1997 in spaceflight

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1997 in spaceflight
Cassini-Huygens launch.jpg
Launch of the Cassini and Huygens spacecraft on a Titan IVB
Orbital launches
First 12 January
Last 24 December
Total 89
Catalogued 86
Rockets
Maiden flights M-V
Titan IVB
VLS-1
Retirements Atlas I
Manned flights
Orbital 10
Total travellers 51


Launches[edit]

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Launch site LSP
Payload Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January[edit]

12 January
09:27
United StatesSpace Shuttle Atlantis United StatesKennedy LC-39B United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-81 NASA Low Earth (Mir) Shuttle-Mir flight 22 January
14:23
Successful
United StatesSpaceHab LDM NASA/SpaceHab Low Earth (Atlantis) Logistics
Manned orbital flight with six astronauts
15 January RussiaR-29 RussiaSubmarine, Barents Sea RussiaRussian Navy
Russian Navy Suborbital Missile test 15 January Successful
17 January
01:17
United StatesLGM-30F Minuteman II United StatesVandenberg LF-03 United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesIFT-1 (EKV) US Air Force Suborbital ABM target 17 January Successful
17 January
16:28
United StatesDelta II 7925-9.5 United StatesCape Canaveral LC-17A United StatesBoeing IDS
United StatesGPS IIR-1 US Air Force Intended: Medium Earth Navigation +12 seconds Launch Failure
SRB structural failure caused rocket to explode; First flight of GPS Block IIR satellite
29 January United StatesStorm-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-32 United StatesOrbital Sciences
United StatesMTTV US Air Force Suborbital Target spacecraft 29 January Failure
United StatesMTD-2 US Air Force Suborbital Weapons test
30 January United StatesSR19 United StatesC-130, NAS Point Mugu United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesAltAir (Have Gold) US Air Force Suborbital Test flight +28 seconds Launch Failure
Accidentally destroyed by range safety
30 January
07:30
JapanS-520 JapanUchinoura Pad K JapanISAS
ISAS Suborbital Technology development 30 January Successful
30 January
08:42
United StatesLGM-30G Minuteman III United StatesVandenberg LF-26 United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesFOT GT163GB US Air Force Suborbital Missile test 30 January Successful
30 January
22:04
European UnionAriane 4 (44L) FranceKourou ELA-2 FranceArianespace
United StatesGE 2 GE Americom Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
ArgentinaNahuel 1A Nahuelsa Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
31 January
01:55
RussiaMR-12 RussiaKapustin Yar RussiaAN RF
United StatesFlaksus-1 APL Suborbital Plasma research 31 January Successful

February[edit]

5 February
02:16
RussiaMR-12 RussiaKapustin Yar RussiaAN RF
United StatesFlaksus-2 APL Suborbital Plasma research 5 February Successful
7 February RussiaR-17 Scud Marshall IslandsBigen Island, Aur Atoll United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesWillow Dune US Air Force Suborbital Target 7 February Successful
10 February
05:17
CanadaBlack Brant XII United StatesPoker Flat United StatesNASA
United StatesPHAZE 2 NASA Suborbital Ionosphere research 10 February Successful
10 February
06:30
United StatesCastor- Orbus United StatesNevada Test Site LA-26 United StatesSandia
Sandia Suborbital Rocket test 10 February Successful
10 February
14:09
RussiaSoyuz-U KazakhstanBaikonur Site 1/5 RussiaRoskosmos
RussiaSoyuz TM-25 Roskosmos Low Earth (Mir) Mir EO-23 14 August
12:17
Successful
Manned orbital flight with three cosmonauts
11 February
08:36
CanadaBlack Brant XII United StatesPoker Flat United StatesNASA
United StatesAuroral Turbulance 2 NASA Suborbital Auroral/Ionosphere research 11 February Successful
11 February
08:55
United StatesSpace Shuttle Discovery United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-82 NASA Low Earth (HST) Hubble Servicing Mission 2 21 February
08:32
Successful
Manned orbital flight with seven astronauts
12 February
04:50
JapanM-V JapanUchinoura JapanISAS
JapanHALCA (MUSES-B) ISAS Medium Earth Astronomy In orbit Successful
Maiden flight of M-V; Mission concluded in November 2005
12 February
21:00
United StatesLCLV United StatesWallops Island United StatesOrbital Sciences
United StatesMDT IV Suborbital Target 12 February Successful
14 February
03:47
UkraineTsyklon-3 RussiaPlesetsk Site 32 Russia
RussiaGonets-D1 Gonets SatCom Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
RussiaGonets-D1 Gonets SatCom Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
RussiaGonets-D1 Gonets SatCom Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
RussiaKosmos 2337 (Strela-3) MO RF Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
RussiaKosmos 2338 (Strela-3) MO RF Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
RussiaKosmos 2339 (Strela-3) MO RF Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
17 February
01:42
United StatesAtlas IIAS United StatesCape Canaveral LC-36B United StatesRussiaInternational Launch Services
JapanJCSAT-4 JSAT Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
20 February United StatesUGM-96 Trident I United StatesSubmarine, Eastern Range United StatesUS Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 20 February Successful
20 February United StatesUGM-96 Trident I United StatesSubmarine, Eastern Range United StatesUS Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 20 February Successful
20 February United StatesUGM-96 Trident I United StatesSubmarine, Eastern Range United StatesUS Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 20 February Successful
20 February United StatesUGM-96 Trident I United StatesSubmarine, Eastern Range United StatesUS Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 20 February Successful
22 February United StatesCastor 4B United StatesWake Island United StatesOrbital Sciences
United StatesTCMP II Suborbital Re-entry vehicle test 22 February Successful
23 February IndiaPrithvi IndiaBalasore IndiaDRDO
DRDO Suborbital Missile test 23 February Successful
23 February
10:06
United StatesLCLV United StatesWallops Island United StatesOrbital Sciences
United StatesMDT III Suborbital Target 23 February Successful
23 February
20:20
United StatesTitan IVB (402)/IUS United StatesCape Canaveral LC-40 United StatesLockheed Martin
United StatesUSA-130 (DSP F18) US Air Force Geosynchronous Early warning In orbit Operational
Maiden flight of Titan IVB
26 February
20:00
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Rocket test 26 February Successful

March[edit]

1 March United StatesCastor 4B United StatesWake Island United StatesOrbitalSciences
United StatesTCMP II Suborbital Re-entry vehicle test 1 March Successful
1 March
01:07
European UnionAriane 4 (44P) FranceKourou ELA-2 FranceArianespace
United NationsIntelsat 801 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
4 March
02:00
RussiaStart-1 RussiaSvobodniy Site 5 Russia
RussiaZeya MO RF Low Earth Communications 25 October 1999 Successful
6 March United StatesHera United StatesWhite Sands LC-94 United StatesUS Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital ABM Target 6 March Successful
6 March United StatesTHAAD United StatesWhite Sands United StatesUS Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital ABM Interceptor 6 March Successful
8 March
06:01
United StatesAtlas IIA United StatesCape Canaveral LC-36A United StatesRussiaInternational Launch Services
United StatesTempo 2 TCI Current: Graveyard
Operational: Geosynchronous
Communications In orbit Successful
Suffered damage from a solar flare in April 1997 and was retired on 15 August 2006.
13 March
10:20
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesPoker Flat United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Ionosphere research 13 March Successful
18 March
00:16
United StatesUGM-133 Trident II United StatesSubmarine, Eastern Range United StatesUS Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 18 March Successful
18 March United StatesUGM-133 Trident II United StatesSubmarine, Eastern Range United StatesUS Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 18 March Successful
19 March RussiaR-17 Scud Marshall IslandsBigen Island, Aur Atoll United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesWillow Dune US Air Force Suborbital Target 19 March Successful
25 March
03:15
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands LC-36 United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Ultraviolet astronomy 25 March Successful
Studied Hale-Bopp comet
30 March
03:25
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands LC-36 United StatesNASA
United StatesEUVS NASA Suborbital Ultraviolet astronomy 30 March Successful

April[edit]

4 April
16:47
United StatesTitan 23G United StatesVandenberg SLC-4W United StatesLockheed Martin
United StatesUSA-131 (DMSP 5D2 F14) US Air Force/NOAA Sun-synchronous Meteorology In orbit Successful
4 April
19:20
United StatesSpace Shuttle Columbia United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-83 NASA Low Earth Microgravity research 8 April
18:33
Partial Failure
United StatesSpacelab Long Module 1 NASA Low Earth (Columbia) Spacelab MSL-1
United StatesEDO Pallet NASA Low Earth (Columbia) Cryogenic mission extension pallet
Manned orbital flight with seven astronauts
Fuel cell failure caused the flight to be aborted. Re-flown as STS-94 later the same year.
6 April
03:25
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands LC-36 United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital 6 April Successful
6 April
16:04
RussiaSoyuz-U KazakhstanBaikonur Site 1/5 RussiaRoskosmos
RussiaProgress M-34 Roskosmos Low Earth (Mir) Logistics 2 July
06:31
Partial Failure
Collided with Mir during rendezvous tests on 25 June, heavily damaging the station and permanently depressurizing the Spektr module.
8 April
03:55
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands LC-36 United StatesNASA
United StatesWISP NASA Suborbital Ultraviolet astronomy 8 April Successful
9 April
08:58
RussiaMolniya-M RussiaPlesetsk Site 16/2 Russia
RussiaKosmos 2340 (Oko) MO RF Molniya Early warning In orbit Operational
16 April
23:08
European UnionAriane 4 (44LP) FranceKourou ELA-2 FranceArianespace
ThailandThaicom 3 Thaicom Geosynchronous Communications 2 October 2006 Successful
JapanBSAT-1A BSAT Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Thaicom 3 deorbited after suffering severe power degradation.[1]
17 April UkraineR-36M KazakhstanBaikonur RussiaRVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test 17 April Successful
17 April
13:03
RussiaKosmos-3M RussiaPlesetsk Site 132/1 Russia
RussiaKosmos 2341 (Parus) MO RF Low Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
21 April
11:59
United StatesPegasus-XL SpainStargazer, Gando United StatesOrbital Sciences
SpainMinisat-01 INTA Low Earth Technology development 26 February 2002 Successful
United StatesCelestis Founders Celestis Low Earth Space burial 20 May 2002 Successful
25 April
05:49
United StatesAtlas I United StatesCape Canaveral LC-36B United StatesRussiaInternational Launch Services
United StatesGOES 10 (GOES-K) NOAA Geosynchronous
Graveyard (after retirement)
Meteorology In orbit Successful
Final flight of Atlas I, satellite retired and boosted to graveyard orbit on 1 December 2009.[2]
28 April
16:42
BrazilVS-30 BrazilAlcântara BrazilINPE
GermanyAL-VS30-223 DLR Suborbital Test rocket 28 April Successful
30 April IndiaRH-560/300 Mk.II IndiaSriharikota IndiaISRO
ISRO Suborbital Test rocket 30 April Successful

May[edit]

2 May
07:30
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands LC-36 United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital X-ray Astronomy 2 May Successful
5 May
14:55
United StatesDelta II (7920-10C) United StatesVandenberg SLC-2W United StatesBoeing IDS
United StatesIridium 8 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 7 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 6 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 5 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 4 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
8 May
07:10
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands LC-36 United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Astronomy 8 May Successful
8 May
08:01
United StatesLGM-118 Peacekeeper United StatesVandenberg LF-05 United StatesUS Air Force
United States9 re-entry vehicles US Air Force Suborbital Missile test 8 May Successful
11 May
16:17
ChinaLong March 3A ChinaXichang LC-2 China
ChinaZhongxing-6 (Chinasat-6) Chinasat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
14 May
00:33
RussiaMolniya-M RussiaPlesetsk Site 43/4 Russia
RussiaKosmos 2342 (Oko) MO RF Molniya Early warning In orbit Operational
15 May
08:07
United StatesSpace Shuttle Atlantis United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-84 NASA Low Earth (Mir) Shuttle-Mir flight 24 May
13:27
Successful
United StatesSpaceHab LDM NASA/SpaceHab Low Earth (Atlantis) Logistics
Manned orbital flight with seven astronauts
15 May
12:10
RussiaSoyuz-U KazakhstanBaikonur Site 31/6 Russia
RussiaKosmos 2343 MO RF Low Earth Reconnaissance 18 September Successful
15 May
19:16
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands LC-36 United StatesNASA
United StatesNCAR/CU-6 NASA Suborbital Ultraviolet astronomy/Solar observation 15 May Successful
20 May
07:07
UkraineZenit-2 KazakhstanBaikonur Site 45/1 Russia
RussiaTselina-2 VKS Intended: Low Earth ELINT + 48 seconds Launch Failure
Stage 1 engine failure
20 May
22:39
United StatesDelta II 7925-9.5 United StatesCape Canaveral LC-17A United StatesBoeing IDS
NorwayThor-2 Telenor Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
21 May
08:27
United StatesLGM-30G Minuteman III United StatesVandenberg LF-04 United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesFOT GT164GM/SHARP US Air Force Suborbital Missile and re-entry vehicle test 21 May Successful
23 May
21:44
United StatesTerrier- Orion United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
United StatesMSX SMDC Suborbital Target 23 May Successful
24 May
17:00
RussiaProton-K/DM-2M KazakhstanBaikonur Site 81/23 United StatesRussiaInternational Launch Services
United StatesTelstar 5 Loral Skynet Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
29 May
04:56
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands LC-36 United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Radio astronomy 29 May Successful
30 May United StatesUGM-133 Trident II United StatesSubmarine, Eastern Range United StatesUS Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 30 May Successful

June[edit]

3 June
23:20
European UnionAriane 4 (44L) FranceKourou ELA-2 FranceArianespace
United KingdomInmarsat 3F4 Inmarsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
IndiaINSAT 2D ISRO Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Spacecraft Failure
Insat 2D declared a total loss on 4 October 1997.
6 June
16:56
RussiaProton-K/17S40 KazakhstanBaikonur Site 200/39 Russia
RussiaKosmos 2344 (Arkon) MO RF Medium Earth Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
10 June RussiaUR-100NU KazakhstanBaikonur RussiaRVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test 10 June Successful
10 June
12:01
ChinaLong March 3 ChinaXichang LC-1 China
ChinaFeng Yun 2A CASC Geosynchronous Meteorology In orbit Spacecraft Failure
Halted transmitting data in April 1998, resumed transmission but imaging system failed later that year in September.
18 June
14:02
United StatesLGM-30G Minuteman III United StatesVandenberg LF-10 United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesFOT GT165GM US Air Force Suborbital Missile test 18 June Successful
18 June
14:02
RussiaProton-K/17S40 KazakhstanBaikonur Site 81/23 Russia
United StatesIridium 14 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Spacecraft Failure
United StatesIridium 12 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 9 Iridium Low Earth Communications 11 March 2003 Spacecraft Failure
United StatesIridium 10 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 13 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 16 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 11 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Spacecraft Failure
24 June
03:39
United StatesLGM-30F Minuteman II United StatesVandenberg LF-03 United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesMSLS IFT-1A US Air Force Suborbital ABM target 24 June Partial Failure
Some decoys failed to deploy
24 June
04:00
United StatesPayload Launch Vehicle Marshall IslandsMeck Island, Kwajalein United StatesOrbital Sciences
United StatesIFT-1A EKV US Air Force Suborbital ABM Test 24 June Partial Failure
Poor system performance; Non-destructive flyby
25 June
23:44
European UnionAriane 4 (44P) FranceKourou ELA-2 FranceArianespace
United NationsIntelsat 802 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational

July[edit]

1 July
18:02
United StatesSpace Shuttle Columbia United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-94 NASA Low Earth Microgravity research 17 July
10:40
Successful
United StatesSpacelab Long Module 1 NASA Low Earth (Columbia) Spacelab MSL-1
United StatesEDO Pallet NASA Low Earth (Columbia) Cryogenic mission extension pallet
Manned orbital flight with seven astronauts, reflight of STS-83
Final flight of Spacelab Long Module 1
5 July
04:11
RussiaSoyuz-U KazakhstanBaikonur Site 1/5 RussiaRoskosmos
RussiaProgress M-35 Roskosmos Low Earth (Mir) Logistics 7 October
17:23
Successful
8 July
12:25
RussiaRT-2PM Topol RussiaPlesetsk Site 158 RussiaRVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test 8 July Successful
9 July South KoreaKSR-II South KoreaAnhueng South KoreaKARI
KARI Suborbital X-ray astronomy/Ionosphere research 9 July Successful
9 July
13:04
United StatesDelta II 7920-10C United StatesVandenberg SLC-2W United StatesBoeing IDS
United StatesIridium 15 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 17 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 20 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Spacecraft Failure
United StatesIridium 18 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 21 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Spacecraft Failure
23 July RussiaR-29 RussiaSubmarine, Barents Sea RussiaRussian Navy
Russian Navy Suborbital Missile test 23 July Successful
23 July
03:42
United StatesDelta II 7925-9.5 United StatesCape Canaveral LC-17A United StatesBoeing IDS
United StatesUSA-132 (GPS IIR-2) US Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
28 July
01:15
United StatesAtlas IIAS United StatesCape Canaveral LC-36B United StatesRussiaInternational Launch Services
JapanSuperbird C SCC Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational

August[edit]

1 August
20:20
United StatesPegasus-XL United StatesStargazer, Vandenberg United StatesOrbital Sciences
United StatesOrbview-2 GeoEye Low Earth Earth imaging In orbit Operational
5 August
15:35
RussiaSoyuz-U KazakhstanBaikonur Site 1/5 RussiaRoskosmos
RussiaSoyuz TM-26 Roskosmos Low Earth (Mir) Mir EO-24 19 February 1998
09:10
Successful
Manned orbital flight with two cosmonauts
7 August
14:41
United StatesSpace Shuttle Discovery United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-85 NASA Low Earth Space sciences 19 August
11:08
Successful
GermanyUnited StatesCRISTA-SPAS-2 DLR/NASA Low Earth Atmospheric research
JapanMFD NASDA Low Earth (Discovery) Dextrous RMS demonstration
Manned orbital flight with six astronauts
CRISTA-SPAS deployed 7 August and retrieved 16 August
8 August
06:46
European UnionAriane 4 (44LP) FranceKourou ELA-2 FranceArianespace
United StatesPAS 6 PanAmSat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Spacecraft Failure
Spacecraft failure occurred in April 2004
8 August
13:19
United StatesSuper Loki United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 8 August Successful
8 August
13:24
United StatesTerrier-Orion United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
United StatesCOORS NASA Suborbital Ionosphere/Aeronomy research 8 August Failure
8 August
16:29
CanadaBlack Brant VC United StatesWhite Sands United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Ionosphere/Aeronomy research 8 August Successful
9 August
13:29
United StatesSuper Loki United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 9 August Successful
9 August
22:57
United StatesSuper Loki United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 9 August Successful
10 August
13:36
United StatesViper United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 10 August Successful
10 August
21:30
United StatesSuper Loki United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 10 August Successful
11 August
13:38
United StatesSuper Loki United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 11 August Successful
11 August
13:43
United StatesViper United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 11 August Successful
11 August
18:18
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Ultraviolet astronomy 11 August Successful
11 August
21:34
United StatesSuper Loki United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 11 August Successful
12 August
12:10
United StatesSuper Loki United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 12 August Successful
12 August
12:15
United StatesViper United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 12 August Successful
12 August
12:26
United StatesSuper Loki United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 12 August Successful
12 August
21:41
United StatesSuper Loki United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 12 August Successful
13 August
13:50
United StatesSuper Loki United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 13 August Successful
13 August
13:55
United StatesSuper Loki United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 13 August Successful
13 August
21:40
United StatesSuper Loki United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital 13 August Successful
14 August
12:22
United StatesSuper Loki United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 14 August Successful
14 August
12:27
United StatesViper United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 14 August Successful
14 August
20:49
RussiaProton-K/DM-2 KazakhstanBaikonur Site 200/39 Russia
RussiaKosmos 2345 (Prognoz) MO RF Geosynchronous Early warning In orbit Successful
Retired on 1 January 1999
14 August
21:53
United StatesViper United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 14 August Successful
15 August
10:58
United StatesViper United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 15 August Successful
15 August
20:25
United StatesSuper Loki United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy research 15 August Successful
19 August
17:50
ChinaLong March 3B ChinaXichang LC-2 China
PhilippinesAgila 2 MPSC Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
21 August
00:38
United StatesDelta II 7920-10C United StatesVandenberg SLC-2W United StatesBoeing IDS
United StatesIridium 26 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 25 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 24 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Spacecraft Failure
United StatesIridium 23 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 22 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
23 August
06:51
United StatesLMLV-1 (Athena I) United StatesVandenberg SLC-6 United StatesLockheed Martin
United StatesLewis NASA Low Earth Earth observation 29 September Spacecraft failure
Control lost within three days of launch due to RCS design flaw.[3]
25 August
14:39
United StatesDelta II 7920-8 United StatesCape Canaveral LC-17A United StatesBoeing IDS
United StatesACE NASA Earth/Sun L1 point Magnetospheric research In orbit Operational
28 August
00:33
RussiaProton-K/DM-2M KazakhstanBaikonur Site 81/23 United StatesRussiaInternational Launch Services
United StatesPAS 5 PanAmSat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
29 August
15:02
United StatesPegasus-XL United StatesStargazer, Vandenberg United StatesOrbital Sciences
United StatesFORTE US Air Force Low Earth Ionosphere research In orbit Operational

September[edit]

1 September
14:00
ChinaLong March 2D ChinaTaiyuan LC-1 ChinaCASC
United StatesIridium MFS-1 Iridium Low Earth Boilerplate spacecraft In orbit Successful
United StatesIridium MFS-2 Iridium Low Earth Boilerplate spacecraft In orbit Successful
2 September
07:00
United StatesTerrier-Orion Anna Plains United StatesNASA
United StatesDUNDEE 1 NASA Suborbital Target 2 September Successful
2 September
22:21
European UnionAriane 4 (44LP) FranceKourou ELA-2 FranceArianespace
FranceHot Bird 3 Eutelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
European UnionMeteosat 7 Eumetsat Geosynchronous Meteorology In orbit Operational
4 September
12:03
United StatesAtlas IIAS United StatesCape Canaveral LC-36A United StatesRussiaInternational Launch Services
United StatesGE 3 GE Americom Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
5 September
04:00
United StatesTerrier=Orion Anna Plains United StatesNASA
United StatesDUNDEE 2 NASA Suborbital Target 5 September Successful
10 September
02:00
United StatesTerrier-Orion Anna Plains United StatesNASA
United StatesDUNDEE 3 NASA Suborbital Target 10 September Successful
10 September
14:40
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Test rocket 10 September Successful
10 September
15:10
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Microgravity research 10 September Successful
11 September
20:15
United StatesTerrier-Orion Anna Plains United StatesNASA
United StatesDUNDEE 4 NASA Suborbital Target 11 September Successful
14 September
01:36
RussiaProton-K/17S40 KazakhstanBaikonur Site 81/23 Russia
United StatesIridium 29 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 32 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 33 Iridium Low Earth Communications 10 February 2009 Partial Failure
United StatesIridium 27 Iridium Low Earth Communications 1 February 2002 Spacecraft Failure
United StatesIridium 28 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 30 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 31 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Iridium 33 destroyed in collision with Kosmos 2251[4]
17 September
08:01
United StatesLGM-118 Peacekeeper United StatesVandenberg LF-05 United StatesUS Air Force
United States7 re-entry vehicles US Air Force Suborbital Missile test 17 September Successful
19 September
13:00
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Ionosphere research 19 September Successful
23 September
16:44
RussiaKosmos-3M RussiaPlesetsk Site 132/1 Russia
RussiaKosmos 2346 (Parus) MO RF Low Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
United StatesFAISAT-2V FAI Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
23 September
23:58
European UnionAriane 4 (42L) FranceKourou ELA-2 FranceArianespace
United NationsIntelsat 803 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
24 September United StatesStorm-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-32 United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesMTTV-4 US Air Force Suborbital Target 24 September Successful
24 September
21:30
RussiaMolniya-M RussiaPlesetsk Site 43/4 Russia
RussiaMolniya-1T MO RF Molniya Communications In orbit Operational
25 September
00:30
JapanTR-1 JapanTanegashima LA-T NASDA
NASDA Suborbital Microgravity research 25 September Successful
26 September
02:34
United StatesSpace Shuttle Atlantis United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-86 NASA Low Earth (Mir) Shuttle-Mir flight 6 October
21:55
Successful
United StatesSpaceHab LDM NASA/SpaceHab Low Earth (Atlantis) Logistics
Manned orbital flight with seven astronauts
27 September
01:23
United StatesDelta II 7920-10C United StatesVandenberg SLC-2W United StatesBoeing IDS
United StatesIridium 19 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 37 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 36 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 35 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 34 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
29 September
04:47
IndiaPSLV IndiaSriharikota FLP IndiaISRO
IndiaIRS-1D ISRO Sun-synchronous Remote sensing In orbit Operational
30 September
20:10
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands LC-36 United StatesNASA
United StatesHRTS 10 NASA Suborbital Solar research 30 September Successful

October[edit]

3 October
07:07
RussiaRT-2PM Topol RussiaPlesetsk Site 158 RussiaRVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test 3 October Successful
4 October
18:30
United StatesCastor-Orbus United StatesNevada Test Site LA-26 United StatesSandia
Sandia Suborbital Test rocket 4 October Failure
5 October
15:08
RussiaSoyuz-U KazakhstanBaikonur Site 1/5 RussiaRoskosmos
RussiaProgress M-36 Roskosmos Low Earth (Mir) Logistics 19 December
13:20
Successful
RussiaSputnik-40 Roskosmos Low Earth Amateur communications 21 May 1998 Successful
GermanyX-Mir DASA Low Earth (Mir) Inspect Mir 2 October 1998 Successful
5 October
21:01
United StatesAtlas IIAS United StatesCape Canaveral LC-36B United StatesRussiaInternational Launch Services
United StatesEchostar 3 EchoStar Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
9 October
17:59
RussiaSoyuz-U RussiaPlesetsk Site 43/3 Russia
RussiaFoton 11 Roskosmos Low Earth Microgravity research 23 October Successful
10 October United StatesUGM-133 Trident II United KingdomSubmarine, Eastern Range United KingdomRoyal Navy
Royal Navy Suborbital Missile test 10 October Successful
10 October United StatesUGM-133 Trident II United KingdomSubmarine, Eastern Range United KingdomRoyal Navy
Royal Navy Suborbital Missile test 10 October Successful
12 October
16:42
BrazilVS-30 NorwayAndøya BrazilINPE
GermanyAL-VS30-226 DLR Suborbital Aeronomy research 12 October Successful
15 October
08:43
United StatesTitan IVB (401)/Centaur United StatesCape Canaveral LC-40 United StatesLockheed Martin
United StatesCassini NASA Saturnian Saturn orbiter In orbit Operational
United StatesEuropean UnionHuygens NASA/ESA Saturnian Titan lander 14 January 2005
12:43
Successful
Cassini is the first spacecraft to orbit Saturn and Huygens is the first spacecraft to land on Titan.
Huygens released from Cassini on 25 December 2004.
16 October
19:00
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Solar research 16 October Successful
16 October
19:13
ChinaLong March 3B ChinaXichang LC-2 China
ChinaApstar 2R APT Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
22 October
13:13
United StatesPegasus-XL United StatesStargazer, Wallops Island United StatesOrbital Sciences
United StatesSTEP-4 US Air Force Low Earth 31 March 2001 Successful
24 October
02:32
United StatesTitan IVA (403) United StatesVandenberg SLC-4E United StatesLockheed Martin
United StatesUSA-133 (Lacrosse 3) NRO Low Earth Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
25 October
00:46
United StatesAtlas IIA United StatesCape Canaveral LC-36A United States
United StatesUSA-135 (DSCS III F13) US Air Force Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesFalconSat Gold USAFA Geosynchronous transfer Technology demonstration 27 September 1998 Successful
30 October
13:43
European UnionAriane 5G FranceKourou ELA-3 FranceArianespace
European UnionMAQSAT-H ESA Geosynchronous transfer Boilerplate In orbit Successful
European UnionMAQSAT-B ESA Geosynchronous transfer Boilerplate In orbit Successful
European UnionTEAMSAT ESTEC Geosynchronous transfer Technology development In orbit Operational
European UnionYES ESTEC Geosynchronous transfer Technolovy development In orbit Operational

November[edit]

2 November
12:25
BrazilVLS-1 BrazilAlcântara BrazilINPE
BrazilSCD-2A INPE Intended: Low Earth Weather satellite 2 November Launch Failure
Maiden flight of VLS-1; First Brazilian orbital launch attempt
5 November
20:02
United StatesTerrier-Orion NorwayAndøya United StatesNASA
United StatesCombined Sodium and Sporadic Layers NASA Suborbital Ionosphere research 5 November Successful
5 November
21:01
United StatesLGM-118 Peacekeeper United StatesVandenberg LF-02 United StatesUS Air Force
United States8 re-entry vehicles US Air Force Suborbital Missile test 5 November Successful
6 November
00:30
United StatesDelta II 7925-9.5 United StatesCape Canaveral LC-17A United StatesBoeing IDS
United StatesUSA-134 (GPS IIA-19) US Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
8 November
02:05
United StatesTitan IVA (401)/Centaur United StatesCape Canaveral LC-41 United StatesLockheed Martin
United StatesUSA-136 (Trumpet 3) NRO Molniya SIGINT In orbit Operational
NRO Launch 4
9 November
01:34
United StatesDelta II 7920-10C United StatesVandenberg SLC-2W United StatesBoeing IDS
United StatesIridium 43 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 41 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 40 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 39 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 38 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
12 November
17:00
RussiaProton-K/DM-2M KazakhstanBaikonur Site 200/39 Russia
RussiaKupon RFCB Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Spacecraft Failure
Onboard computer failed
12 November
21:48
European UnionAriane 4 (44L) FranceKourou ELA-2 FranceArianespace
SwedenSirius 2 NSAB Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Spacecraft Failure
IndonesiaIndoStar-1 Indostar Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Astra 5A (Sirius 2) failed on 16 January 2009
14 November
05:00
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands United StatesNASA
United StatesSCARI NASA Suborbital Ultraviolet astronomy 14 November Successful
17 November United StatesHera United StatesFort Wingate LC-96 United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesMTV US Air Force Suborbital ABM Target 17 November Failure
18 November
11:14
RussiaSoyuz-U RussiaPlesetsk Russia
RussiaResurs F-1M Roskosmos Low Earth Remote sensing 13 December Successful
18 November
19:35
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands LC-36 United StatesNASA
United StatesSERTS-97 NASA Suborbital Solar observation 18 November Successful
19 November RussiaRT-23 RussiaNenoksa RussiaRVSN
Russian Navy Suborbital Test rocket 19 November Failure
19 November
19:46
United StatesSpace Shuttle Columbia United StatesKennedy LC-39B United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-87 NASA Low Earth Microgravity experiments 5 December
12:20
Successful
United StatesSPARTAN-201 NASA Low Earth Microgravity research Failure
United StatesEDO Pallet NASA Low Earth (Columbia) Cryogenic mission extension pallet Successful
Manned orbital flight with six astronauts
Spartan failed to orient itself due to human error during deployment on 21 November; was retrieved on 25 November.
27 November
21:27
JapanH-II JapanTanegashima LA-Y1 Japan
United StatesTRMM NASA Low Earth Environmental research In orbit Operational
JapanHikoboshi (ETS-7) NASDA Low Earth Docking test In orbit Successful
JapanOrihime (ETS-7) NASDA Low Earth Docking test In orbit Successful
The two ETS satellites docked on 7 July 1998[5]

December[edit]

2 December
08:42
CanadaBlack Brant IX NorwaySvalRak United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Plasma research 2 December Successful
2 December
22:52
European UnionAriane 4 (44P) FranceKourou ELA-2 FranceArianespace
JapanJCSAT 5 JSAT Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
GermanyEquator-S DLR Geosynchronous transfer Magnetospheric research In orbit Operational
12 November
17:00
RussiaProton-K/DM-2M KazakhstanBaikonur Site 81/23 United StatesRussiaInternational Launch Services
LuxembourgAstra 1G SES Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
3 December
09:06
CanadaBlack Brant IX NorwaySvalRak United StatesNASA
NASA Suborbital Plasma research 3 December Successful
8 December
07:16
ChinaLong March 2D ChinaTaiyuan LC-1 ChinaCASC
United StatesIridium 42 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 44 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Spacecraft Failure
8 December
23:52
United StatesAtlas IIAS United StatesCape Canaveral LC-36B United StatesRussiaInternational Launch Services
United StatesGalaxy 8i PanAmSat Current: Graveyard
Operational: Geosynchronous
Communications In orbit Successful
Retired in October 2002
9 December
07:17
UkraineTsyklon-2 KazakhstanBaikonur Site 90/20 Russia
RussiaKosmos 2347 (EORSAT MO RF Low Earth SIGINT 11 December 1999 Successful
15 December
15:40
RussiaSoyuz-U RussiaPlesetsk Russia
RussiaKosmos 2348 (Yantar) MO RF Low Earth Reconnaissance 14 April 1998 Successful
18 December United StatesUGM-133 Trident II United StatesSubmarine, Eastern Range United StatesUS Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 18 December Successful
20 December
08:45
RussiaSoyuz-U KazakhstanBaikonur Site 1/5 RussiaRoskosmos
RussiaProgress M-37 Roskosmos Low Earth (Mir) Logistics 15 March 1998
23:04
Successful
20 December
13:16
United StatesDelta II 7920-10C United StatesVandenberg SLC-2W United StatesBoeing IDS
United StatesIridium 45 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 46 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 47 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesIridium 48 Iridium Low Earth Communications 5 May 2001 Spacecraft Failure
United StatesIridium 49 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
22 December
00:16
European UnionAriane 4 (42L) FranceKourou ELA-2 FranceArianespace
United NationsIntelsat 804 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
23 December
19:11
United StatesPegasus-XL/HAPS United StatesStargazer, Wallops Island United StatesOrbital Sciences
United StatesOrbcomm A1 Orbcomm Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesOrbcomm A2 Orbcomm Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesOrbcomm A3 Orbcomm Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesOrbcomm A4 Orbcomm Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesOrbcomm A5 Orbcomm Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesOrbcomm A6 Orbcomm Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesOrbcomm A7 Orbcomm Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United StatesOrbcomm A8 Orbcomm Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
24 December
13:32
RussiaStart-1 RussiaSvobodniy Site 5 Russia
United StatesEarly Bird 1 EarthWatch Low Earth Earth observation 27 July 2000 Successful
24 December
23:19
RussiaProton-K/DM-2M KazakhstanBaikonur Site 81/23 United StatesRussiaInternational Launch Services
ChinaAsiaSat 3 AsiaSat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Partial Launch Failure
Upper stage failure; Performed lunar flyby to reduce orbital inclination and reach operational position.

Deep-space rendezvous[edit]

Date (GMT) Spacecraft Event Remarks
20 February Galileo 2nd flyby of Europa
5 April Galileo 3rd flyby of Ganymede
7 May Galileo 4th flyby of Ganymede
25 June Galileo 2nd flyby of Callisto
27 June NEAR Flyby of 253 Mathilde Closest approach: 1,200 kilometres (750 mi)
4 July Mars Pathfinder Landed on Mars Location: Ares Vallis
11 September Mars Global Surveyor Areocentric orbit injection
17 September Galileo 3rd flyby of Callisto
6 November Galileo 3rd flyby of Europa
16 December Galileo 4th flyby of Europa

EVAs[edit]

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Function Remarks
14 February
04:34
6 hours
42 minutes
11:16 STS-82
Discovery
United StatesMark C. Lee
United StatesSteven Smith
Swapped out the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph for the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer and replaced the Faint Object Spectrograph with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Stowed the GHRS and FOS for return to earth in the payload bay.[6] Hubble Space Telescope servicing
15 February
03:25
7 hours
27 minutes
10:52 STS-82
Discovery
United StatesGregory J. Harbaugh
United StatesJoseph R. Tanner
Replaced a Fine Guidance Sensor and an Engineering and Science Tape Recorder with spare replacement units. Also installed the Optical Control Electronics Enhancement Kit.[7] Hubble Space Telescope servicing
16 February
02:53
7 hours
11 minutes
10:04 STS-82
Discovery
United StatesMark C. Lee
United StatesSteven Smith
Replaced a Data Interface Unit with a spare unit and replaced a reel-to-reel tape drive Engineering and Science Tape Recorder with a solid-state digital version. Also replaced one of the four Reaction Wheel Assembly units that help point the telescope at targets.[8] Hubble Space Telescope servicing
17 February
03:45
6 hours
34 minutes
10:19 STS-82
Discovery
United StatesGregory J. Harbaugh
United StatesJoseph R. Tanner
Replaced the Solar Array Drive Electronics package with a spare, also replaced the covers of the satellite's magnetometers. Installed thermal blankets over areas of degraded insulation.[9] Hubble Space Telescope servicing
18 February
03:15
5 hours
17 minutes
08:32 STS-82
Discovery
United StatesMark C. Lee
United StatesSteven Smith
Installed more thermal insulation on three more areas that had undergone degradation.[10] Hubble Space Telescope servicing
29 April
05:10
4 hours
59 minutes
10:09 Mir EO-23
Kvant-2
RussiaVasily Tsibliyev
United StatesJerry M. Linenger
Installed the Optical Properties Monitor on the exterior of Kristall. Used the Strela crane to move to the Kvant-2 module. At Kvant-2 they retrieved two American experiments, the Partial Impact Experiment and the Mir Sample Experiment, from the Kvant-2 hull, and installed the Benton Radiation Dosimeter on Kvant-2.[11] First use of the new Orlan-M space suit.
22 August
11:14
3 hours
16 minutes
14:30 Mir EO-24
Transfer compartment of DOS-7
RussiaAnatoly Solovyev
RussiaPavel Vinogradov
Reconnected power cabling to the Spektr solar arrays, thus restoring part of the power lost in the collision. Although the spacewalkers were able to recover equipment and supplies from the module, they were not able to find the puncture hole.[12] Internal EVA to inspect the damaged Spektr module
6 September
01:07
6 hours 07:07 Mir EO-24
Kvant-2
RussiaAnatoly Solovyev
United Kingdom/United StatesMichael Foale
Solovyev road the Strela crane operated by Foale on the base block to Spektr to inspect for damage. Although an extensive documentation and search of Spektr, he was unable to find the hole. Before he returned to the airlock, Foale collected the radiation dosimeter installed outside earlier.[13] Foale became the first person to conduct EVAs in both American and Russian spacesuits.[14]
1 October
17:29
5 hours
1 minute
22:30 STS-86
Mir Atlantis
United StatesScott E. Parazynski
RussiaVladimir Titov
Retrieved the four Mir Environmental Effects Packages from the docking module surface. Also installed the Solar Array Cap to the docking module, to be used to plug the hole in the Spektr module on a future EVA. To close out the EVA, the spacewalkers tested the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue jet packs.[15]
20 October
09:40
6 hours
38 minutes
16:18 Mir EO-24
Transfer compartment of DOS-7
RussiaAnatoly Solovyev
RussiaPavel Vinogradov
Attempted to install three control cables between the solar array servo motors to the special adapter plate that seals Spektr from the rest of Mir. After cleaning up some of the debris and loose items in Spektr, Solovyev was able to connect the three cables to the servos. But even after an effort that extended into the "emergency oxygen supply" of the Orlan space suits, Solovyev was only able to connect two of the cables to the adapter plate.[16] Internal EVA to repair the damaged Spektr module
3 November
03:32
6 hours
4 minutes
09:36 Mir EO-24
Kvant-2
RussiaAnatoly Solovyev
RussiaPavel Vinogradov
Released a minispunik (mini-satellite) into orbit. The spacewalkers then dismantled the old solar panel MSB-4 on Kvant-1. They stowed the panel on the outside of the base block.[17]
6 November
00:12
6 hours
12 minutes
06:24 Mir EO-24
Kvant-2
RussiaAnatoly Solovyev
RussiaPavel Vinogradov
Installed a new solar array on Kvant-1 to replace the panel removed on their previous spacewalk.[18]
25 November
00:02
7 hours
43 minutes
07:45 STS-87
Columbia
United StatesWinston E. Scott
JapanTakao Doi
Captured the Spartan satellite by hand and secured it in the payload bay. Then the spacewalking team set up and tested a crane that will be used to construct the International Space Station.[19] Doi became the first Japanese spacewalker.
3 December
09:09
4 hours
59 minutes
14:09 STS-87
Columbia
United StatesWinston E. Scott
JapanTakao Doi
Conducted more testing and evaluation of the crane in the payload bay. They repeated many of the same crane motion tests with smaller objects than in the earlier EVA. During the EVA a small free-flying video camera was deployed to record the work.[20]

References[edit]

Generic references:

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.thaicom.net/eng/satellite_thaicom3.aspx
  2. ^ "NOAA Deactivates GOES-10 after 12 Years of Tracking Storms". NOAA. 2 December 2009. Archived from the original on 7 December 2009. Retrieved 3 December 2009. 
  3. ^ "Lewis Spacecraft". ASTRONET. 23 June 1998. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  4. ^ Iannotta, Becky (11 February 2009). "U.S. Satellite Destroyed in Space Collision". Space.com. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 11 February 2009. 
  5. ^ "Rendezvous Docking Experiment Plan and Results". Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. 16 September 1999. Retrieved 29 July 2008. 
  6. ^ Dumoulin, Jim (2001). "STS-82 Day 4 Highlights". NASA Space Shuttle Launch Archive. NASA. Archived from the original on 22 March 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2009. 
  7. ^ Dumoulin, Jim (2001). "STS-82 Day 5 Highlights". NASA Space Shuttle Launch Archive. NASA. Archived from the original on 22 March 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2009. 
  8. ^ Dumoulin, Jim (2001). "STS-82 Day 6 Highlights". NASA Space Shuttle Launch Archive. NASA. Archived from the original on 22 March 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2009. 
  9. ^ Dumoulin, Jim (2001). "STS-82 Day 7 Highlights". NASA Space Shuttle Launch Archive. NASA. Archived from the original on 22 March 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2009. 
  10. ^ Dumoulin, Jim (2001). "STS-82 Day 8 Highlights". NASA Space Shuttle Launch Archive. NASA. Archived from the original on 22 March 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2009. 
  11. ^ van der Berg, Chris (29 April 1997). "MIRNEWS 29 APRIL 1997 (357)". MirNews. SpaceOnLine. Archived from the original on 8 March 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2009. 
  12. ^ van der Berg, Chris (25 August 1997). "MIRNEWS 25AUGUST 1997 (380)". MirNews. SpaceOnLine. Archived from the original on 9 March 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2009. 
  13. ^ van der Berg, Chris (6 September 1997). "MIRNEWS.382". MirNews. SpaceOnLine. Archived from the original on 9 March 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2009. 
  14. ^ Foale, Colin (1999). Waystation to The Stars. London: Headline Book Publishing. p. 235. ISBN 0-7472-7380-4. 
  15. ^ Dumoulin, Jim. "STS-86 Day 7 Highlights". NASA Space Shuttle Launch Archive. NASA. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2009. 
  16. ^ van der Berg, Chris (22 October 1997). "MIRNEWS.391 22 OCTOBER 1997 (391)". MirNews. SpaceOnLine. Archived from the original on 9 March 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2009. 
  17. ^ van der Berg, Chris (3 November 1997). "MIRNEWS 3 NOVEMBER 1997 (393)". MirNews. SpaceOnLine. Archived from the original on 10 March 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2009. 
  18. ^ van der Berg, Chris (6 November 1997). "MIRNEWS 6 NOVEMBER 1997 (394)". MirNews. SpaceOnLine. Archived from the original on 10 March 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2009. 
  19. ^ Dumoulin, Jim (25 November 1997). "STS-87 Day 7 Highlights". NASA Space Shuttle Launch Archive. NASA. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2009. 
  20. ^ Dumoulin, Jim (3 December 1997). "STS-87 Day 15 Highlights". NASA Space Shuttle Launch Archive. NASA. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2009.