19 (song)

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"19"
Single by Paul Hardcastle
from the album Paul Hardcastle
B-side "Fly by Night"
Released 17 February 1985
Format
Recorded 1984
Genre
Length 6:20 (album version)
3:37 (single version)
Label Chrysalis
Writer(s)
Producer(s) Paul Hardcastle
Paul Hardcastle singles chronology
"Eat Your Heart Out"
(1984)
"19"
(1985)
"Rainforest"
(reissue)
(1985)
Music sample

"19" is a song by British musician Paul Hardcastle released as the first single from his self-titled third studio album Paul Hardcastle (1985).

The song has a strong anti-war message, focusing on America's involvement in the Vietnam War and the effect it had on the soldiers who served. The track was notable for early use of sampled and processed speech, in particular a stutter effect used on the words "n-n-n-n-nineteen" and "d-d-d-d-destruction". It also includes various non-speech samples such as crowd noise and a military bugle call.

"19" features sampled narration (by Peter Thomas), interview dialogue ("I wasn't really sure what was going on") and news reports from Vietnam Requiem,[3] an ABC television documentary about the post-traumatic stress disorder suffered by veterans. In 2009, the song placed at 73 on VH1's 100 Greatest One-Hit Wonders of the 80s.[4]

"19" topped the charts in the UK for five weeks, and reached the top 20 in the US, where it also topped the dance chart. For a while, it was the top selling single in 13 countries (helped by the fact that versions of the song were recorded in French, Spanish, German and Japanese), and it received the Ivor Novello award for Best-selling single of 1985. The song's English language release came in 3 different 12" versions ("Extended Version", "Destruction Mix" and "The Final Story"), each with an alternative cover design.

Background and content[edit]

Hardcastle was inspired to create the song after watching Vietnam Requiem,[3] and comparing his own life at 19 to those of the soldiers featured: "...what struck me was how young the soldiers were: the documentary said their average age was 19. I was out having fun in pubs and clubs when I was 19, not being shoved into jungles and shot at."[5]

The title "19" comes from the documentary's claim that the average age of an American combat soldier in the war was 19, as compared to World War II's 26.[6] This claim has since been disputed.[7] Undisputed statistics do not exist, although Southeast Asia Combat Area Casualties Current File (CACCF), the source for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, shows a large number of deaths (38%) were ages 19 or 20. According to the same source, 23 is the average age at time of death (or declaration of death).[8] The song also comments that while the tour of duty was longer during World War II, soldiers in Vietnam were subject to hostile fire almost every day.[6]

Musically, the song was inspired by electro, particularly Afrika Bambaataa, although Hardcastle also "added a bit of jazz and a nice melody", and beyond the sampling of the documentary narration, the song incorporated pieces of interviews with soldiers.[5][6] The song's hook, the repetitive ""N-n-n-nineteen", was developed due to the limitations of the early sampling technology used. The E-mu Emulator could only sample for two seconds, so the hook was based around "the only bit of the narrative that made sense in two seconds."[5] Hardcastle wasn't optimistic about the song's chances in the charts. His previous two singles for independent labels had failed to make it into the UK's Top 40 and the musical policy at Radio 1 was felt to be unsupportive of dance music.[5] News interest in the song helped, with the 10th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War seeing Hardcastle interviewed by Alastair Stewart of ITN.

Tony Blackburn, then breakfast DJ for Radio London was an early supporter of the song and it reached number one in the UK and around the world, with Hardcastle producing more mixes of the song to help maintain interest.[5] Although the song did not climb as high in the United States chart, Hardcastle claims "it outsold everybody else for three weeks solid, it only reached number 15, because back then the chart was based on airplay as well as sales."[5] The song was held back in the US by some radio stations refusing to play it, feeling that the song took an anti-American stance, something Hardcastle denies, noting "I had tons of letters from Vietnam vets thanking me for doing something for them."[5]

The success of "19" meant that Hardcastle's manager Simon Fuller, who had recently left Chrysalis Records to set up on his own, was able to use the funds to continue his business. He named the business 19 Management in acknowledgement and the number 19 has become of great significance to Fuller.[9] Fuller went on to become the most successful British music manager of all time and was behind the success of the Spice Girls and American Idol. Hardcastle has continued his connections to 19 Entertainment and in 2009 created the sound for the end card used at the end of 19's television shows.[10]

Video[edit]

After the song's unexpected, rapid climb to the top of the UK Singles chart, Chrysalis asked directors Jonas McCord and Bill Couterie to rush a video into production.[11] Due to the lack of a band able to perform the song, the video was primarily composed of clips from the Vietnam Requiem documentary, edited together by Ken Grunbaum. The first version of the video included footage from the television networks NBC and ABC, including a newscast by ABC anchorman Frank Reynolds.[11] After it was aired on MTV in the US, NBC and ABC objected to the "bad taste" of using the serious clips in a "trivial" form of "propaganda."[11] McCord and Couterie were forced to produce a new cut incorporating public domain footage, but ABC permitted Reynolds' audio to remain.[11] Couterie asserted at the time that the television networks opposed the video because it involved rock music:[11]

What is the difference between the words in our song and the 7 o'clock news? The only difference is rock'n'roll. And why did they love the documentary and hate the video so much? Every word in the song is from the film, and there was never any argument with the facts. The only difference is the music.[11]

The song's reliance on sampling also caused problems with legal clearance. Grunbaum recalled in 2012 that "there were no precedents for something like this. We ended up having to pay Peter Thomas, the narrator, royalties."[5]

Charts and certifications[edit]

Popular culture[edit]

In the same year of release, British comedian Rory Bremner, using the band name The Commentators, released a parodied version of the song as "N-N-Nineteen Not Out", about England's tragic performance in test cricket, with references to the England cricket team's disastrous 1984 home series against the West Indies in which the England captain David Gower had averaged 19.[49] In 2002, Hardcastle admitted in an interview with Q Magazine that, despite objections from his record label, he had helped contribute towards the making of The Commentators' version of the song.

Manchester United used the "19" soundtrack to celebrate their 19th Premier League title in May 2011,[50] and the song made a reappearance in the UK Top 40.[35]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ We-Enhance (16 March 2011). "Simon Fuller: From "American Idol" To Formula 1 Idol.". B*tchBack . We-Enhance Inc. Retrieved 21 July 2013. "Simon Fuller (...) produced “19″ for Paul Hardcastle- a very cheesy slice of Eighties’ synth pop" 
  2. ^ Huey, Steve. "Paul Hardcastle – Artist Biography". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved 21 July 2013. "Paul Hardcastle debuted as a solo artist in 1984 and scored the following year with "19," an electro-oriented record featuring news reports and other sources on Vietnam." 
  3. ^ a b Vietnam Requiem at the Internet Movie Database
  4. ^ Ali, Rahsheeda. "100 Greatest One-Hit Wonders of the ’80s". VH1. Retrieved 20 October 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Simpson, Dave (24 September 2012). "How we made the pop song 19 by Paul Hardcastle and Ken Grunbaum". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 September 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c Perone, James E. (2001). Songs of the Vietnam conflict. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-313-31528-2. 
  7. ^ Roush, Gary (2 June 2008). "Statistics about the Vietnam War". Vietnam Helicopter Flight Crew Network. Archived from the original on 6 December 2009. Retrieved 6 December 2009. "Assuming KIAs accurately represented age groups serving in Vietnam, the average age of an infantryman (MOS 11B) serving in Vietnam to be 19 years old is a myth, it is actually 22. None of the enlisted grades have an average age of less than 20." 
  8. ^ Statistical information about casualties of the Vietnam War at the Wayback Machine (archived 24 September 2008). Retrieved 26 October 2008.
  9. ^ From Wannabe to Pop Idol: 19 ounder to e presented with MMF's top accolade at the Wayback Machine (archived 17 June 2009). Music Week. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
  10. ^ (/http://www.zipdesign.co.uk/19-Sting Zip Design – 19 Sting at the Wayback Machine. Zip Design. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Bessman, Jim (1 June 1985). "Anti-War Clip Provokes Network Wrath". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media) 97 (22): 38–39. ISSN 0006-2510. 
  12. ^ "Hits of the World". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media) 97 (24): 66. 15 June 1985. ISSN 0006-2510. 
  13. ^ "Paul Hardcastle – 19 – Austriancharts.at" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  14. ^ "Ultratop.be – Paul Hardcastle – 19" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  15. ^ (Dutch) "19 – PAUL HARDCASTLE". Top 30. Retrieved 25 July 2013. "Hoogste notering in de top 30 : 1" 
  16. ^ CHART NUMBER 1492 – Saturday, July 27, 1985 at the Wayback Machine (archived 29 July 2007). CHUM. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  17. ^ "RPM Top Singles." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
  18. ^ MusicSeek.info – UK, Eurochart, Billboard & Cashbox No.1 Hits at the Wayback Machine (archived 14 June 2006). MusicSeek.info. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  19. ^ "Lescharts.com – Paul Hardcastle – 19" (in French). Les classement single. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  20. ^ "Paul Hardcastle – 19". Officialcharts.de. GfK Entertainment. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  21. ^ "The Irish Charts – All there is to know". Irishcharts.ie. Retrieved 1 June 2013. 
  22. ^ (Italian) "SINGOLI – I NUMERI UNO (1959-2006) (parte 3: 1980-1990)". It-charts.150m.com. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  23. ^ "Nederlandse Top 40 – Paul Hardcastle - 19 search results" (in Dutch) Dutch Top 40. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  24. ^ "Dutchcharts.nl – Paul Hardcastle – 19" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  25. ^ "Charts.org.nz – Paul Hardcastle – 19". Top 40 Singles. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  26. ^ "Norwegiancharts.com – Paul Hardcastle – 19". VG-lista. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  27. ^ (Polish) "19 – Paul Hardcastle". LP3. Retrieved 22 July 2013. 
  28. ^ "South African Rock Lists Website SA Charts 1969 – 1989 Acts (H)". Rock.co.za. Retrieved 1 June 2013. 
  29. ^ (Spanish) Salaverri, Fernando (September 2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002 (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. ISBN 84-8048-639-2. 
  30. ^ "Swedishcharts.com – Paul Hardcastle – 19". Singles Top 60. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  31. ^ "Paul Hardcastle – 19 – swisscharts.com". Swiss Singles Chart. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  32. ^ "Archive Chart" UK Singles Chart. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  33. ^ a b c d "Paul Hardcastle – Awards". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved 1 June 2013. 
  34. ^ CASH BOX Top 100 Singles – Week ending JULY 27, 1985 at the Wayback Machine (archived 1 October 2012). Cash Box magazine. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  35. ^ a b "Archive Chart" UK Singles Chart. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  36. ^ "Forum – ARIA Charts: Special Occasion Charts – Top 100 End of Year AMR Charts – 1980s". Australian-charts.com. Hung Medien. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  37. ^ (German) "Jahreshitparade 1985". Austriancharts.at. Hung Medien. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  38. ^ (Dutch) "Jaaroverzichten 1985". Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  39. ^ "Top Singles – Volume 43, No. 16, December 28, 1985". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  40. ^ (German) "Jahrescharts – 1985". Officialcharts.de. GfK Entertainment. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  41. ^ (Italian) "I singoli più venduti del 1985". Hit Parade Italia. Creative Commons. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  42. ^ (Dutch) "Single Top 100 over 1985" (PDF). Dutch Top 40. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  43. ^ (Dutch) "Jaaroverzichten – Single 1985". Single Top 100. Hung Medien. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  44. ^ (German) "Schweizer Jahreshitparade 1985". Hitparade.ch. Hung Medien. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  45. ^ "Chart Archive – 1980s Singles". everyHit.com. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  46. ^ "Canadian single certifications – Paul Hardcastle – 19". Music Canada. 
  47. ^ "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Paul Hardcastle)" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. 
  48. ^ "British single certifications – Paul Hardcastle – 19". British Phonographic Industry.  Enter 19 in the field Search. Select Title in the field Search by. Select single in the field By Format. Click Go
  49. ^ "West Indies in England, 1984 – Test Averages". Cricinfo. Retrieved 2 February 2009. 
  50. ^ Roughley, Gregg (9 May 2011). "Manchester United fans campaign to get 19 to No1 when club wins title". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 July 2013. 

External links[edit]