1999 Oklahoma tornado outbreak
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2008)|
|Anadarko, Oklahoma, on May 3, 1999.|
|Date of tornado outbreak:||May 3–6, 1999|
|Maximum rated tornado2:||F5 tornado|
|Areas affected:||Oklahoma, and Kansas|
1Time from first tornado to last tornado
The 1999 Oklahoma tornado outbreak was a vigorous severe weather event that lasted from May 3 through 6, 1999 and brought violent tornadic storms to Oklahoma, Kansas, Arkansas, Texas and Tennessee. This article concentrates primarily on the events of May 3, when 66 tornadoes broke out in Oklahoma and Kansas.
The most significant tornado first touched down southwest of Chickasha, Oklahoma, and became an F5 before dissipating near Midwest City. The tornado tore through the southern Oklahoma City suburbs of Bridge Creek, far south Oklahoma City, Moore, Del City, Tinker Air Force Base and Midwest City, causing $1.1 billion in damage. Thirty-six people perished during the outbreak. This tornadic event ranks in severity with the Palm Sunday tornado outbreak of 1965. With a total of between 66 and 74 tornadoes, it was the most prolific tornado outbreak in Oklahoma history, although not the deadliest.
Meteorological synopsis 
The outbreak was caused by a vigorous upper-level trough that moved into the Central and Southern Plains states on the morning of May 3. That morning, low stratus clouds overspread much of Oklahoma, with clear skies along and west of a dry line located from Gage to Childress, Texas. Air temperatures at 7 a.m. CDT ranged in the mid to upper 60s °F (upper 10s to near 20 °C) across the region, while dew point values ranged in the low to mid 60s °F (mid to upper 10s °C). The Storm Prediction Center (SPC) in Norman, Oklahoma, a division of the National Weather Service, initially issued a slight risk of severe thunderstorms early that morning stretching from the Kansas-Nebraska border to parts of southern Texas, with an intended threat of large hail, damaging winds and tornadoes.
By late morning, the low cloud cover began to dissipate in advance of the dryline, however high cirrus clouds overspread the region during the afternoon hours, resulting in filtered sunshine in some areas that caused atmospheric destabilization. The sunshine and heating, combined with abundant low-level moisture, would combine to produce a very unstable air mass. Upper air balloon soundings, observed strong directional wind shear, cooling temperatures at high atmospheric levels and the increased potential of CAPE values potentially exceeding 4000 j/kg, levels that are considered favorable for supercells and tornadoes.
As the latest observations and forecasts began to indicate an increasing likelihood of widespread severe weather, the SPC issued a moderate risk for sections of the Southern Plains at 11:15 a.m. CDT for portions of Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas along and near the Interstate 40 corridor as conditions became even more favorable for strong to violent tornadoes. By 3 p.m. CDT, it had become evident that a widespread severe weather event was imminent; the Storm Prediction Center upgraded locations within the moderate risk area to a high risk of severe weather around 4 p.m. CDT as wind shear profiles, combined with volatile atmospheric conditions, had made conditions highly conducive for a significant tornadic event across most of Oklahoma, southern Kansas and north Texas, including the likelihood of damaging tornadoes. The SPC issued a tornado watch by mid-afternoon as conditions gathered together for what would be a historic tornado outbreak. By the time thunderstorms began developing in the late-afternoon hours, CAPE values over the region had reached to near 6,000 J/kg. Large supercell thunderstorms developed and in the late afternoon through the mid-evening hours of that Monday, tornadoes began to break out across the state..
Confirmed tornadoes 
(based on )
The Bridge Creek-Moore F5 
At approximately 3:30 p.m. CDT, the first big thunderstorm of the outbreak began forming in Tillman County in southwestern Oklahoma; a severe thunderstorm warning was issued for this storm by the NWS Norman Weather Forecast Office at 4:15 p.m. CDT. The storm quickly developed supercell characteristics and began exhibiting potentially tornadic rotation, resulting in the NWS issuing the first tornado warning of the event for Comanche, Caddo and Grady counties 22 minutes later at 4:50 p.m. CDT.
The first tornado from this supercell touched down 7 miles (11 km) east-northeast of Medicine Park at 4:51 p.m. CDT; it produced four additional tornadoes as it tracked northeast into Caddo County, the strongest of which (rated as an F3) touched down 2 miles (3.2 km) west-southwest of Laverty and dissipated 2.5 miles (4.0 km) west-northwest of downtown Chickasha.
The storm produced the most significant tornado of the outbreak touched down just southwest of the Grady County community of Amber, Oklahoma at 6:23 p.m. CDT and headed northeast, parallel to Interstate 44, just after another tornado had passed over the airport in Chickasha.[Note 1] The storm continued moving northeast, destroying the community of Bridge Creek and crossing I-44 just north of Newcastle. The tornado then crossed the Canadian River, passing into far southern Oklahoma City. As it passed over Bridge Creek, around 6:54 p.m., a Doppler On Wheels (DOW: Wurman et al. 1997, Wurman 2001) mobile Doppler weather radar detected winds of 301 mph (484 km/h), ±20 mph inside the tornado at a height of 32 m AGL (Wurman et al. 2007).[Note 2] These winds, however, occurred above the ground, and winds at the surface may not have been quite this intense. The tornado continued on into Moore and then passed over the intersection of Shields Boulevard and Interstate 35 and back into Oklahoma City, crossing Interstate 240 near Bryant Avenue. The storm then turned more northerly, striking parts of Del City and Tinker Air Force Base near Sooner Road as an F4 before diminishing over Midwest City and finally lifting near the intersection of Reno Avenue and Woodcrest Drive.
|Outbreak death toll|
|All deaths were tornado-related|
36 people died in this tornado. Over 8,000 homes were badly damaged or destroyed and the tornado caused $1.1 billion in damage (adjusted for inflation), making it the most costly tornado in U.S. history, a record since broken by the 2011 Joplin tornado. The most recent tornado, May 20, 2013, is also being called worse than this tornado(this tornado was a F5 as well). This was also the deadliest tornado in the U.S. since the April 10, 1979 Wichita Falls, Texas Tornado which killed 42 people. However, early warning saved many lives.
Three of the deaths reported in the tornado were from people who took shelter underneath overpasses in the area of the path of the Moore-Bridge Creek F5 tornado. The deaths occurred at the 16th Street overpass over Interstate 44 in Newcastle (just east of Bridge Creek), at the Shields Boulevard overpass over Interstate 35 in Moore, and the overpass at mile marker 176.5 on Interstate 35 in rural northwestern Payne County, west of Stillwater.
Broadcast warnings 
Warnings were issued well in advance of the tornado's arrival, and Oklahoma City broadcast media interrupted programming to follow the storms on radar and by helicopter. The death toll would likely have been higher if people had not had advance warning. Following the storm, three of the local television stations in Oklahoma City: KFOR-TV (channel 4), KOCO-TV (channel 5) and KWTV (channel 9) continued coverage of the damaging and deadly tornadoes through May 4. The three stations' chief meteorologists Mike Morgan, Rick Mitchell and Gary England received commendations from then-governor Frank Keating for their coverage of the outbreak.
Most metro area radio stations had simulcast coverage from the area's television stations: KFOR-TV's coverage was simulcast on Renda Broadcasting owned KMGL, KRXO, KOMA-AM and KOMA-FM; KOCO-TV's coverage was simulcast on Clear Channel owned KQSR, KTST and KJYO (KTOK provided their own coverage but utilized KOCO's coverage heavily) with Citadel owned KATT, KYIS, WWLS-AM, WWLS-FM and KKWD simulcasting KOCO's coverage as well; and KWTV's coverage was simulcast on KXXY-FM. It is highly likely that the Emergency Alert System also broadcast warnings.
The Moore tornado also resulted in the National Weather Service issuing the first-ever Tornado Emergency, a severe weather statement used only in extreme cases where a violent tornado is about to impact a densely-populated area.
Fujita scale 
This tornado's remarkable wind speed (at the high extreme of the Fujita Scale's F5) led to much speculation that the scale would be modified to include an F6 category, due to the winds possibly exceeding 318 mph (512 km/h). This speculation ignored the fact that the Fujita scale measures damage rather than windspeed, since the scale was developed prior to the introduction of Doppler weather radar. Windspeed estimates associated with the different categories represent the speeds scientists believe are required to produce that damage rather than the windspeed in that particular storm. The damage caused by an F5-designated tornado leaves very little room for a higher category.
The tornado was the last official F5 to hit the United States with the old Fujita scale rating. The next category 5 tornado occurred on May 4, 2007 in Greensburg, Kansas during the May 2007 Tornado Outbreak and killed 11 people. Since February 1, 2007 the National Weather Service has used the Enhanced Fujita Scale to rate tornadoes, and the Greensburg tornado was recorded as the first EF5 tornado. This tornado, however, is not the last category 5 tornado to be rated on the Fujita scale, as Canada still used the Fujita scale until April 18, 2013, and a tornado that occurred in Manitoba in June 2007 was rated an F5.
Other significant tornadoes 
Dover F4 tornado 
A tornado touched down at 9:12 p.m. CDT about 4 miles (6.4 km) south-southwest of Dover in Kingfisher County, Oklahoma. This tornado produced a half-mile wide damage path that covered an area 15 miles (24 km) in length through the county, dissipating about 7 miles (11 km) east-southeast of Hennessey. The city of Dover took a direct hit by this tornado with about one-third of the buildings, including 34 houses and mobile homes, in the town destroyed. F4 damage was observed on the west side of town, where a steel-reinforced concrete building was severely damaged with only a few walls remaining, large vehicles were destroyed, mobile home frames were wrapped around tree trunks and trees suffered some debarking. Much of the damage outside of town was rated F1, confined to trees, telephone poles, farm equipment and outbuildings. The tornado resulted in only one fatality, a woman who was killed in a collapsed frame home.
Mulhall F4 tornado 
Late in the evening on May 3 at 9:25 p.m. CDT, a destructive tornado touched down 3 miles (4.8 km) southwest of Cimarron City in Logan County, Oklahoma eventually hitting the town of Mulhall, located north of Guthrie. This wedge tornado, which tracked a 35-mile path, was very wide and at times exceeding a width of one mile (1.6 km). According to storm chaser Roger Edwards, it may have been as violent or more than the F5 Moore/Bridge Creek tornado (however, it was officially rated as an F4). A Doppler On Wheels (DOW) mobile radar observed this tornado as it crossed Mulhall. The DOW documented the largest ever observed core flow circulation with a distance of 1,600 m (5,200 ft) between peak velocities on either side of the tornado, and a roughly 7 km (4.3 mi) width of peak wind gusts exceeding 43 m/s (96 mph), making the Mulhall tornado the largest tornado ever measured quantitatively. The DOW measured a complex multiple vortex structure with several multiple vortices containing winds of up to 115 m/s (260 mph) rotating around the tornado. The 3D structure of the tornado has been analyzed in Lee and Wurman 2005. The tornado severely damaged or destroyed approximately 60%-70% of the 130 homes in Mulhall, destroying the Mulhall/Orlando Elementary School and toppling the city's water tower.
After the tornado dissipated at approximately 10:45 p.m. CDT in southeastern Noble County, 3 miles (4.8 km) northeast of Perry, much of the same areas of Logan County struck by the Mulhall tornado were hit again by an F3 tornado produced by a separate supercell that touched down 2.5 miles (4.0 km) miles south of Crescent at 11:33 p.m. CDT. Damage caused by this tornado was indistinguishable from damage caused by the earlier F4 tornado. 25 homes were destroyed and 30 others were damaged near Crescent, with much of the damage believed to have been caused by both tornadoes.
Stroud F3 tornado 
At 10:10 p.m. CDT, a damaging tornado touched down 3 miles (4.8 km) north-northeast of Sparks in Lincoln County, Oklahoma with only sporadic tree damage occurring as it tracked north-northeast toward Davenport. Scattered damage of high-end F0 to low-end F1 intensity occurred to some homes and businesses on the southeast side of Davenport, though a house located just south of town lost more than half of its roof. As the tornado continued to track northeast, parallel with Interstate 44 and State Highway 66, Stroud took a direct hit as the storm intensified to F2 strength; the trucking terminal of the Sygma food distribution warehouse on the west side of town was destroyed with some girders and siding from the warehouse thrown northwest across State Highway 66, the Stroud Municipal Hospital suffered significant roof damage, which resulted in significant water damage within the building. The most severe damage, consistent with an F3 tornado, occurred at the Tanger Outlet Mall at 10:39 p.m. CST with almost all of the stores suffering roof damage at minimum, though sections of seven storefronts were destroyed and the exterior walls of the Levi's store were collapsed inward. The mall was evacuated in advance of the tornado, resulting in no injuries or loss of life in the building. The tornado finally dissipated 1 mile (1.6 km) south of Stroud Lake at 11:48 p.m. CDT.
While there were no fatalities overall in Stroud, the economic impact of the tornado has been compared to the loss of Tinker Air Force Base, General Motors and a major regional hospital for the Stroud region as compared to Oklahoma City at that time. Approximately 800 jobs were lost in a community of approximately 3,400 people due to the damage of the Symga distribution warehouse and Tanger Outlet Mall, neither of which have been rebuilt. Stroud's recovery was later complicated by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, although the town has since recovered as a result of higher oil and gas prices. Local leading industries include Service King, an oilfield manufacturing facility, and Mint Turbines, a helicopter engine reconditioning facility. Stroud is also now a downloading facility for oil produced in the northern United States into the Cushing pipeline network.
West Tulsa F1 tornado 
One of the final tornadoes in the outbreak touched down in northeastern Creek County from the same supercell that produced the Stroud tornado at 12:08 a.m. CDT on May 4 near Heyburn Lake, 7 miles (11 km) west-northwest of Kellyville. As it tracked into western Tulsa County around 12:15 a.m. CDT on May 4, the tornado narrowly missed the studios of local ABC affiliate KTUL, located a few miles west of the city proper on Lookout Mountain (near Interstate 244 and West 41st Street). Travis Meyer, KTUL's chief meteorologist at the time (now with crosstown competitor KOTV-DT), advised his co-workers at the station to take shelter while he remained on the air reporting on the approaching tornado. The twister dissipated before reaching the station.
Notable tornadoes outside of Oklahoma 
The May 3 tornado event was part of a three-day event that included tornadoes in the states of Kansas, Texas and Tennessee. A deadly F4 tornado that tracked 24 miles (39 km) across south-central Kansas, killed six people in Haysville and Wichita during the late evening of May 3. Other fatalities during the event included one person killed in Texas on May 4 by an F3 tornado that tracked 71.5 miles (115.1 km) from near Winfield, Texas to southwest of Mineral Springs, Arkansas, and three people were killed in Tennessee on May 5 and 6 by an F4 tornado that struck the town of Linden.
Disaster assistance 
|Damage estimates[Note 3]|
|Public buildings destroyed||4||7|
|Source: National Weather Service Norman, OK Forecast Office.|
On May 4, the day after the initial outbreak event, President Bill Clinton signed a federal disaster declaration for 11 Oklahoma counties. In a press statement by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), then-director James Lee Witt stated that "The President is deeply concerned about the tragic loss of life and destruction caused by these devastating storms." The American Red Cross opened ten shelters overnight, housing 1,600 people immediately following the disaster, decreasing to 500 people by May 5. On May 5, several emergency response and damage assessment teams from FEMA were deployed to the region. The United States Department of Defense deployed the 249th Engineering Battalion and placed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers on standby for assistance. Medical and mortuary teams were also sent by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. By May 6, donation centers and phone banks were being established to create funds for victims of the tornadoes. Within the first few days of the disaster declaration, relief funds were sent to families requesting aid. Roughly $180,000 had been approved by FEMA for disaster housing assistance by May 9.
Debris removal began on May 12 as seven cleanup teams were sent to the region with more teams expected to join over the following days. That day, FEMA also granted seven Oklahoma counties (Canadian, Craig, Grady, Lincoln, Logan, Noble and Oklahoma) eligibility for federal financial assistance. Roughly $1.6 million in disaster funds had been approved for housing and businesses loans by May 13, later increasing to more than $5.9 million over the following five days. Applications for federal aid continued through June, with state aid approvals reaching $54 million on June 3. According to FEMA, more than 9,500 Oklahoma residents applied for federal aid during the allocated period in the wake of the tornadoes, including 3,800 in Oklahoma County and 3,757 in Cleveland County. Disaster recovery aid for the tornadoes totaled to roughly $67.8 million by July 2.
Concerns with using overpasses as storm shelters 
From a meteorological and safety standpoint, the tornado called into question the use of highway overpasses as shelters from tornadoes. Prior to the events on May 3, 1999, videos of people taking shelter in overpasses during tornadoes in the past (such as an infamous video from the 1991 Andover, Kansas tornado outbreak taken by a news crew from Wichita NBC affiliate KSNW) created public misunderstanding and complacency that overpasses provided adequate shelter from tornadoes. Though meteorologists had questioned the safety of these structures for nearly 20 years, there had been no evidence supporting incidents involving loss of life. Three overpasses were directly struck by tornadoes during the May 3 outbreak, resulting in fatalities at each location. Two occurred as a result of the Bridge Creek–Moore F5, while the third occurred in rural Payne County, which was struck by an F2 tornado. According to a study by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, seeking shelter in an overpass "is to become a stationary target for flying debris"; the wind channeling effect that occurs within these structures along with an increase in wind speeds above ground level, changing of wind direction when the tornado vortex passes, and the fact most overpasses do not have girders for people to take shelter between also provide little to no protection.
See also 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1999 Oklahoma tornado outbreak|
- List of North American tornadoes and tornado outbreaks
- Climate of Oklahoma City
- Ultimate Tornado (documentary)
- May 18–21, 2013 tornado outbreak
- 2013 Moore tornado
- Note 1 It may be argued that the tornadoes touching down in Chickasha and Amber were the same storm; however, for weather tracking purposes, each touchdown is counted as a separate tornado which is most probable.
- Note 2 The old record was a 257-268 mph wind measurement from a Doppler weather radar near Red Rock, Oklahoma, as reported in a formal publication by Bluestein et al. (1993)
- Note 3 The following was adapted from public domain, official National Weather Service web sites.
- Meteorological Summary of the Great Plains Tornado Outbreak of May 3-4, 1999
- Severe Weather Outlook at 6:30 a.m. CDT on May 3, 1999
- Severe Weather Outlook at 11:15 a.m. CDT on May 3, 1999
- Doppler On Wheels - Center for Severe Weather Research (cswr.org)
- May 3, 1999 Tornadoes in NWS Norman County Warning Area-Storm A
- However, adjustment for growth in wealth shows the 27 May 1896 Saint Louis–East Saint Louis tornado to be the costliest on record. See Brooks, Harold E.; Doswell III, Charles A. (2001). "Normalized Damage from Major Tornadoes in the United States: 1890–1999". Weather and Forecasting 16 (1): 168–176. Bibcode:2001WtFor..16..168B. doi:10.1175/1520-0434(2001)016<0168:NDFMTI>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1520-0434.
- Brooks, Harold E.; Doswell III, Charles A. (2002). "Deaths in the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City Tornado from a Historical Perspective". Weather and Forecasting 17 (3): 354–361. Bibcode:2002WtFor..17..354B. doi:10.1175/1520-0434(2002)017<0354:DITMOC>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1520-0434.
- Quoetone, Elizabeth M; David L Andra, William F Bunting (2007-06-14). "Warning Decision Making Process During the 3 May 1999 Tornado Outbreak". Warning Decision Training Branch, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- "South Oklahoma Metro Tornado Emergency". National Weather Service in Norman, Oklahoma. May 3, 1999. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
- "F5 and EF5 Tornadoes of the United States". www.spc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
- Central Oklahoma Tornado Intercept: 3 May 1999 (Roger Edwards)
- Wurman, Joshua; C. Alexander, P. Robinson, and Y. Richardson (January 2007). "Low-Level Winds in Tornadoes and Potential Catastrophic Tornado Impacts in Urban Areas". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (American Meteorological Society) 88 (1): 31–46. Bibcode:2007BAMS...88...31W. doi:10.1175/BAMS-88-1-31. Retrieved 30 March 2008.
- Wurman, Joshua (June 2002). "The Multiple-Vortex Structure of a Tornado". Weather and Forecasting (American Meteorological Society) 17 (3): 473–505. Bibcode:2002WtFor..17..473W. doi:10.1175/1520-0434(2002)017<0473:TMVSOA>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1520-0434.
- Lee, Wen-Chau; J. Wurman (July 2005). "Diagnosed Three-Dimensional Axisymmetric Structure of the Mulhall Tornado on 3 May 1999". Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (American Meteorological Society) 62 (7): 2373–93. Bibcode:2005JAtS...62.2373L. doi:10.1175/JAS3489.1.
- Tanger Factory Outlet Centers, Inc. -- Company History
- "Linden F4 Tornado of May 5, 1999". Srh.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
- "President Declares Major Disaster for Oklahoma". Federal Emergency Management Agency. May 4, 1999. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
- "Oklahoma/Kansas Tornado Disaster Update". Federal Emergency Management Agency. May 5, 1999. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
- "Plains States Tornado Update". Federal Emergency Management Agency. May 6, 1999. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
- "First Checks Approved for Oklahoma Storm Victims". Federal Emergency Management Agency. May 9, 1999. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
- "Debris Removal Underway in Oklahoma City, Mulhall, and Choctaw; Stroud Set for Thursday". Federal Emergency Management Agency. May 12, 1999. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
- "Seven Oklahoma Counties Get Expanded Disaster Assistance". Federal Emergency Management Agency. May 12, 1999. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
- "Oklahoma Tornado Disaster Update". Federal Emergency Management Agency. May 13, 1999. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
- "Oklahoma Disaster Recovery News Summary". Federal Emergency Management Agency. May 18, 1999. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
- "Almost 9,500 Oklahomans Register For Disaster Recovery Aid More Than $67.8 Million In Grants And Loans Approved". Federal Emergency Management Agency. July 7, 1999. Retrieved October 3, 2010.
- Daniel J. Miller, Charles A. Doswell III, Harold E. Brooks, Gregory J. Stumpf and Erik Rasmussen (1999). "Highway Overpasses as Tornado Shelters". National Weather Service in Norman, Oklahoma. p. 1. Archived from the original on 13 November 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2010.
- Daniel J. Miller, Charles A. Doswell III, Harold E. Brooks, Gregory J. Stumpf and Erik Rasmussen (1999). "Highway Overpasses as Tornado Shelters: Events on May 3, 1999". National Weather Service in Norman, Oklahoma. p. 5. Retrieved October 3, 2010.
- Daniel J. Miller, Charles A. Doswell III, Harold E. Brooks, Gregory J. Stumpf and Erik Rasmussen (1999). "Highway Overpasses as Tornado Shelters: Highway Overpasses Are Inadequate Tornado Sheltering Areas". National Weather Service in Norman, Oklahoma. p. 6. Retrieved October 3, 2010.
- May 3, 1999 Oklahoma Tornado Special Report - The Oklahoman
- Great Plains Outbreak of 1999 Tornado History Project
- The Great Plains Tornado Outbreak of May 3, 1999 (National Weather Service, Norman, Oklahoma)
- The 3 May 1999 Oklahoma Tornadoes (David Schultz, CIMMS)
- Google Maps' location of Stroud, Oklahoma, with the bulldozed lot of the former Tanger Outlet Mall in the upper left of the screen, just north of Interstate 44
- May 3 Oklahoma Tornado Special video section from KOCO-TV
- Moore, Oklahoma Tornado Photos, May 1999 Aerial Photos of Moore Oklahoma taken three days after the May 3, 1999 tornado
- Oklahoma's Advance Tornado Warning Saves Lives (News article)
|10 costliest US tornadoes|
|Rank||Area affected||Date||Damage 1||Adjusted Damage 2|
|1||Joplin, Missouri||May 22, 2011||2800||2858|
|2||Tuscaloosa, Alabama||April 27, 2011||2200||2245|
|3||Oklahoma City Metro, Oklahoma||May 3, 1999||1000||1377|
|4||Hackleburg, Alabama||April 27, 2011||1250||1276|
|5||Wichita Falls, Texas||April 10, 1979||400||1264|
|6||Omaha, Nebraska||May 6, 1975||250||1065|
|7||Lubbock, Texas||May 11, 1970||135||798|
|8||Topeka, Kansas||June 8, 1966||100||706|
|9||Windsor Locks, Connecticut||October 3, 1979||200||632|
|10||St. Louis-East St. Louis||May 27, 1896||12||543|
Source: Brooks, Harold E.; C.A. Doswell (Feb 2001). "Normalized Damage from Major Tornadoes in the United States: 1890–1999". Weather and Forecasting (American Meteorological Society) 16 (1): 168–76. doi:10.1175/1520-0434(2001)016<0168:NDFMTI>2.0.CO;2. 3
1. These are the unadjusted damage totals in millions of US dollars.
2. Raw damage totals adjusted for inflation, in millions of 2013 USD.
3. A search of NCDC Storm Data indicates no tornadoes between 1999 and 2010 have caused more than $400 million in damage.