Terasecond and longer
A terasecond (symbol: Ts) is 1 trillion seconds, or roughly 31,700 years—this page lists time spans above 1 terasecond.
- 379,000 years: the time that elapsed after the Big Bang before the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) was emitted.
- 1 million years: one epoch (3.16 × 1013 seconds); about the average lifespan of a blue supergiant star.
- 2.6 million years: estimated duration of the Paleolithic Period.
- 4 million years: estimated average lifetime of biological species.
- 4.32 million years—one mahayuga, or 12,000 divine years, in Hindu mythology.
- 27 million years: estimated duration of the Silurian Period.
1 thousand teraseconds (or 1 quadrillion seconds) is called a petasecond, and is equal to about 32 million years.
- 45 million years: estimated duration of the Ordovician Period.
- 50 million years: estimated duration of the Triassic and the Permian Periods.
- 54 million years: estimated duration of the Cambrian Period.
- 56.8 million years: estimated duration of the Devonian Period.
- 60 million years: estimated duration of the Carboniferous Period.
- 62.4 million years: estimated duration of the Tertiary Period.
- 65 million years: estimated duration of the Jurassic Period.
- 80 million years: estimated duration of the Cretaceous Period.
- 185 million years: estimated duration of the Mesozoic Era.
- 250 million years: approximate length of one galactic year (i.e. one revolution of our Solar System around the center of the Milky Way galaxy).
- 291 million years: estimated duration of the Paleozoic Era.
- 800 million years: duration of the Hadean Eon.
- 1 billion years: 1 eon (3.16 × 1016 seconds).
- 1.3 billion years: estimated duration of the Archaean Eon.
- 2 billion years: estimated duration of the Proterozoic Eon.
- 4 billion years: estimated duration of the Precambrian Supereon.
- 4.32 billion years—one kalpa, or half a day in the lifetime of Brahma, in Hindu mythology.
- 10 billion years: expected main sequence lifetime of a G2 dwarf star (like our Sun): also, the estimated lifespan of a globular cluster before its stars are ejected by gravitational interactions.
1 million teraseconds (or 1 quintillion seconds) is called an exasecond, and is equal to 32 billion years, or roughly twice the age of the universe at current estimates (the universe is currently thought to be a bit less than 14 billion years old).
- 34 billion years: estimated lifetime of the universe, assuming the Big Rip scenario is correct. Experimental evidence currently suggests that it is not.
- 1013 (10 trillion) to 2×1013 (20 trillion) years: approximate lifetime of the longest-lived stars, the low-mass red dwarfs.
1 billion teraseconds (or 1 sextillion seconds) is called a zettasecond and is equal to roughly 32 trillion years.
- 1014 (100 trillion) years: estimated duration of the Stelliferous Era (the time during which the stars shine).
- 3.11 × 1014 (311 trillion) years—the lifetime of Brahma in Hindu mythology.
Yottaseconds and beyond
1 trillion teraseconds (or 1 septillion seconds) is called a yottasecond and is equal to roughly 32 quadrillion (or 3.2x1016) years.
- 4.134105 x 1028 years: The time period equivalent to the value of 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.0.0.0.0 in the Mesoamerican Long Count, a date discovered on a stela at the Coba Maya site, believed[by whom?] to be the absolute value for the length of one cycle of the universe.
- 8.2 x 1033 years: the smallest possible value for proton half-life consistent with experiment.
- 1041 years: the largest possible value for the proton half-life, assuming that the Big Bang was inflationary and that the same process that made baryons predominate over anti-baryons in the early Universe also makes protons decay.
- 2×1066 years: approximate lifespan of a black hole with the mass of the Sun.
- 1.7×10106 years: approximate lifespan of a supermassive black hole with a mass of 20 trillion solar masses.
- years: Scale of an estimated Poincaré recurrence time for the quantum state of a hypothetical box containing an isolated black hole of stellar mass. This time assumes a statistical model subject to Poincaré recurrence. A much simplified way of thinking about this time is that in a model in which history repeats itself arbitrarily many times due to properties of statistical mechanics, this is the time scale when it will first be somewhat similar (for a reasonable choice of "similar") to its current state again.
- years: Scale of an estimated Poincaré recurrence time for the quantum state of a hypothetical box containing a black hole with the mass within the presently visible region of the Universe.
- years: Scale of an estimated Poincaré recurrence time for the quantum state of a hypothetical box containing a black hole with the estimated mass of the entire Universe, observable or not, assuming Linde's chaotic inflationary model with an inflaton whose mass is 10−6 Planck masses.
- Dan Falk (2009). In Search of Time. National Maritime Museum. p. 82.
- Benacquista, Matthew J. (2006). "Globular Cluster Structure". Living Reviews in Relativity 9 (2). Retrieved 2006-08-14.
- Robert Roy Britt. "The Big Rip: New Theory Ends Universe by Shredding Everything". space.com. Retrieved 2010-12-27.
- John Carl Villanueva (2009). "Big Rip". Universe Today. Retrieved 2010-12-28.
- A dying universe: the long-term fate and evolution of astrophysical objects, Fred C. Adams and Gregory Laughlin, Reviews of Modern Physics 69, #2 (April 1997), pp. 337–372. Bibcode: 1997RvMP...69..337A. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.69.337. arXiv:astro-ph/9701131.
- Dan Falk (2009). In Search of Time. National Maritime Museum. p. 82. ISBN 0-312-37478-X.
- G. Jeffrey MacDonald "Does Maya calendar predict 2012 apocalypse?" USA Today 3/27/2007.
- Nishino, H. et al. (Super-K Collaboration) (2009). "Search for Proton Decay via p+ → e+π0 and p+ → μ+π0 in a Large Water Cherenkov Detector". Physical Review Letters 102 (14): 141801. Bibcode:2009PhRvL.102n1801N. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.141801.
- A Dying Universe: the Long-term Fate and Evolution of Astrophysical Objects, Adams, Fred C. and Laughlin, Gregory, Reviews of Modern Physics 69, #2 (April 1997), pp. 337–372. Bibcode: 1997RvMP...69..337A. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.69.337.
- Particle emission rates from a black hole: Massless particles from an uncharged, nonrotating hole, Don N. Page, Physical Review D 13 (1976), pp. 198–206. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.13.198. See in particular equation (27).
- Page, Don N. (1995). "Information Loss in Black Holes and/or Conscious Beings?". In Fulling, S.A. Heat Kernel Techniques and Quantum Gravity. Discourses in Mathematics and its Applications (4). Texas A&M University. p. 461. arXiv:hep-th/9411193. ISBN 978-0-9630728-3-2.