19th Air Division
|19th Air Division|
Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker refueling a B-52D Stratofortress
LGM-25C Titan II in its launch silo. During the 1970s and 1980s the 19th Air Division controlled two ICBM Wings
|Active||1929–1941; 1942–1945; 1946–1949; 1951–1988|
|Branch||United States Air Force|
|Role||Command of strategic strike forces|
|Equipment||see "Aircraft / Missiles / Space vehicles" section below|
|Decorations||see "Lineage and honors" section below|
|19th Air Division emblem (approved 11 May 1959)|
During World War II, the unit was designated as IX Bomber Command and was the command and control organization for Ninth Air Force in the Western Desert Campaign. Using predominantly B-24 Liberator heavy and B-25 Mitchell medium bombers, it supported the British Eighth Army against the German Afrika Korps from airfields ranging from Palestine in 1942 across North Africa to the final defeat of German forces in the Tunisia Campaign in May 1943.
Later, during the 1944 Battle of Normandy and the 1945 Western Allied invasion of Germany, as the 9th Bombardment Division, the unit directed B-26 Marauder medium bombers in tactical roles supporting Allied ground forces from D-Day to V-E Day.
Azure, surmounting a lightning flash gules, a globe argent with latitude and longitude lines dark blue and encircled with a planetary ring of the last strewn with stars of the third and fimbriated of the like all bandwise, in chief an olive branch fesswise or, all within a diminished border of the third. (Approved 11 March 1959.)
The 19th Air Division was first organized on 30 June 1929 as the 19th Composite Wing at France Field, Canal Zone. It was a consolidation of Air Corps units in the Canal Zone, and was activated on 1 April 1931. It consisted of the following units:
- 6th (Composite) (later, 6 Bombardment Group): 1 April 1931 – 25 October 1941 (France Field)
- 9th Bombardment Group: 12 November 1940 – 30 October 1941 (Rio Hato Field)
- 16th Pursuit Group: 1 December 1932 – c. 19 October 1940 (Albrook Field)
- 20th Pursuit Group: 1 April 1931 – c. 25 January 1933 (France Field – Deployed from Mather Field, California)
- 37th Pursuit Group: 1 February – c. 19 November 1940 (Albrook Field)
During the 1930s the 19th Wing participated in maneuvers, flew patrol missions, made good will flights to Central American and South American countries, and flew mercy missions in South America. In January 1939, it flew missions to aid earthquake victims in Santiago, Chile.
It was redesignated as the 19th Bombardment Wing on 19 October 1940 as the United States prepared for a possible war. By late August 1941, a total of 71 aircraft, consisting of B-18 Bolos; B-17B Flying Fortresses; A-20 Havocs, and A-17A Nomads were assigned to various groups under its control.
World War II
Reactivated as IX Bomber Command, the unit was assigned to Ninth Air Force in Egypt on 17 November 1942. Its component groups were:
- 12th Bombardment Group: c. 17 November 1942 – c. 1 November 1943, B-25 Mitchell
- 98th Bombardment Group: c. 17 November 1942 – c. 13 September 1943, B-24 Liberator
- 321st Bombardment Group: 22 July – c. 28 September 1943, B-25 Mitchell
- 376th Bombardment Group*: 17 November 1942 – 13 September 1943, B-17D Flying Fortress; B-24 Liberator
* Formed from HALPRO components along with personnel and equipment sent from Tenth Air Force. B-17s which were assigned were determined to be non-operational and never used in combat.
IX Bomber Command was quickly put together in late 1942 to aid the British Eighth Army's drive west from Egypt into Libya against Rommel's Afrika Corps during the Western Desert Campaign. It consisted of units and aircraft put together for an attack on Japan which was canceled after the Burma Road was captured by Japanese forces, making its planned base in China unable to support the attack (HALPRO Mission); by Pearl Harbor Attack and Philippines survivor early model B-17 Flying Fortresses that had been sent from Australia, and by some early B-24 Liberator and B-25 Mitchells which were sent across the South Atlantic Transport route from Morrison Field, Florida via Brazil and across Central Africa via Sudan.
Reinforced during early 1943, its subordinate units attacked enemy storage areas, motor transports, troop concentrations, airdromes, bridges, shipping, and other targets in Libya, Tunisia, and other areas. In May 1943 after the Tunisian Campaign ended, Tunisia became available for launching attacks on Pantelleria (Operation Corkscrew), Sicily (Operation Husky), and mainland Italy.
IX Bomber groups attacked airfields and rail facilities in Sicily and took part in Operation Husky, carried paratroopers, and flew reinforcements to ground units on the island. Heavy bomb units of the Ninth also participated in the famed low-level assault on oil refineries at Ploesti (Operation Tidal Wave) Romania on 1 August 1943.
Later in August 1943, it was decided to reassign Ninth Air Force to England to be the tactical air force in the planned invasion of France scheduled for May 1944. The IX Bomber Command reassigned its groups to Twelfth Air Force, and eventually its heavy bombardment groups became the core of the newly activated Fifteenth Air Force, while its B-25 Mitchell medium bomber groups remained with Twelfth Air Force.
The command's headquarters at Soluch Airfield, Libya, was inactivated on 1 October 1943.
The IX Bomber Command was reassigned to Marks Hall, England on 16 October 1943. It took over the 3rd Bombardment Wing of the Eighth Air Force VIII Air Support Command. It was expanded and consisted of three Wings of medium bomber groups:
- 97th Bombardment Wing: 12 November 1943 – 11 October 1945
- 409th Bombardment Group: 7 March 1944 – June 1945 (A-20 Havoc, A-26 Invader)
- 410th Bombardment Group: 4 April 1944 – June 1945 (A-20 Havoc, A-26 Invader)
- 416th Bombardment Group: February 1944 – July 1945 (A-20 Havoc, A-26 Invader)
- 98th Bombardment Wing (Formerly 3d Bombardment Wing): 16 October 1943 – 27 November 1945
- 323d Bombardment Group: 16 October 1943 – 16 July 1945 (B-26 Marauder)
- 387th Bombardment Group: 16 October 1943 – November 1945 (B-26 Marauder)
- 394th Bombardment Group: 11 March 1944 – September 1945 (B-26 Marauder)
- 397th Bombardment Group: 15 April 1944 – November 1945 (B-26 Marauder)
- 99th Bombardment Wing (Formerly 44th Bombardment Wing): 16 October 1943 – 4 October 1945
- 322d Bombardment Group: 16 October 1943 – 15 September 1945 (B-26 Marauder)
- 344th Bombardment Group: 16 October 1943 – 15 September 1945 (B-26 Marauder)
- 386th Bombardment Group: 16 October 1943 – 27 July 1945 (B-26 Marauder)
- 391st Bombardment Group: 25 January 1944 – 27 July 1945 (B-26 Marauder)
In England, and later on the continent after D-Day, IX Bomber Command became the medium bomber component of Ninth Air Force. Its initial mission was attack to German Atlantic Wall defenses along the English Channel coast of France. After D-Day, its primary mission was changed to fly tactical bombardment missions supporting Allied ground forces as they advanced from the Normandy Beaches across France into Germany.
In addition, it attacked enemy airfields in Nazi-occupied areas in support of Eighth Air Force strategic bombing missions as well as operations against German V-weapon sites. Additional missions involved attacks on rail marshaling yards, railroads, airfields, industrial plants, military installations, and other enemy targets in France, Belgium, and the Netherlands.
It was redesignated as the 9th Bombardment Division, Medium on 30 August 1944. The last combat missions was flown on 3 May 1945 by the 386th, 391st, 409th & 410th Bomb Groups.
Air Force Reserve
Re-designated as the 19th Bombardment Wing, it served another brief period with the Reserve from 1946–1949, carrying out routine training activities.
Strategic Air Command
It was redesignated again in February 1951, as the 19th Air Division as part of Strategic Air Command (SAC), and some of its subordinate units trained in, and flew B-36 Peacemaker aircraft. These same units were later equipped with B-52 Stratofortress and KC-135 Stratotanker aircraft and trained in global strategic bombardment and air refueling operations.
In 1959 the 3958th Operational Training and Evaluation Squadron was reassigned to the division from SAC headquarters. At the same time the squadron was upgraded to a group and assigned the 3958th Combat Crew Training Squadron and the 3958th Consolidated Aircraft Maintenance Squadron. The 3958th, along with its counterpart 6592d Test Squadron of Air Research and Development Command, representatives of Air Materiel Command, Convair and other contractors formed the Convair B-58 Hustler test force and at the time of the 3958th's transfer was involved in Category II testing of the B-58. This testing phase included tests of aircraft subsystems and its J79 engines. Before Category II tests were completed, seven aircraft were lost.
Category II tests, led by the 6592d, were competed by the end of June 1960 and Category III tests, operational testing, began in August. These tests were conducted primarily by the division's 43d Bombardment Wing, Arkansas with the technical assistance of the remainder of test force. In anticipation of its expanded testing and crew training mission for the Hustler, SAC had inactivated the 3958th and transferred its mission, personnel and equipment to the 43d wing.
In January 1967, the division began deploying B-52 aircraft and aircrews to Southeast Asia for combat operations, continuing until 1973. In 1975, the 19th provided air refueling support for the evacuation of Vietnamese and Americans from South Vietnam. With the end of the Vietnam War, the Division began transitioning control of most of its B-52 wings (with the exception of the 7th Bombardment Wing at Carswell AFB) into KC-135 Stratotanker air refueling and LGM-25C Titan II ICBM Wings. With the retirement of the Titan II in 1987, the 19th Air Division was itself inactivated in September 1988.
- 340th Air Refueling Group: 2 July 1968 – 16 June 1988
- 3958th Operational Evaluation and Training Group (B-58): 1 September 1959 – 15 March 1960
- 11th Air Refueling Squadron: 25 March – 2 July 1969; 30 June 1971 – 1 July 1977
- 3958th Operational Evaluation and Training Squadron (B-58): 11 August 1958 – 1 September 1959
- 4007th Combat Crew Training Squadron: 2 June – 2 July 1968
- 4017th Training Squadron (B-36 Transition): 17 December 1951 – 1 January 1954.
- Constituted as the 19th Composite Wing on 8 May 1929
- Activated on 1 April 1931
- Redesignated 19th Wing on 14 July 1937
- Redesignated 19th Bombardment Wing on 19 October 1940
- Inactivated on 25 October 1941
- Activated on 24 July 1942
- Redesignated IX Bomber Command on 17 November 1942
- Redesignated 9th Bombardment Division, Medium on 30 August 1944
- Redesignated 9th Air Division on 10 May 1945
- Inactivated on 20 November 1945
- Activated in the Reserve on 20 December 1946
- Redesignated 19th Bombardment Wing, Very Heavy on 31 December 1946
- Redesignated 19th Air Division, Bombardment on 16 April 1948
- Inactivated on 27 June 1949
- Redesignated 19th Air Division on 1 February 1951
- Organized on 16 February 1951
- Discontinued on 16 June 1952
- Activated on 16 June 1952
- Inactivated on 30 September 1988.
- See history section for assigned units during different eras
Aircraft / Missiles / Space vehicles
- Maurer, pp. 435-436
- Mueller, pp. 68-69
- Knaack, pp. 381-382
- Station numbers in Johnson
- Johnson, 1st Lt. David C. (1988). U.S. Army Air Forces Continental Airfields (ETO) D-Day to V-E Day. Maxwell AFB, AL: Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center.
- Knaack, Marcelle Size (1988). Encyclopedia of US Air Force Aircraft and Missile Systems. Vol. 2, Post-World War II Bombers 1945-1973. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-59-5.
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1983) . Air Force Combat Units of World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979.
- Mueller, Robert (1989). Air Force Bases, Vol. I, Active Air Force Bases Within the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-53-6.
- Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). Air Force Combat Wings, Lineage & Honors Histories 1947-1977. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-12-9.