1 point player

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1 point player is a disability sport classification for wheelchair basketball.

History[edit]

The classification was created by the International Paralympic Committee and has roots in a 2003 attempt to address "the overall objective to support and co-ordinate the ongoing development of accurate, reliable, consistent and credible sport focused classification systems and their implementation."[1]

In 2005 and 2006, there was an active effort by the National Wheelchair Basketball Association to try to move from a three player classification system to a four point classification system like the one used by the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation.[2]

Sport[edit]

This classification is for wheelchair basketball.[3] Classification for the sport is done by the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation.[4] Classification is extremely important in wheelchair basketball because when players point totals are added together, they cannot exceed fourteen points per team on the court at any time.[5] Jane Buckley, writing for the Sporting Wheelies, describes the wheelchair basketball players in this classification as players having, "No lower limb and little or no trunk movement. Rebound overhead single handed."[3] The Australian Paralympic Committee defines this classification as, "Players with little or no controlled trunk movement in all planes. Their balance in both forward and sideways directions is significantly impaired and they rely on their arms to return them to the upright position when unbalanced. One point players have no active trunk rotation."[6] The International Wheelchair Basketball Federation defines a 1 point player as, "Little or no controlled trunk movement in all planes. Balance in both forward and sideways directions significantly impaired and players rely on their arms to return them to the upright position when unbalanced. No active trunk rotation."[7] The Cardiff Celts, a wheelchair basketball team in Wales, explain this classification as, "significant loss of stability in the trunk so that (for example) the player would need to hold onto the chair (or wheel) with one hand whilst making a one handed pass or reaching for a rebound etc. whilst pushing Class 1 players will lean into the back of the wheelchair, with head movement forward and back with each push. Typical Class 1 Disabilities include : T1-T7 paraplegia without abdominal muscle control, post-polio paralysis with arm involvement and without control of trunk musculature." [8] A player can be classified as a 1.5 point player if they display characteristics of a 1 point player and 2 point player, and it is not easy to determine exactly which of these two classes the player fits in.[6][7] For example, Heidi Kirstie of Germany was a 1.5 point player.[9]

Rules[edit]

If a one point player fouls out of a game, their team is required to replace them in order to keep five players on the court. The team may need to make additional substitutions in order to ensure they do not exceed their point total of fourteen.[10]

Strategy[edit]

One point players often play more minutes than other players because their low point value means another higher point player can be on the court.[11]

In a push to increase participation the sport, people involved with the National Wheelchair Basketball Association have argued allowing able-bodied athletes to compete would help 1 and 2 point players because there would be a need to balance participation on the team because of the rules regarding maximum points on the floor.[12]

On court ability[edit]

4 point players can move their wheelchairs at a significantly faster speed than 1 point players.[13]

In games, 4 point players steal the ball three times more often than 1 point players.[13] 1 point and 2 point players handle the ball the least on court.[13]

Variants[edit]

Wheelchair Twin Basketball is a major variant of wheelchair basketball.[14] This version is supposed by the International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Sports Federation, [14] and played in Japan.[15] Twin basketball has a three-point classification system based on the evaluation of the mobility of people with spinal cord injuries. In this variant, the equivalent to one point players would be red band head players. These players are "functional are only mm. Biceps, small pectorals, delta and hand extensor. Missing are mm. triceps, hand flexion and all finger functions. They represent the most severe handicapped group of players."[14]

Getting classified[edit]

Wheelchair basketball players who are going to compete at the 2012 Summer Paralympics in this classification need to have their classification be in compliance with the system organized by the IWBF, and their status listed as "review" or "confirmed".[16]

In Australia, wheelchair basketball players and other disability athletes are generally classified after they have been assessed based on medical, visual or cognitive testing, after a demonstration of their ability to play their sport, and the classifiers watching the player during competitive play.[17]

Once a player is classified, it is very hard to be classified into a different classification. Players have been known to have issues with classification because some players play down their abilities during the classification process. At the same time, as players improve at the game, movements become regular and their skill level improves. This can make it appear like their classification was incorrect.[11]

Competitors[edit]

Australians Brendan Dowler and Tige Simmons are 1 point players.[18][19] Melanie Domaschenz and Clare Burzynski are 1 point players for Australia's women's national team.[20] Other 1 point players include Britt Tuns of Germany;[9] Abdi Dini and Brandon Wagner are a 1 point players for the Canadian men's national team;[21] and Chad Jassman and Tyler Miller are 1.5 point players for the Canadian men's national team.[21]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Paralympic Classification Today, International Paralympic Committee, 22 April 2010, p. 3 
  2. ^ Berger, Ronald J. (March 2009). Hoop dreams on wheels: disability and the competitive wheelchair athlete. Routledge. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-415-96509-5. 
  3. ^ a b Buckley, Jane (2011). "Understanding Classification: A Guide to the Classification Systems used in Paralympic Sports". Retrieved 12 November 2011. 
  4. ^ "IPC CLASSIFICATION CODE AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS". International Paralympic Committee. November 2007. p. 21. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  5. ^ "Wheelchair Basketball". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  6. ^ a b "Classification Information Sheet: Wheelchair Basketball". Sydney, Australia: Australian Paralympic Committee. 27 July 2010. p. 2. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  7. ^ a b "International Wheelchair Basketball Federation Functional Player Classification System". International Wheelchair Basketball Federation. December 2004. p. 8. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  8. ^ "Simplified Rules of Wheelchair Basketball and a Brief Guide to the Classification system.". Cardiff Celts. Retrieved 22 November 2011. 
  9. ^ a b Strohkendl, Horst; Thiboutot, Armand; Craven, Philip (1996). The 50th anniversary of wheelchair basketball: a history. Münster: Waxmann. p. 33. ISBN 3-89325-441-2. OCLC 35820139. 
  10. ^ "RULE NINE – PLAYER CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM". International Wheelchair Basketball Federation. 2008. p. 64. Retrieved 22 November 2011. 
  11. ^ a b Berger, Ronald J. (March 2009). Hoop dreams on wheels: disability and the competitive wheelchair athlete. Routledge. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-415-96509-5. 
  12. ^ Berger, Ronald J. (March 2009). Hoop dreams on wheels: disability and the competitive wheelchair athlete. Routledge. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-415-96509-5. 
  13. ^ a b c Doll-Tepper, Gudrun; Kröner, Michael; Sonnenschein, Werner; International Paralympic Committee, Sport Science Committee (2001). "Organisation and Administration of the Classification Process for the Paralympics". New Horizons in sport for athletes with a disability : proceedings of the International VISTA '99 Conference, Cologne, Germany, 28 August-1 September 1999 1. Oxford (UK): Meyer & Meyer Sport. pp. 355–368. ISBN 1841260363. OCLC 48404898. 
  14. ^ a b c Strohkendl, Horst (2002). "WHEELCHAIR TWIN BASKETBALL... an explanation". International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Sports Federation. p. 9-10. Retrieved 22 November 2011. 
  15. ^ IWAYA, TSUTOMU. "INSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR TWIN BASKETBALL GAMES - FOR PEOPLE WITH CERVICAL CORD INJURIES". Retrieved 22 November 2011. 
  16. ^ "Wheelchair Basketball: LONDON 2012 PARALYMPIC GAMES". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  17. ^ "Understanding Classification". Sydney, Australia: Australian Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  18. ^ "Brendan Dowler". Australian Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 6 November 2011. 
  19. ^ "Basketball Chronology". Basketball Australia. 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  20. ^ "2010 WC Team". Basketball Australia. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  21. ^ a b "Team Canada: Men's Roster". Canada: Wheelchair Basketball Canada. 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011.