game, which Germany won 3–0, was watched by a capacity crowd of 50,700.[37]

Investigation[edit]

A damaged traffic light that stood on the corner of the junction between Cross Street and Market Street at the time of the explosion, now in the Museum of Science and Industry

In an effort to trace the route of the Ford Cargo truck, police examined CCTV footage from every major road and motorway taken in England within two days of the bombing. Footage revealed that the truck was driven south along the M1 motorway into London on the Friday afternoon before the attack. It was seen again heading north along the motorway at 7:40 pm, accompanied by a Ford Granada. Detectives surmised that the truck had been loaded with explosives in London and that the Granada was intended to be the getaway vehicle. The truck was last recorded travelling east along the M62 motorway towards Manchester at 8:31 am on the morning of the explosion.[38]

Police in Manchester were aware that their Metropolitan Police colleagues in London were investigating a suspected IRA unit based in the capital, and wondered whether the London unit was responsible for the Manchester bombing. On 15 July, Metropolitan police arrested six men suspected of IRA membership: Donal Gannon, John Crawley, Gerard Hanratty, Robert Morrow, Patrick Martin, and Francis Rafferty. Each was tried and convicted of "conspiracy to cause explosions at National Grid electricity stations", and sentenced to 35 years in jail.[39][40] Police in Manchester meanwhile worked to establish if the men were also responsible for the Manchester bomb.[39]

Their investigation was led by Detective Chief Inspector Gordon Mutch of the Greater Manchester Police (GMP), "astonishingly ... the only person ever charged with a criminal offence in connection with the Manchester bomb".[41] The truck's last registered owner told police that he had sold it to a dealer in Peterborough, who had in turn sold the truck on to a man calling himself Tom Fox, two weeks before the bombing. After the purchase price was delivered in cash by a taxi driver, the dealer was instructed to take the truck to a nearby lorry park, and leave it there with the keys and documents hidden inside.

On checking records of telephone calls made to the dealer, the police discovered that some had been made from a mobile phone registered in Ireland, and on further checking the records of that phone it appeared that the calls were made from locations consistent with the known whereabouts of the Ford truck. One call was to a known IRA member. The phone was last used at 9:23 am on the morning of the bombing, just three minutes after the bombers had positioned their truck in Corporation Street. On 27 June, the phone's registered owner reported that it had been stolen 17 days earlier, but the police felt they had gathered enough evidence to bring a prosecution against the six IRA men held in London.[42]

At a meeting attended by the commander of Special Branch in Manchester, a GMP assistant chief constable and a "senior officer" from the Royal Ulster Constabulary, it was decided, for reasons never made public, not to present the findings of the investigation to the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS); the body responsible for undertaking criminal prosecutions in England. The three may have felt that as the IRA suspects were already in police custody they had ceased to be a threat, or that to pursue the case against them may have jeopardised ongoing undercover operations. It was not until 1998 that the police finally sent their file to the CPS, who decided not to prosecute.[43]

Leak[edit]

Early in 1999, Steve Panter, chief crime reporter for the Manchester Evening News, was leaked classified Special Branch documents naming those suspected of the bombing. The documents also revealed that the man suspected of organising the attack had visited Manchester shortly after the explosion and been under covert police surveillance as he toured the devastated city centre before returning to his home in South Armagh.[44] Suspicion fell on Mutch as the source of the leaked documents after an analysis of mobile phone records placed both him and Panter at the same hotel in Skipton, North Yorkshire, about 40 miles (64 km) from Manchester on the same evening.[45]

On 21 April 1999, the Manchester Evening News named a man it described as "a prime suspect in the 1996 Manchester bomb plot".[46] The newspaper reported that the file sent by Greater Manchester Police to the Crown Prosecution Service contained the sentence: "It is the opinion of the investigating officers of GMP that there is sufficient evidence to charge [him] with being a party in a conspiracy to cause explosions in the United Kingdom."[47] The man denied any involvement.[48] The Attorney General wrote in a letter to a local MP that the advice given to the CPS by an independent lawyer was that "there was not a case to answer on the evidence available ... a judge would stop the case": the Attorney General further wrote that the decision not to prosecute was not influenced by the government. The newspaper also identified the six men arrested in London on 15 July as having planned the attack.[49][50] By July 2000 all six had been released under the terms of the 1998 Belfast Agreement.[51]

As of 2014, Panter and Mutch are the only people to have been arrested in connection with the bombing. Mutch was tried for "misconduct in a public office" during an 11-day trial held in January 2002, but was acquitted. During the trial Panter was found in contempt of court for refusing to reveal his source,[52] an offence punishable by a term of imprisonment without the right of appeal.[53] Greater Manchester Police announced in 2006 that there was no realistic chance of convicting those responsible for the bombing.[54]

Reconstruction[edit]

About twelve buildings in the immediate vicinity of the explosion were severely damaged. Overall, 530,000 square feet (49,000 m2) of retail space and 610,000 square feet (57,000 m2) of office space were put out of use.[55] Insurers paid out £411 million (£700 million as of 2014)[27] in damages for what was at the time one of the most expensive man-made disasters ever,[56] and there was considerable under-insurance.[55] Victims of the bombing received a total of £1,145,971 in compensation from the Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority; one individual received £146,524, the largest amount awarded as a result of this incident.[57]

The location of the blast, 2009

According to Home Office statistics, an estimated 400 businesses within half a mile (0.8 km) of the blast were affected, 40% of which did not recover.[58] The heaviest damage was sustained by the three buildings closest to the bomb: Michael House, comprising a Marks & Spencer store and a six-storey office block; Longridge House, offices for Royal and Sun Alliance, an insurance company; and the Arndale Centre, a shopping mall.[59] Michael House was deemed beyond economic repair and demolished. Marks & Spencer took the opportunity to acquire and demolish the adjacent Longridge House, using the enlarged site for the world's biggest branch of the store.[55] The company's fortunes changed during construction, and Selfridges subsequently co-occupied the building;[60] Marks & Spencer leased part of the Lewis's store in the interim.[59] The frontage of the Arndale was badly damaged and was removed in a remodelling of that part of the city centre.[55]

Coming to Manchester [after the bombing] was a journey I shall never forget. I sat on the train obviously deeply shocked and horrified. I knew that questions would be asked about what we were going to do; what is the right solution. Then I knew what the right solution was – to see this event, horrific as it was, as an opportunity and, no mucking about, we must do things on the grand scale and to the best quality we can.[61]

Michael Heseltine, then-Deputy Prime Minister

The glass domes of the Corn Exchange and the Royal Exchange were blown in. The landlord of the Corn Exchange invoked a force majeure condition in the lease to evict all tenants, and the building was converted into a shopping centre.[62] The dome of the Royal Exchange shifted in the blast; its reconstruction took two and a half years and cost £32 million, paid for by the National Lottery.[63][64]

The possibility of taking the opportunity to rebuild parts of the city centre was raised within days of the bomb. On 26 June 1996, Michael Heseltine, the Deputy Prime Minister, announced an international competition for designs of the redevelopment of the bomb-affected area. Bids were received from 27 entrants, five of whom were invited to submit designs in a second round.[65] It was announced on 5 November 1996 that the winning design was one by a consortium headed by EDAW.[66]

Redevelopment[edit]

Much of the 1960s redevelopment of Manchester's city centre was unpopular with residents. Market Street, close to the explosion and at that time the second busiest shopping street in the UK, was considered by some commentators a "fearful" place, to be "avoid[ed] like the plague".[67] Until Margaret Thatcher's third consecutive election victory in 1987, the staunchly Labour-controlled Manchester Council believed that Manchester's regeneration should be funded solely by public money, despite the government's insistence on only funding schemes with a significant element of private investment. Graham Stringer, leader of Manchester City Council, later admitted that after the 1987 General Election result "there was no get out of jail card. We had gambled on Labour winning the General Election and we lost."[68] Thatcher's victory effectively put paid to Manchester's "socialist experiment", and Stringer shortly afterwards wrote a letter of capitulation to Nicholas Ridley, then Secretary of State for the Environment, saying, "in a nutshell; OK, you win, we'd like to work together with you".[69]

Efforts at improvement before the bombing had in some respects made matters worse, cutting off the area north of the Arndale Centre – the exterior of which was widely unloved – from the rest of the city centre. A large building nearby, now redeveloped as The Printworks and formerly occupied by the Daily Mirror newspaper, had been unoccupied since 1987.[70] Many locals therefore considered that "the bomb was the best thing that ever happened to Manchester",[71] as it cleared the way for redevelopment of the dysfunctional city centre, a view also expressed in 2007 by Terry Rooney, MP for Bradford North. The leader of Manchester City Council, Simon Ashley, responded that "I take exception to his [Rooney's] comments about the IRA bomb. No one who was in the city on that day, who lost their jobs or was scared witless or injured by the blast, would say the bomb was the best thing to happen to Manchester".[72] Sir Gerald Kaufman, MP for Manchester Gorton, stated that the bomb provided the opportunity for redeveloping Manchester city centre, although it was not fully exploited. "The bomb was obviously bad but from a redevelopment point of view, it was a lost opportunity. While the area around St Ann's Square and Deansgate is not disagreeable, if you compare it with Birmingham and its exciting development, we've got nothing to touch that in Manchester".[72] Howard Bernstein, chief executive of Manchester City Council, has been quoted as saying "people say the bomb turned out to be a great thing for Manchester. That's rubbish."[73] There was already substantial regeneration and redevelopment taking place in the city centre before the bombing, in support of the Manchester bid for the 2000 Summer Olympics, its second Olympic bid. Tom Bloxham, chairman of property development group Urban Splash and of the Arts Council England (North West), agreed with Bernstein that the bomb attack was not the trigger for the large-scale redevelopment that has taken place in Manchester since the early 1990s:

Standard red UK pillar box
A pillarbox that survived the bomb blast. A memorial brass plaque commemorates the 1996 bomb.

For me the turning point for Manchester came before the bomb ... it was the second Olympic Games bid [in 1992] when we lost but the city suddenly had a realisation. There was a huge party in Castlefield and people grasped the idea that Manchester should no longer consider itself in competition with the likes of Barnsley and Stockport. It was now up against Barcelona, Los Angeles and Sydney and its aspirations increased accordingly.[74]

Memorials[edit]

A pillar box that survived the blast, despite being yards from the explosion, now carries a small brass plaque recording the bombing. It was removed during construction and redevelopment work, and returned to its original spot when Corporation Street reopened.[75] The plaque reads:

This postbox remained standing almost undamaged on June 15th 1996 when this area was devastated by a bomb. The box was removed during the rebuilding of the city centre and was returned to its original site on
November 22nd 1999

A Thanksgiving service for the "Miracle of Manchester" was held at Manchester Cathedral on 24 July 2002, to coincide with the arrival of the Commonwealth Games baton, attended by Queen Elizabeth II and The Duke of Edinburgh. At 11:17 am on 15 June 2006, a candle was lit at a memorial held at Manchester Cathedral to mark the tenth anniversary of the bombing.[76]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Countdown to terror, BBC, 21 June 2006, retrieved 9 September 2009 
  2. ^ King 2006, p. 139
  3. ^ Atkins, Rebecca (15 June 2006). "Manchester bombers escape trial". BBC. Retrieved 7 May 2011. 
  4. ^ Bartlett & Jeffery 1997, p. 115
  5. ^ Northern Ireland became a distinct region of the United Kingdom, by Order in Council on 3 May 1921 (Statutory Rules & Orders published by authority (SR&O) 1921, No. 533).
  6. ^ Bowyer Bell, J. (1997). The Secret Army: The IRA. Transaction Publishers, pp. 556–571. ISBN 1-56000-901-2
  7. ^ John O'Sullivan (15 February 2005). "The Padre Pio". National Review. Retrieved 21 April 2007. 
  8. ^ John Lloyd (28 October 2002). "Sinn Féin could win the peace". New Statesman. Retrieved 21 April 2007. 
  9. ^ Coogan 2002, p. 365
  10. ^ a b "IRA Admits Manchester Bombing", Los Angeles Times, 20 June 1996, retrieved 8 September 2009 
  11. ^ Coogan 2002, p. 258.
  12. ^ a b c "Context: A quest for real peace", Manchester Evening News, 13 June 2006, retrieved 10 September 2009 
  13. ^ 1996: Huge explosion rocks central Manchester, BBC, 15 June 1996, retrieved 30 October 2009 
  14. ^ King 2006, p. 29
  15. ^ Rowbottom, Mike (3 May 1995), "Manchester Stadium Plan for 2002 Games", The Independent (London), retrieved 22 February 2010 
  16. ^ King 2006, p. 183
  17. ^ King 2006, p. 5
  18. ^ Darnton, John (16 June 1996), "Bomb Believed Set by the I.R.A. Leaves 200 Hurt in British City", The New York Times, retrieved 9 September 2009 
  19. ^ Hylton, Stuart. A History of Manchester. Phillimore, 2003. p.228
  20. ^ Staniforth, Andrew. The Routledge Companion to UK Counter Terrorism. Routledge, 2012. p.83
  21. ^ Lesser et al. 1999, p. 29
  22. ^ Fleming, Nic (31 March 2004), The Cheap and Easy Recipe for Bombs, London: Telegraph Media Group, retrieved 22 February 2010 
  23. ^ King 2006, p. 6
  24. ^ Ball, Graham; Cusick, James; Routledge, Paul; Castle, Stephen (16 June 1996), "IRA's message in blood", The Independent (London), retrieved 9 September 2009 
  25. ^ King 2006, pp. 9–10
  26. ^ King 2006, p. 11
  27. ^ a b UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2013), "What Were the British Earnings and Prices Then? (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  28. ^ Oppenheimer, A. R. (2009). IRA: The Bombs and The Bullets. A History of Deadly Ingenuity. Irish Academic Press, p. 132. ISBN 978-0-7165-2895-1
  29. ^ Cusick, James (17 June 1996), "The Manchester Bombing: Device was 'as big as anything to hit mainland Britain'", The Independent (London), retrieved 10 September 2009 
  30. ^ King 2006, pp. 21–22
  31. ^ "Major blasts 'barbaric bombers'", Lancashire Evening Telegraph, 17 June 1996, retrieved 24 December 2006 
  32. ^ House of Commons Hansard Debate for 19 Jun 1996 (pt. 38), publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved on 24 December 2006.
  33. ^ a b Brown, Colin; McKittrick, David (17 June 1996), "The Manchester Bombing: London and Dublin unite against Sinn Féin", The Independent, retrieved 8 September 2009 
  34. ^ "Statement on the Terrorist Attack in Manchester, United Kingdom", Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents (Government Printing Office) 32 (5), 24 June 1996: 1064, archived from the original on 10 February 2010, retrieved 22 February 2010 
  35. ^ King 2006, pp. 41–44
  36. ^ King 2006, p. 49
  37. ^ King 2006, p. 52
  38. ^ King 2006, pp. 65–66
  39. ^ a b King 2006, p. 67
  40. ^ Streeter, Michael; Boggan, Steve (3 July 1997), "IRA team who planned terror blitz on capital given 35 years", The Independent (London), retrieved 6 March 2010 
  41. ^ King 2006, p. 163
  42. ^ King 2006, pp. 67–69
  43. ^ King 2006, pp. 69–71
  44. ^ King 2006, pp. 163–164
  45. ^ King 2006, pp. 166–167
  46. ^ Panter, Steve (21 April 1999), "We name Manchester bomb suspect", Manchester Evening News 
  47. ^ "Senior officers wanted the arrest of suspect", Manchester Evening News, 21 April 1999 
  48. ^ Craig, Ian (21 May 1999), "We named the right suspect – Why we didn't prosecute McCann, by attorney general", Manchester Evening News 
  49. ^ "Mobile phone calls that plotted a trail to terror", Manchester Evening News, 21 April 1999 
  50. ^ Andrew Nott (28 July 2000), "How cash lost in post linked gang with bomb", Manchester Evening News 
  51. ^ Lester & Panter 2006, p. 43
  52. ^ Lester & Panter 2006, pp. 46–77
  53. ^ King 2006, p. 171
  54. ^ Atkins, Rebecca (15 June 2006), Manchester bombers escape trial, BBC News, retrieved 27 April 2009 
  55. ^ a b c d Williams 2003, pp. 86–87
  56. ^ Sengupata, Kim (28 March 1997), "£411m cost after Manchester bomb sets record", The Independent, retrieved 3 October 2009 
  57. ^ Rooth, Ben (14 June 2006), "IRA Bomb Victims Share GBP1M", Manchester Evening News, retrieved 2 March 2010  (subscription required)
  58. ^ "The cost of terrorism", Panorama (BBC News), 15 May 2004, retrieved 10 September 2009 
  59. ^ a b Parkinson-Bailey 2000, p. 256
  60. ^ Williams 2003, pp. 86–87, 183–7, 218
  61. ^ King 2006, p. 220
  62. ^ Parkinson-Bailey 2000, p. 261
  63. ^ Parkinson-Bailey 2000, p. 256
  64. ^ "Royal Exchange Manchester – Theatre History", Royal Exchange, Manchester, retrieved 27 October 2012 
  65. ^ King 2006, pp. 129–30, 143
  66. ^ Williams 2003, p. 108
  67. ^ Parkinson-Bailey 2000, p. 222
  68. ^ King 2006, pp. 84–85
  69. ^ King 2006, p. 85
  70. ^ King 2006, p. 181
  71. ^ Eaton, Andrew (12 April 2008), "City of Dreams", The Scotsman, retrieved 2 March 2010  (subscription required)
  72. ^ a b "Labour MP in IRA bomb gaffe", Manchester Evening News, 15 March 2007, retrieved 2 March 2010 
  73. ^ Lester & Panter 2006, p. 80
  74. ^ King 2006, p. 218
  75. ^ King 2006, pp. 148–149
  76. ^ Memorial service marks 1996 bomb, BBC News, 15 June 2006, retrieved 18 December 2007 

Bibliography

  • Bartlett, Thomas; Jeffery, Keith (1997), A Military History of Ireland, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-62989-8 
  • Coogan, Tim (2002), The IRA, Palgrave MacMillan, ISBN 0-312-29416-6 
  • King, Ray (2006), Detonation: Rebirth of a City, Clear Publications, ISBN 0-9552621-0-0 
  • Lesser, Ian; Hoffman, Bruce; Arquilla, John; Ronfeldt, David; Zanini, Michele (1999), Countering the New Terrorism, Rand, ISBN 0-8330-2667-4, retrieved 21 July 2010 
  • Lester, Sarah; Panter, Steve, eds. (2006), The Manchester bomb, Manchester: Manchester Evening News, ISBN 0-9549042-7-3 
  • Parkinson-Bailey, John J (2000), Manchester: an architectural history, Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-5606-3 
  • Williams, Gwyndaf (2003), The enterprising city centre: Manchester's development challenge, Spon, ISBN 0-415-25262-8 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 53°29′00″N 2°14′37″W / 53.4833°N 2.2435°W / 53.4833; -2.2435